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zA Concise History of the County and a Genealogical and 

BioGRAPHiJAL Record of Representative 




In T'wo Volumes 


J. H. BEERS & CO. 




THE first attempt at the compilation of local history in Berks County was made in 1841 by 
William Stahle, a storekeeper at Reading. Fie published a small volume of 68 pages 
in two editions, one in the English language and the other in the German, entitled "A 
Description of the Borough of Reading," and it related chiefly to the business affairs 
of Reading. The book was prepared for him by Jackson H. Sherman, a young lawyer, who 
had shortly before been admitted to practice in the Courts of Berks County. 

The next attempt was made in 1844 by I. Daniel Rupp, of Lancaster. For some years 
before, he ha'd been engaged in collecting information relating to a number of counties in 
Pennsylvania which were situated to the east and west of the Susquehanna River, and the re- 
sult of his persevering industry was published in separate volumes, entitled after the several 
counties. One of them was the "History of Berks and Lebanon Counties," an octavo volume 
of 504 pages. 

In 1859, Amos K. Strunk, of Boyertown, published a small book of 134 pages, embracing 
the names of the county representatives and officials who served from 1752 to 1860; and he 
issued it in two editions, one in the English language and the other in the German, for use as a 
convenient book of reference. In 1883, the author of the present work published the "Po- 
litical Hand-Book of Berks County," an octavo volume of 104 pages, which was an enlarge- 
ment of Strunk's idea, embracing census information of the county, the names of the repre- 
sentatives and officials of Reading, and also census information of Reading, besides the names 
of the county officials, from 1753 to 1883. 

In 1881, Prof. David B. Brunner, a school teacher at Reading for many years, published 
"The Indians of Berks County," an octavo volume of 177 pages; which related to the aborig- 
ines of the county and included many cuts (176), made by himself, of the various relics 
found in the county; and a revised edition (257 pages) was issued by him in 1897. 

The author compiled the following works on local history : In 1886, the "History of Berks 
County," a royal octavo volume of 1204 pages, for the publishers, Messrs. Everts, Peck & 
Richards, of Philadelphia, which embraced a comprehensive description and tabulated state- 
ments of local affairs, besides numerous biographical sketches of men who were prominent 
in the industrial, financial, political and professional matters of the county; in 1889, the 
"School History of Berks County," a duodecimo volume of 300 pages, for use in the public 
schools of the county as a supplementary reader, which has been used in the local schools 
since that time; in 1894, "Berks County in the Revolution," an octavo volume of 295 pages, 
for the purpose of showing what services the people of the county rendered the national gov- 
ernment in the establishment of independence ; and in 1898, the "Sesqui-Centennial History of 
Reading," an octavo volume of 298 pages, which embraced a concise narrative of local events 
and industrial affairs for 150 years, and a comprehensive description of the anniversary pro- 
ceedings, as an appropriate memorial of the extraordinary occasion. 

The volumes mentioned are the works of a general historical nature which have been 
published of the county. After the lapse of more than twenty years from the time of, pub- 
lishing the large county history of 1886, the author was encouraged by many persons to re- 
vise that work by bringing the historical details down to the present time. Arrangements 
were accordingly made with the publishers of this work to publish it under the title of "His- 
torical and Biographical Annals of Berks County," so as to embrace, besides general history, 
local biography and genealogy, which in that time had become very important in the estima- 

tion of many historical societies throughout the State of Pennsylvania, and their publication 
in a convenient and permanent form was encouraged by those societies. 

Much time has been devoted to the careful preparation of this work in order to pro- 
duce a compilation which should be recognized for its thoroughness in covering every section 
of the county. The table of contents relating to the historical annals is comprehensive, and the 
long list of personal sketches evidences patient inquiry in securing the biographical and genea- 
logical annals; and these taken together will be appreciated by the public generally, as well 
as by the patrons of the work, as of incalculable value to the people of the county and to 
the numerous descendants of the First Families who were located in the county before the 
Revolution. Many of the sketches contain items of history which would not be preserved in 
any other way. In nearly every instance the data were submitted to those immediately inter- 
ested for revision and correction. 

"Family Reunions" has been a subject of importance to many persons of the county for 
upward of ten years, and descendants of different families have assembled at certain pe- 
riods in different places of the county to show respect for their ancestors and to collect bio- 
graphical and genealogical data. Some of them have been very successful. A chapter on the 
subject (XIII) has been included in this work, and it is the first attempt in the collection of 
this particular kind of information. It is to be regretted that many others of the "First 
Families," of equal prominence, have not also in this time formed reunions and held meet- 
ings so as to increase their beneficent social influence in the county and to assist in preserving 
distinct family records and genealogies. 

November, 1909. 


Chapter I — Erection of County 

Physical Geography 1-4 

Mountains, 1 -^ Relative Elevations, 4 

Valleys, 2 ^ Iron Ore, t 

Streams, 3 Copper Ore, 4 

Schuylkill, 3 Minerals, 4 

Latitude and Longitude, 4 Geology, 4 

Conditions of Territory 4-6 

Petitions for County 6-16 

Districts at Erection, 7 First Assessment, 8 

Boundaries of County, 7 First Taxables, Names of 

in 26 Townships, 8-16 

Nationalities 16-20 

Swedes, 16 Welsh, 19 

Germans, 17 Irish, 19 

Hugiuenots, 17 Hebrews, 19 

French, 18 Negroes, 19 
English, 18 

First Occupants, Indians 20-23 

Origin, 20 Retreat of Indians, 22 

Delaware Tribes, 20 Indian Names, 22 

Ganawese, 21 Villages, 23 

Manners and Customs, 21 Indian Relics, 28 

PtntcHASE OF Territory 23-24 

Reductions of Territory 24 

Northumberland County, 24 Other Counties Proposed, 24 

Schuylkill County, 24 

Chapter II — Industry of County 
Agriculture 25-26 

General Condition and Agricultural Society, 26 

Progress, 25 Farmers' Union, 26 

Iron Industries 27-38 

Furnaces and Forges, 27 General Industries, 28 

Industrial Statistics, 27 Memorial for National 

Iron-masters, 27 Foundry, 28 

Internal Improvements 28-44 

Schuylkill River, 28 Canals, 34 

Fishing and Navigation, 28 Railways, 36 

Freshets, 29 Post-OiBces, 40 

Bridges, 29 Telegraph, 43 

Roads and Turnpikes, 31 Telephone, 43 

State Highways, 33 Oil Pipe Lines, 44 
Stages, 33 

Political Sentiment 68-71 

Political Parties, 68 Vote for Prohibition, 69 

Vote for Governor, 68 Election of 1876, 69 

Vote for President, 69 State Conventions at Read- 
Vote for Constitutional ing, 69 

Amendments, 69 Mass-Meetings, 70 

Political Festivals 71-72 

Hiester Festival of 1820, 71 Tilden Festival of 1876, 72 

Harrison Festival of 1840, Cleveland Festivals, 72 


Offices by Special Legislation 72-73 

National Representatives 73-74 

Congressmen, 73 U. S. Commissioners, 74 

Foreign Ministers, 74 Registers in Bankruptcy, 74 

Foreign Consuls, 74 

State Representati\'es 74-75 

Delegates to Conventions, 

State Officials 75 

Senators 75 

Assemblymen 75-77 

County Officers 77-87 

Commissioners, 77 Surveyors, 82 

Auditors, 78 Poor Directors, 82 

Controllers, 79 Stewards, 83 

Treasurers, 79 Prison Inspectors, 83 

Sheriffs, 79 Prison Wardens, 85 

Coroners, 80 Jury Commissioners, 85 

Prothonotaries, 80 Mercantile Appraisers, 85 

Recorders, 81 License Commissioners, 86 

Registers, 81 Oil Inspectors, 86 

Orphans' Court Clerks, 81 Sealers of Weights and 
Quarter Sessions' Clerks, 81 Measures, 86 

District Attorneys, 82 Superintendents of Common 
Special Detectives, 82 Schools, 87 

County Buildings 87-90 

Court-Houses, 87 State-House, 89 

Prisons, 89 Poor-House, 90 

Chapter III — Education in County 
Religion 45-54 

Denominations Described, 45 Sunday Schools of Berks 

Pastors Long in Service, 48 County, 51 

Churches in "Townships, 49 Sunday Mails, 53 

General Education 54-58 

Early Encouragement, 54 Tabular Statement of 1908, 
Teachers Before 1752, 64 56 

Charity Schools, 54 Lecture on Conrad Weiser, 
Common Schools, 55 ^ 57 

System Accepted by Dis- Purpose of Lecture, 58 

tricts, 55 Teachers' Institutes, 58 

Newspapers 59-61 

Weekly Newspapers, 69 Daily Newspapers, 60 

Language, Manners and Customs 61-65 

Chapter IV — Government and Officials 

Election Districts 65-66 

Prominent Representative Men 66-68 

Chapter V — Bench and Bar 

Judges — 1752 to 1790 91-92 

Judges — 1790 to 1909 92-93 

President Judges, 92 Orphans' Court Judges, 92 

Additional Law Judges, 92* Associate Judges, 92 

Attorneys at Law 93-95 

Chapter VI — Medical Profession 
Medical Faculty of Berks County 96-105 

Berks County Medical So- Reading, 98 

ciety, 96 _ Boroughs, 100 

Reading Medical Associa- Manatawny Section, 100 

tion, 98 Ontelaunee Section, 101 

Allopathic Practitioners, 98- Tulpehocken Section, 101 

101 Schuylkill Section, 101 

Homoeopathy 101-103 

Homoeopathic Practitioners Homoeopathic Medical and 

Association of Reading, Surgical Hospital of 

102 Reading, 103 

Homoeopathic Practitioners, 

Osteopathy 103 

Osteopathic Practitioners, 

Dentistry 103 

Dental Practitioners, 103 

Veterinary 104 

Veterinary Practitioners, 


Chapter VII — Public Charities 

State Institutions. 


Wernersville State Asylum, 

State Hospital, 106 
Glen Mills Reformatory, 


Eastern State Peniten- 
tiary, 106 

Huntingdon Reformatory, 

County Institutions .■ 106-107 

Hospitals, 106 Homes, 106 

Schools, 106 

Chapter VIII — War Periods 
French and Indian Was 107-110 

Cause of War, 107 Peace Declared, 109 

Troops in County, 107 Murdered and Captured, 
Forts in County, 108 109 

Premium for Scalps, 109 

Revolution— 1775-83 110-120 

Cause, 110 Colonels in Service, 116 

Meeting at Reading, 111 Captains in Service, 116 

Lexington Awakens County, Army Supplies from Coun- 

112 ty, 116 

First Officers from Coun- Store House at Read- 

ty, 112 ing, 116 

Germans to Rescue, 112 Lotz Receipt Book, 116 

Associators, 112 Iron , Industries, 116 

Recommendations for Com- Ironmasters, 117 

panics, 113 Continental Paper Money, 
County Colonels, 113 117 

Declaration Read in Coun- Incumbents of Positions, 

ty, 113 117 

Population of County in Peace Declared, 119 

1776, 113 Return of Soldiers, 120 
Companies in Service, 113 

Whiskey Insurrection, 1794 120 

Cause, 120 Washington at Reading, 120 

Troops from County, 120 

House-Tax and Liberty- Poles, 1799 120-121 

Cause of Insurrection, 120 Keim's Company Compli- 

Excitement at Reading, 121 mented, 121 

Embargo of 1807 121 

English War of 1812-15 121-122 

Cause of War, 121 Companies from Coun- 

Families from Philadelphia, ty, 122 

12? Peace Declared, 122 

Mexican War of 1846-48 122-123 

Cause of War, 122 Battles of Company, 123 

Reading Artillerists, 183 Return of Company, 123 

Departure of Company for 
Mexico, 123 

Civil War of 1861-65 123-139 

Cause of War, 123 Ringgold Light Artillery, 
Call for Troops, 124 129 

Patriotism of County, 124 Three Years' Service — 
War Meetings at Reading, 1861-64, 131 

125 RingROld Band, 134 

Appropriations for Boun- Durell's Battery, 135 

ties, etc., 126 Nine Months' Service, 1862- 
Ladies' Aid Society, 126 63, 135 

Reading Hospital, 126 Volunteer Militia of 1862, 
Drafts and Quotas of Coun- 136 

ty, 126 Drafted Militia of 1862, 138 

Northern Men in Service, Emergency Troops of 1863, 

127 137 

Summary of Battles, 127 One Hundred Days' Serv- 
Paper Money, 127 ice, 138 

Companies from County, 128 One Year's Service of 1864- 
Surgeons from County, 129 65, 138 

'Three Months' Service — Miscellaneous Enlistments, 

1861, 129 139 

Military Associations, 139 

Spanish War of 1898 139-140 

Militia System— 1776-1909 140-145 

Returns for 1775, 140 System Since Revolution, 
Returns for 1776, 141 142 

Returns for 1777, 141 State National Guard, 143 

New Svstem Provided, State Police, 144 

1777, 141 

Property Valuation of Districts — 1885, 1908 148 

Money at Interest, by Districts — 1885, 1908 149 

Registered Voters, by Districts — 1908 149 

Presidential Vote of 1908 150 

State Appropriations to County — 1904,1908 150 

Banking in Berks County — 1909 151 

Land and Live Stock of County — 1908 152 

Chapter IX — Census 

First Enumeration 146 

Census Table of County, 1800 to 1900 147 

Taxables of County, by Districts — 1885,1908 148 

Chapter X — Reading 

Town, 1748 to 1783 153-156 

First Grant to Penn, 153 First Store at Reading, 155 

First Patents, 153 Public Buildings, 155 

Town Laid Out, 153 Oldest Buildings, 155 

Lots Sold, 153 Educational AfEairs, 155 

First Patentees, 153 Nationality of Inhabit- 
Ground Rent, 154 ants, 155 

Reading made County- French and Indian 

Seat, 154 War, 155 

Town District Established, Revolution, 156 


Borough, 1783 to 1847 156-159 

Borough Erected, 156 Churches and Schools, 157 

Surrounding Towns, 156 Industrial Affairs, 157 

Post-Office, 156 Water and Light, 158 

Stage-Coach, 157 Fire Companies. 158 

Bridges, 167 Street Names Changed, 168 

Turnpikes, 157 Early Exhibitions. 158 

Public Buildings, 157 Distinguished Visitors, 158 

Canals, 167 Liberty-Poles of 1799, 159 

Railroads. 157 English War of 1812-15, 159 

Banks, 157 Mexican War of 1846-48, 
Panic of 1837, 157 159 

Newspapers, 167 

City, 1847 to 1909 159-166 

Reading in 1847, 159 Decade, 1887-97, 162 
Decade, 1847-57, 160 " 1897-1909, 163 

1857-67, 161 Riot in 1877, 164 

" 1867-77, 161 Sesqui-Centennial of 1898, 

" 1877-87, 162 166 

Industries 167-193 

Early Employments Before Industrial Development, 
1783, 167 1783-1847, 168 

Industrial Character of Industries in 1847, 168 

Inhabitants, 167 Indu.qtrial Development 

Early Traffic, 167 Since 1847, 169 

Warehouse in 1826. 167 Statement of Industries, 

Employments and Factories 170-193 

in 1840, 168 

Internal Improvements 193-200 

Market-Houses, 1%3 Stage-Coaches, 197 

Waterworks. 193 Canals, 197 

Public Roads, 194 Steam Railroads, 197 

Sewers, 194 Street Railways, 197 

Subway, 194 Mountain Railroads, 198 

Ferries and Bridges, 195 Telegraph, 198 

Freshets, 195 Telephone, 199 

Fire Company Buildings, Gas Light, 199 

195 Electric Light dnd Power, 
Public Parks, 195 199 

Post-Office, 195 Steam Heat, 200 

City Hall, 196 Halls, 200 

Cemeteries, 196 Location of City. 200 

Turnpikes, 196 Elevation above Sea Level 


Religion and Education 200-204 

Churches, 200 Statement of School Build- 
Church Attendance, 201 ings, 202 

Schools, 202 Private Schools, 203 

Newspapers 204 

Associations 204-216 

Government and Officials 216-234 

State Representatives, 216 Select Councilmen, 220-231 

Burgesses, 217 Presidents of Select Coun- 
Mayors, 217 cil, 221 

Chiefs of Police, 218 Clerks of Select Council, 
Treasurers, 218 221 

Auditors, 218 Common Councilmen, 221- 
ControUers, 218 226 

Water Commissioners, 218 Presidents of Common 
Water Superintendents, 219 Council, 226 

Park Commissioners, 219 Clerks of Common Council, 
Park Superintendents, 219 226 

Citv Assessors, 219 City Clerks, 227 

Building Inspectors. 219 City Solicitors, 227 

Commissioners of Public City Engineers, 227 
Works, 219 



Market Commissioners, 227 
Board of Public Health. 827 
Members of Board, 227 
Health Commissioners, 227 
Plumbing Inspectors, 227 
Trustees of Public Library, 

Justices of the Peace, 228 
Aldermen, 229 
Constables, 229 


Census Table — 1S50-1900, 

Sexes of Population, 234 
Population North and South 

of Penn Street, 234 
Colored Population, 234 
Comparative Statistics, 234 
Assessment for 1898, 234 

School Controllers, 230 
Presidents of School Board, 

Secretaries of School 

Board, 233 
Treasurers of School 

Board, 233 
City Superintendents, 234 
Meat and Milk Inspectors, 



Assessment for 1908, 235 
Presidential Vote, 1908, 235 
Comparative Statement, 236 
Number of Buildings, 236 
Liquor Licenses for 1909, 

Table of Industries in 

1900, 237 

Chapter XI — Boroughs 


Comparative Table 


Statement of Banks 

Mercantile Licenses 

Liquor Licenses 



Statement of I. O. O. F 

Statement of P. O. S. of A ; 

East of Schuylkill 

Kutztown, 240 Topton, 261 

Hamburg, 247 Lenhartsville, 263 

Boyertown, 252 Bechtelsville, 264 

Fleetwood, 259 Mount Penn, 266 

West of Schuylkill 

Womelsdorf, 268 , Wyomissing, 281 

Bernville, 271 Mohnton, 285 

Birdsboro, 274 West Reading, 288 

Centreport, 278 Shillington, 293 

West Leesport, 280 

Chapter XII — Townships 

Four Sections 

Erection of Townships 

Development of Sections 


Railway and Telegraph 

Industrial Situation '. 

Religion and Education 




Towns 298 

Mercantile Licenses 298 

Liquor Licenses 298 

P. O. S. OF A. Camps 298 

Manatawny Section 298-303 

Names of Townships, 298 Iron Ore Mines, 301 

Derivation of Names, 299 Highways, 301 

Boroughs, 299 Additional Taxables (Doug- 
Names of Towns, 300 lass, Rockland, and 
First Settlers, 300 District), 301 

Industrial Prominence, 300 Noteworthy Enterprises, 302 

Ontelaunee Section 303-306 

Names of Townships, 303 Blue Rocks, 304 

Derivation of Names, 303 Iron Ore Mines, 304 

Boroughs, 304 Highways, 304 

Names of Towns, 304 Early Iron Works, 305 

First Settlers, 304 Noteworthy Enterprises, 305 
Indian Atrocities, 304 


Names of Townships, 306 First Settlers, 306 

Derivation of Names, 306 Highways, 306 

Boroughs, 306 Noteworthy Enterprises, 307 

Names of Towns, 306 Berkshire Country Club, 


Schuylkill Section 308-311 

Names of Townships, 308 Highways, 309 

Derivation of Names, 308 Early Industries, 309 

Boroughs, 309 Suburban Towns, 309 

Names of Towns, 309 Noteworthy Enterprises. 310 
First Settlers, 309 

Chapter XIII — Family Reunions 

First Families of County. 

Baer, 313 
Bertolet, 313 
Boyer, 314 
Croll, 314 
De Long, 314 
Dierolf, 315 
Dietrich, 315 
Dries, 315 
Fisher- Hartman 
Furry, 316 
Gery, 316 
Grim, 316 
Hafer, 317 
Hartman-Fisher, 316 
HefEner, 317 
Heinly, 317 
Kistler, 318 


Kline, 318 
Krick, 318 
Levengood, 318 
Ludwig, 319 
Lutz, 319 
Reedy, 319 
Ritter, 319 
Rohrbach, 320 
Saul, 320 
Schaeffer, 320 
Seaman, 321 
Schneider, 321 
Strauss, 321 
Trexler, 321 
Wamsher, 322 
Yeich, 322 


Biographical 323 


Addams, Isaac 633 

Addams, Mr. and Mrs. Isaac 633 

Addams, Rufus 633 

Addams, Wellington 1 632r 

Althouse, Wilson D 968 

Ancona, Sydenham E 376 

Baer, George F 344 

Barbey, John 585 

Barbey, Peter 584 

Bauscher, Henry and Sarah 1288 

Beck, George S 840 

Behne, Gustavus A 713 

Beidler, Isaac Y 856 

Benson, David E 688 

Benson, Dr. Lot. 688 

Berks County Prison 105 

Bissinger, Philip 760 

Bittner, Daniel F 1257 

Bland, Judge H. Willis 400 

Blimline, Sebastian 1560 

Bobst, WilHam J 1368 

Boone's . (Daniel) Birthplace 299 

Bornemann, Rev. George 564 

Breneis-er, Charles 736 

Brooke, Edward 338 

Brooke, George 336 

Bruckman, Judge George W 752 

Burkey, Peter 1080 

Clymer, William H 360 

County Map 1 

Court-House, New 88 

Court-House, Old 87 

Crystal Cave — "Prairie Dogs" 822 

Dechert, Adam 888 

Dechert, Henry M 904 

Deisher. Henry K. 1160 

Dick, Henry D 744 

Early Patents, Reading 153 

Eckenroad, Francis H 1544 

Eckert, George B 797 

Esser, Jacob B 872 

Fahrbach, John A 1448 

Federal Inn 155 

Fire Engine 205 

First Church in County 45 

First Defenders, Monument 196 

First House in County (Old Swede Building) 17 

First Public School at Reading 202 

First School-house at Reading 202 

Flax Brake 64 

Gan-sho-han-ne — Poem 3 

G. A. R. Monument 196 

Gittelman, John J. K 1592 

Gnau, Jacob 1384 

Grim, Daniel P 1304 

Griscom, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel 393 

Griscom, William M 392 

Gundry, Prof. G. Harel 1480 

Guss, Samuel M 1433 

Haak, George E 624 

Hafer, Edward E 1176 

Harbster, Matthan 536 

Harbster, William 52S 

Harrisburg (Penn Street) Bridge, Old 29 

Hartraan, Harrison E 938 

Hawley, Jesse G ^"^^ 

Haws, John W 1576 

Heckler, Charles T 1464 

Heckman, Harry A 1112 

Heizmann, Albert A 664 

Heizmann, Charles R 665 

Heller, F. P 953 

Hendel, Daniel J 648 

Hendel, Edwin F 649 

Henninger, Hunter 1191 

Herbein, Rev. M. L. 984 

High, Ezra 785 

High, Brig.-Gen. William 785 

Hoffeditz, John C 1128 

Huntzinger, Benjamin K 1000 

Huntzinger, Rev. Franklin K 488 

Irwin, William J 1337 

Jacobs, J. Howard 616 

Jail, New 105 

Jail, Old 89 

Jones, J. Glancy 323 

Jones, Jonathan 352 

Jones, Richmond L 384 

Keim, George deB 496 

Keim, Gen. George M 328 

Keystone State Normal School 245 

Kissinger, John M 1224 

Kistler, Rev. Charles E 1144 

Kline, Mahlon N 776 

Knabb, Jacob 568 

Kremp, Joseph P 1241 

Kohler's (Crystal) Cave 822 

Lancaster Bridge 29 

Lauer, Franklin P 783 

Lauer, Frederick and Mary 783 

Lauer Monument 784 

Lauter, Gerhard 1512 

Leinbach, George A 593 

Leinbach, Jonathan G 720 

Leippe, Charles E 681 

Levan, Abraham 1084 

Lincolns, Early Home of 299 

Luden, William H 768 

Marks, Dr. William F 1400 

Mauger, David F 527 

McKinley Monument 196 

McKnight, Capt. James 129 

Merritt, Thomas P 480 

Miller, Jonathan B 1352 

Miller, Lewis 1240 

Mishler, John D 696 

Mohn, Jeremiah G 728 

Montgomery, Mbrton L Frontispiece 

Monuments, First Defenders 

G. A. R 


Volunteer Firemen 196 

Mould, Jonathan 704 

Muhlenberg, Henry A 440 


NicoUs, Giistavus A 520 

Klolan, Edwari C 576 

J^olan, James 456 

J^olan, William 448 

JNolan, William, Jr 576 

J^Iolde, Jacob 600 

Old Swede Building (First House in County) 17 

•Otto, Henry M 920 

JPatents, Early, Reading 153 

Peifer, Peter 1528 

Penn Hardware Company 666 

.Penn Street (Harrisburg) Bridge, Old 29 

Pioneer Homesteads, Tulpehocken Valley, 1733, 

Map 306 

Printz, Daniel F 640 

.Prutzman, Asaph 808 

^Reading, Administration Building of School Dis- 
trict 55 

Reading, Boys' High School 202 

City Hall 196 

Early Patents 153 

Federal Inn 155 

First Public School 202 

" First School-house 203 

"' Free Library 55 

Girls' High School 203 

"" Home for Friendless Children 314 

" " " " Play Grounds 314 

Hospital 312 

" Penn Square, looking east from 5th St. . . 192 
" Penn Square, looking west from 5th St. . . 193 
" Penn Square, looking east from 4th St. . . 193 
" Penn Square, North Side, looking east 

from 5th St 200 

■Reading, Penn Square, North Side, looking west 

from 5th St 200 

IReading, Penn Square, South Side, looking west 

from 5th St 193 

Reading, Penn Square, South Side, looking west 

from 6th St 198 

Reading, Plan of Roads to 32 

Post-Office 195 

" Public School Building, 5th and Spring 

Sts 203 

Reading, Public School Building, 11th and Pike Sts. 203 

" Sesqui-Centennial, Executive Committee 166 

" Sesqui-Centennial, Head of Civic Parade 167 

Sesqui-Centennial, Division of Industrial 

Parade .167 

Reading, Town Plan 154 

View of City from West 153 

Widows' Home 213 

Rhoads, Henry W 1336 

Richards, Louis 513 

Rick, Cyrus 544 

Rick, George A 608 

Rick, William 552 

Ritter, Louis 657 

Rocks of Rockland 300 

Rothermel, Abraham H 441 

Rothermel Coat of Arms 441 

Saylor, Benjamin 672 

Schaeflfer, Charles H 368 

Schall, David 786 

Schall William A 786 

Schofer, Christopher Henry 1308 

Seidel, Franklin 1416 

Seiders, Henry 1496 

Seltzer. Jonathan R 824 

Smink, F. C 432 

Smith, Frederick L 464 

Smith, Levi B 416 

Smith, William D 424 

Spatz, ■ Isaac S 1048 

Spatz, John G 1048 

Speidel, John G 1064 

Spinning Wheel 63 

Stage Coach 197 

State Asylum (Wernersville) 105 

State House 90 

State Normal School (Kutztown) 245 

Staufer, William M 1033 

Strunk, John M 1016 

Tulpehocken Valley, Pioneer Homesteads, 1733. 

Map .' . 306 

Turner, Newton R 1372 

Volunteer Firemen, Monument 196 

Walter, Dr. Robert 504 

Wanner, Peter D 1096 

Weiser, Conrad, Grave of 331 

Weiser, Conrad, Store of 155 

Whitner, Calvin K 408 

Willson, Gile J 680 

Wool Wheel 63 

Wunder, W. W 1320 


Additional Law Judges 93 

Agricultural Societies of County 26 

Agriculture of County 25 

Albany, First Taxables of 8 

Albany Township 303 

Aldermen of Reading 229 

Allopathic Practitioners ...98-101 

Alsace, First Taxables of 8 

Alsace Township S'gS 

Amish Denomination in County 47 

Amity, First Taxables of 9 

Amity Township 298 

Area of County 7 

Armory at Hamburg 252 

Armory at Reading ..205 

Army Supplies from County in 

Revolution 116 

Assemblymen from County... 75 

Assessment of County, First 8 

Assessment of Reading, 1898, 1908 


Assessors of Reading 219 

Associate Judges 92 

Associations at Reading 204 

Associators in Revolution ....112 

Attorneys at Law 93 

Auditors of County 78 

Auditors of Reading 218 

Baer Family Reunion 313 

Bands at Rpadircr 211 

Bank at Birdsboro 277 

Bank at Fleetwood S61 

Bank at Leesnort 305 

Bank at Mohnton 287 

Bank at Topton 263 

Banking in Berks County ...151 
Bankruptcy, Registers in, from 

County 74 

Barks at Boroughs, Statement 

of 239 

Banks at Bovertown 256 

Banks at Hamburg 250 

Banks at Kutztown 243 

Banks at Reading 209 

Baptist Denomination in County 46 
Battles. Summary of, in Civil 

War 127 

BediteUv'I'c. Bnrnup-h nf 264-266 

Belt Line 'n Schuylkill Section 310 

Belt Line of P. & R. R 39 

Bench and Bar of County 91 

Berks and Dauphin Turnpike... 32 

Berks County Law Library 210 

Berks Cr unty Medical Society 

96, 210 

Berkshire Country Club 307 

E?.n. F'r<t Taxables of 9 

?.(.;-n ''"Qwn.'shio 306 

r>-rvi"e. Pnroi'<rVi of 271-274 

Bernvil'e Bnnd in Civil War ..131 
Bernville. Cleve'and Parade at 72 

Bertolet Family Reunion 313, 

Bethany Orphans' Home 106, 307 

Bethel. Firt Taxables of 10 

Bethel Tnwnshin 306 

Benlah Anchorage 214 

Birdfhoro. '^n^,- „^ nf ... 274-278 
Birdsbor^i Hrind in Civil War .132' 

Black Spot on Mount Penn ... 2 

Blue Mountain j 

Blue Rocks 264, 304 

Board of Health of Reading ..227 
Board of Public Works of Read- 
ing 219 

Board of Trade of Reading ...209 

Boroughs of County 238 

Boundaries of County 7 

Boyer Family Reunion 314 

Boyertown, Borough of 252-257 

Boyertown Opera House Fire 


Brecknock, First Taxables of . 10 

Brecknock Township 308 

Bridges in County 29-31 

Bridges and Ferries at Reading 195 
Brooke Furnace in Manatawny 

Section 302 

Brooke Iron Works at Birds- 
boro 376 

Brunswick, First Taxables of . 10 
Building Inspectors of Reading 219 

Buildings at Reading 236 

Bureau of Employment at Read- 
ing 312 

Burgesses of Reading 217 

Caernarvon. First Taxables of 10 

Caernarvon Township 308 

Canals in County 34 

Canals, Lottery Privileges for 35 
Captains of County in Revolu- 
tion 116 

Carsonia Park 303 

Cemeteries at Reading 196 

Census of County 146 

Census of Reading 234 

Census Table of County, 1800- 

1900 147 

Centre Township 306 

Centre Turnpike 33 

Centreport, Borough of 278-279 

Cliapel Rock 303 

Charitable Associations at Read- 
ing 212 

Charity Schools of County 54 

Charming Forge 307 

Chiefs of Police of Reading ...218 

Churches in Townships 49 

Churches of Boroughs 239 

Churches of County, First .... 45 ■ 

Churches of Reading 200 

City Clerks of Reading 227 

City Hall at Reading 196 

Civil War of 1861-65 123 

Clavs of County 4 

Qerks of Common Council of 

Reading 226 

Clerks of Orphans' Court 81 

Clerks of Quarter Sessions ... 81 
Clerks of Select Council of 

Reading 221 

Cleveland Festivals in County . 72 
Clymer Mass-Meetings in 1866.. 70 
Colebrookdale, First Taxables 

of 10 

Colebrookdale Iron Works 302 

Colebrookdale Mines 302 

Colebrookdale Railroad 39 

Colebrookdale Township 298 

Colonels of Associated Battal- 
ions, 1775 113 

Colonels of County in Revolu- 
tion 116 

Colonial Forts in County 108 

Colored Population of County... 234 

Commissioners of County 77 

Commissioners of Public Works 

of Reading 319 

Commissioners of United States 

from County 74 

Common Councilmen of Read- 
ing 321-2-26 

Common School System Accept- 
ed by Districts 55 

Common School System in 

County 55 

Common Schools, Tabular 

Statement of County 56 

Companies from County in Civil 

War 138 

Companies from County in Rev- 
olution 113-115 

Conditions of Territory at time 
of First Settlement in County 4 

Congressmen of County 73 

Consolidated Telephone Com- 
pany 44 

Constables of Reading 329-30 

Constitutional Amendments, 

Vote for in County 69 

Constitutional Conventions, Del- 
egates from County 74 

Continental Paper Money 117 

Controllers of County 79 

Controllers of Reading £18 

Copper Ore in County 4 

Coroners of County 80 

Country Homes in Schuylkill 

Section 311 

County Bridges, Statement of 31 

County Buildings 87 

County Charitable Institutions 106 

County Commissioners 77 

County Officers 77 

County, Petitions for 6 

County Surveyors 82 

Court-Houses of County 87-88 

Croll Family Reunion 314 

Crystal Cave 821 

Cumru, First Taxables of 11 

Cumru Township 308 

Customs, Language, Manners in 
County 61-65 

Daily Newspapers 60 

Declaration of Independence 

Read in County 113 

Decline of Stages in County .. 34 
Deisher Indian Relics at Kutz- 
town 347 

Delaware Tribes of Indians .. 20 
Delegates to Constitutional 

Conventions from County .. 74 
Delegates to Provincial Con- 
ference from County 74 



DeLong Family Reunion 314 

Dental Practitioners in Coun- 
ty 103-04 

Dentistry in County 103 

Department Stores at Reading 184 

Detectives, Special of County 82 

Deysher Stock Farm 311 

Dierolf Family Reunion 315 

Dietrich Family Reunion' 315 

District Attorneys of County . . 82 

District Township 299 

District Township Taxables ...301 
Districts of County at Erection 7 
Districts of County in 1776 ...113 
Dives, Pomeroy & Stewart De- 
partment Store 185 

Douglass, First Taxables of ..301 

Douglass Township 298 

Drafted Militia of County in 

Civil War 136 

Drafts of Berks County in Civ- 
il War 126 

Dries Family Reunion 315 

Drum Corps at Reading ..212 

Dunkard Denomination in 

County 47 

Durell's Battery in Civil War.. 135 

Earl Township 299 

Earl Mountain 2 

Early Furnaces and Forges 27 

Early Roads to Reading 32 

Early Settlements of County . . 5 

East Penn Railroad :..38 

Eastern State Penitentiary . . . 106 

Education at Reading 202 

Education, Early Encourage- 
ment of 54 

Education, First Teachers 54 

Education in County 45 

Election Districts of County . . 65 
Election of 1876 in County ... -69 

Electric Light at Reading 199 

Electric Plant in Schuylkill 

Section 310 

Electric Railways in Countv . . 40 
Elevations at Reading above 

Sea Level 200 

Elevations of Places in County 4 

Embargo of 1807 121 

Engineers of Reading 227 

English, Early Immigrants in 

County 18 

English War of 1812-15 ...121 

Enrollment of County for Mili- 
tary Service in 1908 144 

Erection of County .1, 6 

Evangelical Denomination in 

County 48 

Exeter, First Taxables of 11 

Exeter Township 298 

Fair Ground in Mianatawny Sec- 
tion 303 

Family Reunions 311-322 

Farmers' Union 26 

Ferries and Bridges at Reading 195 
Fertilizer Works in Schuylkill 

Section 810 

Festivals, Political, at Reading. 71 
Festivals, Political, in Countv. ... 71 
Filtration of Reading Water 

Supply 194 

Financial Associations at Read- 
ing 209 

Fire Companies at Reading ...205 
First Officers from County 
in Revolution 112 

First Assessment of County ... 8 

First Churches of County 4Si 

First Families of Berks Coun- 
ty 311 

First Settlements of County ... 5 
First Settlers of Manatawny 

Section 300 

First Settlers of Ontelaunee 

Section 304 

First Settlers of Schuylkill Sec- 
tion 309 

First Settlers of Tulpehocken 

Section 306 

First Taxables of County 8-16 

Fisher-Hartman Family Re- 
union 316 

Fishing and Navigation in 

County 28 

Fleetwood, Borough of .. .259-261 

Flying Hills in County 1 

Foreign Consuls from County. . 74 
Foreign Ministers from Coun- 
ty 74 

Forest, district in County 1 

Forts, Colonial, in County 108-109 

French and Indian War 107 

French, Early Immigrants in 

County 18 

Freshets of Schuylkill River in 

County 29 

Friendless Children, Home for... 213 

Friends Society in County 46 

Furnaces and Forges in County 27 
Furry Family Reunion 316 

Ganawese Indians 21 

Garbage Plant of Reading ....310 

Gas Light at Reading 199 

Geology of County 4 

Germania Band 212 

German Immigrants of County 17 
Germans to Rescue in Revolu- 
tion 112 

Gery Family Reunion 316 

Gibraltar Iron Works 310 

Ginseng, Cultivation of 244 

Glen Mills Reformatory , . .106 

Globe Rendering Co 311 

Government of County . . , 65 

Government of Reading 216 

Governor, Vote for in County. 68 
Greenwich, First Taxables of.. 11 

Greenwich Township 303 

Grim Family Reunion 316 

Grosch's Sunset House 307 

Hafer Family Reunion 317 

Hahnemann Medical Society of 

Reading 102 

Halls at Reading 200 

Hamburg, Borough of 247-252 

Hamburg Bridge 30 

Harrison Festival of 1840 at 

Reading 71 

Harfman-Fisher Family Re- 
union 316 

Hassler's Highland House 307 

Health Commissioners of Read- 
ing 227 

Hebrews in County 19 

Heffner Family Reunion 317 

Heidelberg, First Taxables of . . 11 

Heidelberg Township , . . .306 

Heinly Family Reunion 317 

Hereford, First Taxables of ... 12 

Hereford Township 298 

Hiester Festival of 1820 at Read- 
ing 71 

Historical Society of Berks 

County 210 

Home for Friendless Children 

106, 214 

Homoeopathic Hospital 213 

Homoeopathic Medical and Sur- 
gical Hospital of Reading ...102 
Homoeopathic Practitioners As- 
sociation of Reading ....102, 210 
Homoeopathic Practitioners of 

County 102 

Homoeopathy in County ...101-103 
Hospital at Reading in Civil 

War 126 

Hospitals at Reading 106 

House of Good Shepherd ..106, 214 

House Tax of 1799 120 

Huguenots, Early Immigrants 

of County 17 

Humane Society of Berks Coun- 
ty 214 

Huntingdon Reformatory 106 

Ice Plants in Schuylkill Section 310 
Incumbents of Posftion*: in Revolu- 
tion 117 

Indian Atrocities 110, 304 

Indians, Murdered and Captured 

by 110 

Indian Names of County 22 

Indian Relics in County 23 

Indians, Enumeration of 32 

Indians, First Occupants of 

County 20 

Indians, Manners and Customs 

of 21 

Indians, Origin of 20 

Indians, Release of Territory . . 23 

Indians, Retreat of 22 

Indians, Tribes of 20 

Industrial Associations at 

Reading 209 

Industrial Statistics of County 27 
Industries at Reading in 1900 ..237 
Industries at Reading, State- 
ment of 170 

Industries of Boroughs 238 

Industry of County 25 

Inspector ' of Meat and Milk at 

Reading 234 

Internal Improvements of 

County 2'8 

Internal Improvements of Read- 
ing 193 

Irish Mountain 2 

Irish Settlers in County 19 

Iron Industries of County 27 

Iron Industries of County in 

Revolution 116 

Iron Masters of County in 

Revolution 117 

Iron Ore of County 4 

Jefferson Township 306 

Judges from 1752 to 1790 91 

Judges from 1790 to 1909 92 

Jury Commissioners 85 

Justices of the Peace of Read- 
ing 228 

Keystone State Normal School 245 

Kistler Family Reunion 318 

Kittatinny Mountain 1 

Kline, Enpihimer & Co. Depart- 
ment Store 184 

Kline Family Reunion 318 

Krick Family Reunion 318 

Kutztown, Boroupfh of 240-245 

Kutztown Branch Railroad .... 39 



Kutztown, Cleveland Parade at ^S 

Kutztown Fair Ground 305 

Kutztown, Hiester Festival at 71 

Ladies' Aid Society in Civil 

War 136 

Lancaster Bridge 30 

Land and Live Stock of Coun- 
ty in 1908 152 

Language, Manners and Cus- 
toms of County 61-65 

Latitude and Longitude of 

County 4 

Lauer Monument 784 

Lebanon Valley Railroad 28 

Leesport Bank 305 

Legal Association of Berks 

County 210 

Lehigh Telegraph Co. in Coun- 
ty 43 

Lenhartsville, Borough of ...263-264 
Levengood Family Reunion ...318 
Lexington', Battle of, Awakens 

County 112 

Liberty-Poles of 1799 120 

Libraries at Reading 210 

License Commissioners 86 

Light and Power at Reading ..199 
Liquor Licenses of Boroughs .239 
Liquor Licenses of Reading ..236 
Liquor Licenses of Townships 298 
Literary Associations at Read- 
ing 210 

Live Stock and Land of Coun- 
ty in 1908 152 

Livingood Family Reunion 318 

Location of Reading 200 

Longitude and Latitude of 

County 4 

Longswamp, First Taxables of 12 

Longswamp Township 303 

Lord & Gage Department Store.. 185 
Lottery Privileges for Union 

Canal 35 

Lottery Privilege for Church at 

Womelsdorf 271 

Lotz Receipt Book in Revolu- 
tion 116 

Lower Alsace Township 299 

Lower Heidelberg Township ..30'6 

Ludwig Family Reunion 319 

Lutheran Denomination i n 

County 45 

Lutheran Ministers of County . 46 
Lutheran and Reformed 

Churches of County 48 

Lutz Family Reunion 319 

Maiden-creek, First Taxables 

of 12 

Maiden-creek Road 32 

Maiden-creek Township 303 

M.anatawny Section of Town- 
ships 298 

Manners, Customs, Language 

of County 61-65 

Manor of Penn's Mount . 2 

Marion Township 306 

Market Commissioners of Read- 
ing 227 

Market-Houses at Reading ....193 
Mass-Meetings at Reading .... 70 
Maxatawny, First Taxables of 13 

Maxatawny Township 303 

Mayors of Reading 217-218 

Meat and Milk Inspector, Read- 
ing 234 

Medical Associations at Read- 
ing 210 

Medical Faculty of Berks Coun- 
ty 96 

Medical Profession of County .96 
Medical Society of Berks Coun- 
ty 96, 98 

Membership of Religious De- 
nominations 49 

Memorial for National Foundry. . 28 

Mercantile Appraisers 85 

Mercantile Licenses of Bo- 
roughs 239 

Mercantile Licenses of County 298 
Mercantile Licenses of Reading 298 
Mercantile Licenses of Town- 
ships 298 

Mexican War, 1846-48 122 

Military Associations of Read- 
ing 139, 204 

Militia Encampment at Read- 
ing in 1842 142 

Militia Systems of County .140-144 
Milk and Meat Inspector, Read- 
ing 234 

Minerals of County 4 

Mtohnton, Borough of 285-288 

Money at Interest, by Districts 149 

Monocacy Hill 2 

Montello Brick Works in 

Schuylkill Section 310 

Monthly Newspapers of County. 60 
Moravian Denomination in 

County 47 

Mould, J. & Co. Department 

Store 184 

Mount Neversink 2 

Mount Penn 2 

Mount Perm, Borough of 266-268 

Mbuntain Railroads at Read- 
ing 198 

Miountains of County 1 

Muhlenberg Township 299 

Murdered and Captured by In- 
dians 109-10 

Musical Associations at Read- 
ing 210-211 

National Representatives from 

County 73 

Nationalities in County 16 

Navigation of River Encouraged 29 
Navigation of Schuylkill River 28 

Negroes in County 19 

Neversink Mountain 2 

Newspapers at BirdsborO' 60 

Newspapers at Boroughs 60 

Newspapers at Boyertown .... 60 
Newspapers at Hamburg .... 60 

Newspapers at Kutztown 60 

Newspapers at Reading ...59, 204 
Newspapers at Womelsdorf ... 60 

Newspapers, Daily 60 

Newspapers of County 59 

North Heidelberg Township ..306 
Northumberland County, Erec- 
tion of 24 

Occupations at Reading, 1909 185 

Officers of County 77 

OiiFicea by Special Legislation.... 72 

Officials of County 65 

Officials of County in Revolu- 
tion 117 

Officials of Reading 216 

Officials of State, from County 75 

Oil Inspectors 86 

Oil Pipe Lines in County 44 

Old Swede Building 16 

Oley, First Taxables of 13 

Oley Hills 2 

Oley Road 32 

Oley Township 298 

Oley Turnpike 33 

Ontelaunee Section of Town- 
ships 303 

Ontelaunee Township 303 

Orphans' Asylum, St. Carthar- 

ine's Female 106, 214 

Orphans' Court Clerks of Coun- 
ty 81 

Orphans' Court Judges 93 

Orphans' Home at Topton..l06, 263 
Orphans' Home at Womelsdorf 

106, 307 

Orr Stock Farm ...311 

Orwigsburg, Hiester Festival 

at 71 

Osteopathy in County 103 

Packets on Canals 36 

Paper Mills in Tulpehocken 

Section 307 

Paper Mloney in Civil War ....127 

Paper Money in Revolution 117 

Park Commissioners of Read- 
ing 219 

Pastors Long in Service 48 

Pathological Society at Read- 
ing 98 

Patients of County at State 

Hospital 106 

Patriotic Associations at Read- 
ing 210 

Pay Schools of County 59,203 

Peace Declared in Revolution 119 

Penn Common at Reading ....195 

Penn Street Bridge 30 

Pent) Township 306 

Penn's Mount 3 

Penn's Mount, Manor of 3 

Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley 

R. R. 39 

Pennsylvania Telephone Co. in 

County - 43 

Perkiomen Turnpike 32 

Perry Township 303 

Petitions for Erection of Coun- 
ty 6 

Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road 37 

Physical Geography of County 1 

Pike Township 299 

Pine-Grove. First Taxables of . 13 

Pinnacle l 

Pipe Lines in County 44 

Plumbing Inspectors of Read- 
ing 227 

Polish _ Convent in Schuylkill 

Section 311 

Political Festivals in County ... 71 
Political Parties of County ... 68 
Political Sentiment of Coun- 
ty . 68 

Poor Directors of County ...82-83 

Poor-House of County 90, 310 

Poplar Neck 2 

Poplar Neck Bridge 30 

Population of County in 1776 .113 
Population of County, 1800-1900 .147 

Post-Office at Reading 195 

Post-Offices of County . . .40, 41, 43 
Post-Offices, Discontinued, in 

County 42 

Postage Stamps 40 

Premium for Scalps 109 

President Judges 92 

President, Vote for in County . 69 



Presidential Election of 1876 . 69 
Presidential Vote by Districts 

. in 1908 150 

Presidents of Common Coun- 
cil of Reading 226 

Presidents of Reading School 

Board 233 

Presidents of Select Council of 

Reading 221 

Preston's Sunnyside 307 

Prison Inspectors of County 83-85 
Prison Wardens of County ... 85 

Prisons of County 89 

Private Bridges in County .... 30 
Private Market-Houses at Read- 
ing 193 

Private Schools at Reading 203 

Professional Asisociations at 

Reading 210 

Prohibition and License, Vote 

for in County 69 

Prominent Representative Men 

of County 66 

Property Valuation of County 

by Districts in 1885 and 1908 148 
Protective Associations at Read- 
ing 205 

Protestant Episcopal Denomina- 
tion in County 48 

Prothonotaries of County .... 80 

Public Charities in County 105 

Public Library at Reading 210, 228 
Public Library, Trustees of ...228 

Public Parks at Reading 195 

Public Works, Board of 219 

Purchase of Territory in Coun- 
ty 23 

Quarter Sessions' Clerks of 
County 81 

Railroad Bridges in County ... 31 

Railroads in County 36 

Railways, Electric, in County . 40 

Railways in County 36 

Reading Artillerists in Mexican 

War 123 

Reading Artillerists in N. G. P. 143 

Reading, Associations at ..214-215 

" Borough Erected in 

1783 156 

Borough. 1783-1847 156-159 

Buildings at 236 

Canals 197 

" Cemeteries 196 

Census of . . . 147, 234, 235 
" Charitable A s s o c i a- 

tions at 312 

" Church Choral Socie- 
ty 2:11 

" Churches at 200-201 

City. 1847-1909 . . . 159-164 
" Qeveland Parade at . . 72 
" Clymer Mass-Meetings 

in 1866 70 

County-Seat 154 

" Development by Dec- 
ades 159-164 

" Distinguished Visitors 

of 158 

" District Established in 

1760 155 

" Early Employments 

before 1783 167 

" Early Traffic of 167 

" Educational Affairs of 

Town 155 

" Education at 202 

Electric Light and 

Power at 199 

Elevation Above Sea 

Level 200 

Employments, F a c- 
tories, etc., at in 

1840 168 

Ferries and Bridges ..195 
Financial Associations 

at 209 

Fire Company Build- 
ings 195, 205 

First Lots Sold 153 

First Patentees of 

Lots 153 

First Store at 155 

First Patents of Land 153 
First Taxables of ... 13 

Gas Light at 199 

Government and Offi- 
cials of 216-234 

Grant of Land to 

Penn 153 

Ground Rent on Lots . . 154 

Halls at 200 

History of 153-238 

Hospital 212 

Hospital in Civil War 126 
Industrial Affairs of 

Borough 157 

Industrial Develop- 
ment 168-169 

Industries at .170-193, 237 
Internal Improvement 

of • 193-200 

Lauer Monument ....784 
Library, Trustees of 228 
Liquor Licenses, 1909.. 236 
Literary Associations 

at 210 

Location of 200 

Mass-Meetings at 70 

Medical Association 

98, 210. 

Meeting at, in Revolu- 
tion ..'. Ill 

Mountain Railroads. .. .198 
Musical Associations 

at .210 

Nationality of Inhabi- 
tants 155 

Newspapers ,.59, 157, 204 

Officials 216-234 

Oldest Buildings ...155 

Panic of 1837 157 

Patriotic Associations 

at 310 

Political Festivals at . 71 
Post-Office Establish- 
ed at 40, 156, 195 

Private Schools at ...203 
Public Buildings... 87, 155 

Public Parks 195. 

Public Roads 31, 194 

Religion at 200 

Religious Associations 

at 214 

Riot at, in 1877 164 

Ritner Young Men's 

Convention at .... 70 
School Buildings at ..203 
Schuylkill Seminary at 203 
Sesqui-Centennial of 

1898 166 

Sewers 194 

Stage-Coaches at 197 

State Conventions at 69 
Statement of Indus- 
tries at 170-193 

Statistics 234-238 

Steam Heat at 300 

Steam Railroads 197 

Store House at, in 

Revolution 116 

Streets 194 

Street Railways at ...197 

Subway 194 

Sunday Schools of .. 52 

Telegraph at 198 

Telephone at 199 

Town, 1748-1783 153-156 
Town Laid Out ...153 

Turnpikes from 196 

Vote in 1908 235 

Washington at, in 

1794 120 

Water Supplies of.... 

193, 302 

Whig Mass-Meeting of 

1844 at 70 

Reading & Columbia Railroad. . . . 38 
Recommendations for Com- 
panies in Revolution 113 

Recorders of County 81 

Reductions of County 24 

Reedy Family Reunion 319 

Reformed Denomination in 

County 46 

Reformed Ministers of County 46 
Registered Voters by Districts 

in 1908 149 

Registers in Bankruptcy from 

County 74 

Registers of County 81 

Rehrersburg, Cleveland Parade 

at 72 

Relative Elevations of County 4 

Religion of County 45 

Religious Associations at Read- 
ing 214 

Religious Denominations De- 
scribed 45 

Religious Denominations in 

County 49 

Representative Men of Coun- 
ty 66 

Return of Soldiers in Revolu- 
tion 120 

Revolution, Cause of 110 

Richmond, First Taxables of . . 14 

Richmond Township 303 

Ringgold Band in Civil War ..134 
Ringgold Band of Reading ...211 
Ringgold Light Artillery in Civ- 
il War 1S9 

Ritner Young Men's Conven- 
tion at Reading 70 

Ritter Family Reunion 319 

Roads and Turnpikes of Coun- 
ty 31 

Roads to Reading 32' 

Robeson. First Taxables of ... . 14 

Robeson Township 308 

Robesonia Furnace 307 

Rockland Township 2'99 

Rockland Township Taxables .301 

Rohrbach Family Reunion 320 

Roman Catholic Denomination 

in County 47 

Round-head 1 

Rural Free Delivery in County 43 
Ruscombmanor, First Taxables 
of 14 



Ruscombmanor Township ".298 

Saul Family Reunion 320 

Scalps, Premium for 109 

Schaeffer Family Reunion 320 

Schneider Family Reunion ....321 
School Affairs of Boroughs ...240 
School Controllers of Reading 

;... 230-233 

Schools at Reading 202 

Schuylkill Canal in County ... 35 
Schuylkill County, Erection of. 24 

Schuylkill Gap 1 

Schuylkill & Lehigh Railroad . .53 

Schuylkill River 3, 28 

Schuylkill Road 32 

Schuylkill Section of Town- 
ships 308 

Schuylkill Seminary at Reading 203 

Schwartzwald 2 

Scull's Hill 1 

Sealers of Weights and Meas- 
ures 86 

Seaman Family Reunion 321 

Secret Societies at Reading ...206 
Secretaries of Reading School 

Board 233 

Sections of Berks County 296 

Select Councilmen of Reading 


Senators of County 75 

Sewers at Reading 194 

Sheriffs of County 79 

Shillington, Borough of ...293-295 
Signal Service of P. & R. R. Co. 39 
Society for Prevention of Cruel- 
ty to Animals 214 

Solicitors of Reading' 227 

South Mountain 1 

Spanish War of 1898- 139 

Special Detectives of County . . 8S 
Special Legislation, Offices by. . . 72 

Spring Township 308 

Stage-Coaches at Reading ....197 
Stages and Stage Lines in Coun- 
ty 33 

Stages. Decline of, in County . 34 
State Appropriations to Coun- 
ty, 1904 and 1908 150 

State Charitable Institutions in 

County 105 

State Conventions at Reading.. 69 

State Highways in County 33 

State Hospital at Harrisburg ..106 

State-House of County 89 

State National Guard 143 

State Officials from County ... 75 

State Police in County 144 

State Police Barracks 144, 311 

State Representatives from 

Reading 21i6 

State Representatives of Coun- 
ty 74 

State Roads in County 302, 311 

Statistics of Reading, Compara- 
tive Table ..234 

Statistics of Secret Societies 207, 240 
Statistics of the Townships 

147-150, 298 

St. Catharine's Female Orphans' 

Asylum 106, 214 

Steam Heat at Reading 300 

Stewards at Poor-House 83 

St. Joseph's Hospital 213 

St. Michael's Seminary 303 

St. Paul's Orphans' Asylum for 

Boys 106, 214 

Stock Farms in Schuylkill Sec- 
tion 311 

Store House at Reading in Rev- 
olution 116 

Stoudt's Hill 1 

Strauss Family Reunion 321 

Streams of County 3 

Street Railways at Reading ...197 

Streets of Reading 194 

Suburban Towns of Manatawny 

Section 303 

Suburban Towns of Schuylkill 

Section 309 

Subway at Spring Street, Read- 
ing 194 

Sunday Mails, Opposition to . . 53 
Sunday Schools of Berks Coun- 
ty 51 

Sunday Schools of County, Sum- 
mary of 53 

Superintendents of County 

Schools 87 

Superintendents of Reading 

Schools 234 

Superintendent of Water Board 219 
Surgeons from County in Civil 

War 129 

Surveyors of County 82 

Swede Building, Old 16 

Swedes, First Settlement by .. 16 

Taxables of Districts 148 

Taxes from County to State. .150, 151 
Teachers' Institutes in County . 53 

Telegraph at Reading 398 

Telegraph in County 43 

Telephone at Reading 199 

Telephone Exchange in Mana- 
tawny Section 303 

Telephone in County 43 

Temple Furnace 302 

Textile Machine Works at Wy- 

omissing 283 

Tilden Festival of 1876 in Coun- 
ty 72 

Tilden Township 306 

Topton. Borough of 361-263 

Topton ' Orphans' Home 263, , 305 

Towns of Manatawny Section .300 

Towns of Ontelaunee Section 304 

Towns of Schuylkill Section ..309 
Towns of Tulpehocken Section 3(6 
Townships of Berks County 296-311 
Trap Rock in Schuylkill Section 310 

Treasurers of County 79 

Treasurers of Reading 218 

Treasurers of Reading School 

Board 234 

Trexler Family Reunion 321 

Trust Companies at Reading ..309 
Tulpehocken, First Taxables of 15 

Tulpehocken Road 31 

Tulpehocken Section of Town- 
ships 306 

Tulpehocken Township 306 

Turnpikes at Reading 196 

Turnpikes in County 31 

Union Canal 34 

Union, First Taxables of 16 

Union Township .308 

United Evangelical Denomina- 
tion in County 48 

United States Commissioners 

from County 74 

Upper Bern Township 306 

Upper Tulpehocken Township 306 

Valleys 2 

Valuation of Property in Dis- 
tricts 148 

Veterinary Practitioners 104 

Volunteer Militia in Civil War 

136, 137, 138 

Vote for Constitutional Amend- 
ments .' 69 

Vote for Governor 68 

Vote for President 69 

Vote for Prohibition and Li- 
cense 69 

Voters of Districts, Registered, 

1908 149 

Walter Sanitarium 307 

Wamsher Family Reunion 322 

War Periods 107 

Washington at Reading in 1794.. 120 

Washington Township 299 

Water Board of Reading ...218-19 

Waterworks at Reading 193 

W. C. T. U. at Reading 214 

Weekly Newspapers of County 

59, 60 

Weights and Measures, Sealers 

of 86 

Weiser, Conrad, Lecture on . . 57 
Weiser, Conrad, Purpose of 

Lecture 58 

Welsh, Early Immigrants of 

County 19 

Welsh Mountain 1 

Wenrich's Grand View 307 

Wernersville State Asylum ...105 
West Leesport, Borough of 280-281 
West Reading, Borough of 288-293 

West Reading Railroad 39 

Western Union Telegraph Co. 43 
Whig Mass-Meeting of 1844 at 

Reading 70 

Whiskey Insurrection in 1794 .120 
White Spot on Mount Penn ... 2 
Whitner, C. K & Co., Depart- 
ment Store of 184 

Widows' Home 107, 213 

Wilmington & Northern Rail- 
road 38 

Windsor, First Taxables of ... 16 

Windsor Township 303 

Womelsdorf, Borough of .268-271 
Wyomissing. Borough of ..281-285 

Yeich Family Reunion 322 

Y. M. C. A. at Reading 214 


Abraham, August 1439 

Achenbach, Henry 1414 

Achenbach, John 723 

Adam, Calvin H 1661 

Adam Families 741 

832, 1393, 1446, 1614, 1623, 1661 

Adam, Frederick M 1168 

Adam, Harry B 1170 

Adam, Herman 1614 

Adam, Jacob S 1446 

Adam, Michael S 1168 

Adam, Samuel 1393 

Adam. William K 832 

Adams, Aaron 1489 

Adams, Albert H 901 

Adams, E. Ralph 360 

Adams, Mrs. Esther 1489 

Adams Families.. 741, 880, 1338, 1508 

Adams, John T 1119 

Adams, Mrs. Loretta L 3S0 

Adams, Thomas F 1508 

Adams, William H 879 

Adams, William H. (Reading) 


Adams, William L 742 

Addams Families 632, 546 

Addams, Henrietta C. , 633 

Addams, Isaac 633 

Addams, John V. R 633 

Addams, Peter 547 

Addams, Rufus 633 

Addams, Wellington 1 632 

Ahrens, Cyrus K 1246 

Ahrens, Edmund H 962 

Ahrens Families 963, 1407 

Ahrens, Howard E 1407 

Albrecht, Charles 1510 

Albrecht, George 777 

Albright Families 539, 955, 1545 

Albright, George B 539 

Albright, Jacob W 955 

Albright, Mrs. Rebecca 1428 

Albright, William H 1545 

Alleman, Grant E 16'65 

Alsace Lutheran Church 1145 

Althouse, Cyrus D 1119 

Althouse, Mrs. Deborah R 652' 

Althouse Families 651, 1119, 1175 

Althouse, Henry 1078 

Althouse, Hiester 1175 

Althouse, John W 1166 

Althouse, John Z. 652 

Althouse, Mary C 107& 

Althouse, Nathan 968 

Althouse, Wilson D 968 

Ames. Isaac 989 

Ammarell, Charles 1034 

Ammarell, John B 929 

Ammarell, John S 930 

Ammarell, Raymond R 930 

Ammarell, Winfield H., M. D.. 930 

Ammon, George M 165i5 

Amole, Edgar 1521 

Ancona, Sydenham E 376 

Anderson, Augustus R 571 

Anderson, Cornelius T 735 

Anderson Families 571, 1092 

Anderson, John P 1092' 

Anderson, Mrs. Margaret B... 735 

Anderson, William S 747 

Angstadt, George P 1454 

Angstadt, John F 1229 

Angstadt, Joshua 1453 

Anspaoh Families 690, 1639 

Anspach, Thomas P .'. 690 

Anspach, Wallace M 1638 

Anthony, Edward L 1381 

Anthony Families 639,1381 

Anthony, Henry P 1142 

Anthony, John C. 1406 

Anthony, Mrs. Mary 1142 

Anthony, Mrs. Mary A 1406 

Anthony, William B 598 

Anthony, William F 639 

Armstrong, Ephraim 727 

Armstrong, Mrs. Mary 7S'8 

Arnold Family 1057 

Arnold, Fred D 1057 

Arnold, Joel A 1129 

Arnold, William 838 

Artz, Calvin W. 1198 

Artz, John B 1239 

Aulenbach, Franklin 1149 

Aulenbach! William 1115 

Auman, Charles E 576 

Auman Family 576 

Austrian, Ben 1658 

Babb, David D 649 

Babb Family 649 

Babst, John 1511 

Bachman Family 1459 

Bachman, Joseph S 1117 

Bachman, Levi 1459 

Bachman, William 892 

Bachofer Family. ■ 1717 

Bacbof er, J. Geoi^e 1717 

Bachofer, J. Lewis 1067 

Baer, Charles A.i 1682 

Baer Families . . . i 

346, 614, 725, 865, 911, 1083, 1126, 
1180, 1625, j 1638, 1681, 1694 

Baer, George F. 344 

Baer, Henry C 865 

Baer, Jonathan 168S 

Baer. Moses 1639 

Baer. Samuel A 1180 

Baer, Solomon .•. 911 

Baer, William J 614 

Baer, William S 1083 

Bagenstose Families' 854, 1495 

Bagenstose, Jacob 854 

Bagenstose, Jerome B 1495 

Bahr Family 1351 

Bahr, Jacob B 1353 

Bahr, John B 1352 

Balthaser Families 

910, 1040, 1438, 1452, 1477, 1679 

Balthaser, Howard F 1438 

Balthaser, Jerome S 910 

Balthaser. Joel B 1679 

Balthaser, John C. K 1040 

Balthaser, Mahlon A 1477 

Balthaser, Mor,es K 1452 

Banks, John 354 

Baptist Church. First, Reading 1383 

Barbey, Jacob 1109 

Barbey, John 585 

Barbey, Peter 584 

Bard, A. Raymond 410 

Bard Family 410 

Bare Family I601 

Bare, Henry G 1601 

Bare, John H I6OI 

Bare, John M 1601 

Barlow, George 1325 

Barr, Abraham G 1639 

Barr Families 1251, 1638 

Barr, Isaac (born 1819) 1581 

Barr, Isaac 125.1 

Barr, Robert M 339 

Barsotti. Frank S 1067 

Barth, Mrs. Barbara 1355 

Barth Families 930, 1355, 1551 

Barth, Frederick 1355 

Barth, Henry E 1550 

Barth, John D 930 

Bartholomew, Rev. Joshua S...809 

Barto Families 1235, 1373 

Barto, Jonathan 1225 

Barto, William C 1372 

Bashore Family 913 

Bashore, Jonathan K 913 

Battenfeld, Louis 1391 

Baus, John B 918 

Bauscber, Annie M 1288 

Bauscher, Daniel 1288 

Bauscher Family 1288 

Bauscher, Dewalt P 1693 

Bausher Families 875, 1693 

Bauscher, Henry 1288 

Bausher, Solon D 875 

Bausher, Thomas C 763 

Baver, Alfred 1231 

Baver, David E 905 

Beadencup, Henry A 737 

Beadencup, Mrs. Margaret E.. 737 

Bear Families 725, 1136 

Bear, George W 112'6 

Bear, Isaac 813 

Bear, Lieut. Jonathan C 725 

Bear, Levi W 1694 

Beard, Elmer H 1516 

Beard Families 650, 1516 

Beard, Samuel 650 

Bechtel, Charles W 65.1 i--- 

Bechtel, Daniel R 463 i-^ 

Bechtel Families 

463, 515, 5^2, 1204, 1643i^ 

Bechtel, Frederick R 836 

Bechtel, Hiram C 1643"--^ 

Bechtel, Irwin H 515^-^ 

Bechtel, Jesse F 523 ''^ 

Bechtel. Oliver K 1674'--' 

Bechtel, Richard D 1204 ^^^ 

Beck, George S 840 

Beck, Harry T 1105 

Becker, Mrs. Anna Eliza 947 

Becker Families 948, 1012, 1053 

Becker, Joseph S 679 

Becker, Simeon 1013 

Becker, Walter Y 1070 

Becker, William Z 1053 

Becker, Willoughby 948 

Beecher Family 853 

Beecher. William L 853 

Beggs, George 1036 



Behm, Reuben F 943 

Behne, Gustavus A 712 

Behne, Mrs. Gustavus A 330, 712 

Behney, Alpheus S 3'69 

Behney Families' 369, 1438 

Behney, John n. 1438 

Beidler Family../ 856 

Beidler, Isaac Y 856 

Beiler Family 1011 

Beiler, Levi 1011 

Bell, George H 704 

Bell, Samuel 349 

Bell, Samuel H 1015 

Belz, August 1159 

Benade, James A 1572' 

Benade, James C 625 

Benade, Sarah M 625 

Benfield, Aaron 1267 

Benfield, Adam W 1267 

Benfield Family 1265 

Benfield, Franklin N 12166 

Benfield, Henry W 1267 

Bennecoff, Moses 1454 

Bennetch Family 1542' 

Bennetch, Morris 1542 

Benneville, Dr. George de 329 

Benson, David E 688 

Benson, Dr. Lot 688 

Benson, Susan E 688 

Benz, Theodore 646 

Berg, Charles W 1018 

Berg Family 1018 

Berg, L Henry 1075 

Berger Families 480. 1567 

Berger, Edward P 1568 

Berger. James C 1567 

Berger, Morris C 480 

Berger, Orlando F 1567 

Berger, Mrs. Sallie J 1568 

Berk Family 1682 

Berk, Henry 1682 

Berkhold, George 1703 

Barn Reformed and Lutheran Un- 
ion Church 986 

Bernd Family 450 

Bernd, Rev. Franklin K 450 

Berndt, Calvin 1137 

Bernet. John L 1148 

Bernhart, Lizzie M 1541 

Bernhart, William 1541 

Bertolet or Bertolette Families . . 

1262, 1657 

Bertolet, Israel M l£-64 

Bertolet, Samuel E 1265 

Bertolette, Daniel N., M. D 1657 

Bertolette, Dr. Martin L 1265 

Beyer (Bbyer) Family 583 

Bhaer. Franklin A 1624 

Bickel, Amandon 874 

Bickel, Mrs. Angeline F 461 

Bickel. Cornelius 809 

Bickel Families 461, 874 

Bickel, J. Isaac 461 

Bickel, Paul J 875 

Bickelman Family 837 

Bickelman, Napoleon 83'5 

Bickley, John H., Jr 701 

Biddle, Edward 326 

Bieber. Benjamin E 415 

Bieber, Daniel A 815 

Bieber Families 415, 815, 1106 

Bieber, Dr. Ulysses S. G 1106 

Biehl Families 538, 1069 

Biehl, George W 538 

Biehl, Joel Foster S 1162 

Biehl, John E 1069 

Bigony Family 391 

Bigony, Hiram J 391 

Bingaman, Mrs. Rebecca 1321 

Bingaman, William 1321 

Bird, Mark 326 

Birch, Prof. Robert S 1405 

Bissinger, Philip 760 

Bitler Families 907, 1642 

Bitler, Henry 1642 

Bitler, W. H 907 

Bitting Family 970 

Bitting, Frank W 970 

Bitting, John 970 

Bittner, Daniel F 1257 

Bittner. Mrs. 'Sarah 1258 

Bixenstine, Christian 1156 

Bixler, Augustus S 1021 

Bixler Family 1020 

Bixler, Joseph 1021 

Bixler, Manasses 1021 

Blachman, Paul H 1636 

Bland, Mrs. Esther 1321 

Bland Families 1320, 1324 

Bland, Judge H. Willis 400 

Bland, Robert 1324 

Bland, William 1320 

Blankenbiller, Dainiel B 1604 

Blankenbiller Family 1603 

Blankenbiller, Harry B 1604 

Blankinhorn, Andrew 1488 

Blatt, Cornelius F 1182 

Blatt, D. M. . . 118S 

Blatt Families II8I, 1329 

Blatt, Isaac G 1329 

Blimline, Sebastian 1560 

Bloom, Lew 874 

Bobst, Samuel 1518 

Bobst, William J 1368 

Bodder, Mrs. Mary 1516 

Bodey, Andrew N 742 

Bodey, Benton K 1025 

Body, Augustus G 861 

Body Family 862 

Bohn, Adam K 1673 

Bohn, Edward K 864 

Bohn Families 864, 1581, 1673 

Bohn, Jeremiah B 1581 

Bohn, Mrs. Mary A 1581 

Bohn. Morris C 1581 

Bolich Family 1396 

Bolich, Reuben W. 1396 

Bollman, Lewis . , 1370 

Bond Family. . . . l 419 

Bond, William F. 418 

Boone, Cyrus 1650 

Boone, Daniel 1502 

Boone, Edwin 433 

Boone Families 1502, 1650 

Border Family 611 

Border, William 611 

Bordes, Alfred 1511 

Bordner. Cloyd W 1649 

Bordner Families 478, 515 

Bordner, Prof. George C 515 

Bordner, Jacob M 478 

Borkert, Albert G 673 

Borkert, Augfustus 686 

Borkert Family. 1139 

Borkert, Kate A 700 

Borkert, Richard G 768 

Borkert, William D. A 1139 

Borkert, Willianii G 699 

Borkey Family .1 1355 

Borkey, William B 1355 

Bornemann, Rev!. G<:orge 5.64 

Borry, Addison W 1198 

Borst, John W..;. 1116 

Bortz, George B 1534 

Bower, Dr. Abram L 431 

Bower, Conrad G 1100 

Bower Families .. 404, 430, 539, 540 

Bower, Gen. Jacob 333 

Bower, Dr. Joel B 430 

Bower, John. L., M. D 540 

Bower, John N 539 

Bower, William L 1453 

Bowman Famiiy 1283 

Bowman, Israel M 12'84 

Bowman, John M 1284 

Boyer, Abraham 1651 

Boyer, Amos 900 

Boyer, Andrew S 678 

Boyer, Charles A 939 

Boyer, Dr. Charles C 583 

Boyer, Charles G 1132 

Boyer, Cyranus F 829 

Boyer, Edwin A 537 

Boyer Families 

531, 537, 548, 583, 635, 786, 829, 
900, 1132, 1254, 1278, 1651 

Boyer, George F 787 

Boyer, Gottleib ©61 

Boyer, Harry C 787 

Boyer, Henry 1524 

Boyer, Horace K 1279 

Boyer, Jacob S 1254 

Boyer, James K 1279 

Boyer, Jerome L 548 

Boyer, Jesse 1 1332 

Boyer, John A 1623 

Boyer, John H 635 

Boyer, Mrs. Mary S 1633 

Boyer. Morris L. H 636 

Boyer, Morris R 1172 

Boyer, Mrs. Rosina 661 

Boyer, Thomas A 531 

Boyer, William McH 706 

Bradley, John C 1363 

Brant, Irvin S 1056 

Braucher, Albert C 1434 

Brecht (Bright) Families 

674, 1157, 1166, 1697 

Breedy Family 1342 

Breedy, George J 1342 

Breneiser. Charles 736 

Breneiser Family 736 

Breneiser, Thomas 736 

Bressler, F. F 604 

Breyfogel Family 1719 

Breyfogel, Rev. Sylvanus 1719 

Brickel, Peter F 1159 

Bricker, Edwin L 1426 

Bricker, Thomas C 1098 

Bridegam, David 606 

Bridegam, William 606 

Bridegam. William K 1448 

Bridenbaugh Family 518 

Bridenbaugh, John H 675 

Bright. Albert H 675 

Bright, Albert R 675 

Bright (Breoht) Families 

674, 1157, 1166, 1697 

Bright, Harry L 1157 

Bright, Henry M 867 

Bright, John H 1697 

Bright, Lehman 1 675 

Bright, Willis L 1166 

Brigle, Benjamin 1529 

Brigle Family 1529 

Rriner, Edward A 1163 

Brintzenhnflf. J. K 1386 

Brissel. Charles F 1033 

Britton, John A 506 

Brobst, Dr. Edward 453 

Brobs't Families 454, 1319 

Brobst, Dr. John A 1319 

Broden, Albert 483 

Brooke. Edward 338 

Brooke Family 336 

^ Birooke. Oeorge 336 



Brooke, Robert E 338 

Brossraan, Adam 1660 

Brossman, Adam B 1660 

Brossman Family 1659 

Brossman, George W 1149 

Brossman, Isaac W 1661 

Brossman, James B 1660 

Brossman, Levi A 1444 

Brossman, Thomas J 16;60 

Broughall, William 1408 

Brown, Aaron R 1543 

Brown, Adam K 125i2 

Brown, Augustus M 401 

Brown, Charles C 1520 

Brown, Daniel F 1557 

Brown, David 1239 

Brown, Ella M 1357 

Brown Families 

401, 1252, 1425, 1520, 1558 

Brown, Frank M 1715 

Brown, John M 1516 

Brown, George W 1425 

Brown, Kate F 1357 

Brown, Levi 1357 

Brown, Morris P 1444 

Brown, Mrs. Rebecca 1530 

Brown, Reuben Hi 1691 

Brown, William H 1075 

Brownell Family 1716 

Brownell, John G. L 1716 

Brownmiller, Charles M 1706 

Brownmiller, Rev. Ephraim S. 1705 

Brownmiller Family 1704 

Brownmiller, Henry H 1704 

Brubaker Family 431 

Brubaker, George 431 

Bruckman, Judge George W. . 752 

Brumbach, Albert J 357 

Brumbach, Daniel C 1287 

Brumbach, Edwin H 1288 

Brumbach Families .357, 845, 1286 

Brumbach, Peter Y 845 

Brumbach, Solomon A 851 

Brumbach, William D 922 

Brunner, Alfred R 1283 

Brunner, David B 338 

Brunner, Hon. David B 570 

Brunner Families 568, 1283 

Brunner, William 1229 

Brunner, W. B 570 

Bubp, Mrs. Clara 768 

Bubp, John E 767 

Buchanan, Thomas C, M. D. 1296 

Bucher, John S 1213 

Buck, Charles R 472 

Buck, Nicholas 473 

Buck Families 472, 473, 879 

Bucks, Calvin W 1610 

Bucks Family 1610 

Bucks, William R 764 

Bull, Elijah 350 

Bull Family 351 

Bulks. Augustus 1092 

Burd, Edward 351 

Burgert, Benneville 1698 

Burkey Family 1080 

Burkey, John A 1081 

Burkey, Peter 1080 

Burkey, William F 1080 

Burkhart, Daniel A 1293 

Burkhart, Elmore A 1294 

Burkhart Family 1£'92 

Burkhart, J. Henry :1293 

Burkhart, J. Paul 1293 

Burkholder. Albert N 798 

Burkholder, Samuel G., M. D. 525 

Burley, Daniel 1604 

Bush, Emanuel L 1038 

Bush Families 403, 1038 

Butz, Daniel C 710 

Butz Family 710 

Butz, Lewis B 711 

Byers, Abel HI '. 861 

Campbell, Mrs. Addie J 727 

Campbell, Mrs. Annie L 743 

Campbell, David 727 

Campbell, Mrs. William L. . . . 743 

Carlance, John 1511 

Castor, Ellis L 847 

Chelius, John 1037 

Christ Church, Reading, Pa. ..1390 

Christ, Evan P 1089 

Christ Families 1089, 1477 

Christ, Henry D 735 

Christ, Howard L 116* 

Christ, James D. 1361 

Christ^ Samuel T 1477 

Christian, Daniel H 574 

Christian, Edward H 889 

Christian Families 574, 889 

Christian, Mrs. Mary C 576 

Christman, A. G 1429 

Christman, Charles H 1461 

Christman Families 1017, 1461 

Christman, Nathan G 1017 

Church, Robert B 1153 

Clauser Families 973, 1343 

Clauser, Harrison K 145i8 

Clauser, Henry S 1458 

Clauser, John H 1342 

Qauser, Mahlon B 974 

Clauser. Simon B 974 

Cleaver, Chester B 524 

Cleaver Families 524, 566, 990 

Cleaver, Israel, M. D 566 

Cleaver, Jonathan 991 

Cleaver, Mrs. Sarah 991 

Cleaver. William K 990 

Clemmer, David B 1374 

Clemmer Families 1346, 1374 

Clemmer, Henry G 1346 

Close Family 1686 

Close, Jackson J 1686 

Clouser, Benjamin 730 

Clouser, David 651 

Clouser Families 1515, 1546 

Clouser, Francis L 1515 

Clouser, J. E. 1105 

Clouser, Mrs. Margaret 730 

Clouser. Simon S 1546 

Clymer. Daniel R 360 

Clymer, Edward Ml. 361 

Clym«r Family 360 

Clymer. George E 363 

Clymer, Hiester 361 

Clymer, William H 361 

Coleman, William H 773 

Colletti, Ferdinando, M. D. ..1295 

Collins. Henry A 652 

Connolly, Mrs. Mary 1158 

Connolly. Peter 1158 

Conrad. Jeremiah M 1131 

Cook. George S 1084 

Coonley, Mrs. Emma C 1132 

Coonley, Frederick W 1131 

Cranston, Frederick W 765 

Crater Family 362 

Crater, Lewis 362' 

Craumer, Harry S 1109 

Craumer, Rev. L. W 1109 

Cressman. Albert J 1635 

Cressman, Charles M 1103 

Cressman, F. Marion 1102 

Cressman. Rev. T. J 486 

Cressman, Mrs. Mary E 1635 

Croessant. H. J. . .' 1100 

Croll Family 383 

Croll, Martin S 382 

Croll, William M 491 

Crooks, Harry W 1232 

Crooks, Martha W IS'22 

Crouse, Abraham L 940 

Crouse, Henry 701 

Crouse, Mrs. Mary E 701 

Crow, Samuel H 1040 

Crystal Cave 831 

Custer, Ludwig T 1490 

Dampman, John B 431 

Darlington, A. J 1029 

Dauth, Mrs. Lewis 839 

Dauth, William L 1060 

Dautrich, James E 774 

Davidheiser, Mrs. Elizabeth ..1092 

Davidheiser, Elmer 1091 

Davidheiser. George 1091 

Davies Families 388, 1031 

Davies, Lewis 1530 

Davies, Samuel 388 

Davis Family 1031 

Davis, Nevin M 389 

Davis, Samuel H 1373 

Davis, Thomas T 1031 

Davis, Warren L 381 

Davis, Rev. William F. P. ... 63'4 
Deatrick, Rev. Dr. William W. 748 

de Benneville. Dr. George 339 

Dechant Famdly 1669 

Deohant, William H., C. E 1669 

Dechert, Adam 888 

Dechert Families 888, 904 

Dechert, Henry M 904 

Deck, O. W. 1307 

Deeds Family 95.6 

Deeds, Luke M 956 

Deeter, Daniel H 423 

Deeter, Henry 433 

Degler, Moses 1B93 

De Gour. Dr. Frank L 1566 

Dehart, David E 1276 

Dehart, David G 1553, 1714 

DeHart Families 

1036, 1275, 1440, 1714 

DeHart, F. B 1.553 

Dehart, Mrs. Harriet F 1714 

DeHart, Jeremiah 1276 

DeHart, J. Irvin 1276 

Dehart, Mrs. Matilda 1440 

Dehart, Philip 1440 

DeHart, William H 1036 

Deisher (Deysher) Families . . . 

398, 851, 1160, 1680 

Deisher, Frank A 1637 

Deisher, Henry K 1161 

Deisher, LA 398 

Deisher, Jacob P 1637 

Delany, George W 583 

Dellecker, George W. S 1119 

Dellinger, Charles T 1670 

DeLong, David 609 

DeLong. Ellwood F 406 

DeLong Families 404, 405, 815 

DeLong, Howard H .1166 

DeLong, Irwin D 406 

DeLong, Irwin H 1166 

DeLong, Joseph S 770 

DeLong, Mrs. Louisa E 404 

DeLong, Mrs. Mary H 771 

DeLong, Milton H'. 404 

DeLong, Tilghman 406 

DeLong, Victor W 406 

Dengler Families 397, 1138 

Dengler. George C 1138 

Dengler, Prof. John G 398 

Dennison. Robert H., Sr 590 

Deppen, Dr. Daniel 803 



Deppen Family 803 

Deppen, Dr. James W 803 

Deppen, Mrs. Mary A. ..' 804 

Deppen, Samuel R., Esq 802 

Derr, Cyrus G 779 

Derr Families 1389, 1645 

Derr, Thomas Luther 1389 

Detample, J. Edward 1553 

Detemple, Joseph G 1547 

Detemple, Joseph, Jr 1547 

Detsch, Mrs. Anna Marie 1020 

Detsch, John 1020 

Dettra, Benjamin F. 585 

DeTurck, Abraham K 1505 

De Turck, Charles P 1507 

De Turck. Ezra K 1505 

D: Turck (DeTurk) Families 

493, 1086, 1503 

De Turck. Mahlon L 1506 

De Turck, Morris H 1504 

De Turck, Seth L 1506 

De Turck, Sydney M 908 

De Turck, Mrs. Susan K 1506 

De Turk, Amos M 1358 

De Turk, Edwin P 171S 

De Turk, Eugene P 1086 

De Turk (De Turck) Families 

493, 1086. 1503 

De Turk, Jeremiah M 492 

Devlan, F. D 15.76 

Dewees, John M 634 

Deysher, Abner S 1674 

Deyaher, Ell-wood H 810 

Deysher (Deisher) Families... 

398, 851, 1160, 1680 

Deysher, Howard B 851 

Deysher, Isaac D 11681 

Dibert, Samuel D 1187 

Dick, Amos L 744 

Dick, Charles K 745 

Dick, Eli D 745 

Dick Family 744 

Dick, Franklin K 745 

Dick, Henry 744 

Dick, Mrs. Mary A 745 

Dick, Nicholas 744 

Dickinson, B. Frank 1339 

Dickinson, Joseph R 517 

Dieffenbach Families 474, 1615 

Dieffenbach. Peter 1615 

Dieffenbach, Samuel W 474 

Diener Brothers 7&'6 

Diener, Henry J 726 

Diener. Irwin A 726 

Dierolf Family 489 

Dierolf, Jeremiah 489 

Dietrich, Alfred K 562 

Dietrich, Azariah C 1014 

Dietrich, Calvin J 560 

Dietrich, Charles W 556 

Dietrich, Daniel F 556 

Dietrich. Daniel P 5E.5 

Dietrich, Daniel S 559 

Dietrich Families 

552, 563, 692, 954, 1014, 14'46, 1651 

Dietrich, Franklin P 554 

Dietrich, Henry S 562 

Dietrich, Howard M 1446 

Dietrich, Joel D 1723 

Dietrich, Joel L 554 

Dietrich. Col. John 1651 

Dietrich, Josiah S 954 

Dietrich, Lawson G Erf30 

Dietrich, Levi F 556 

Dietrich, Lewis S 955 

Dietrich, Mahlon C 561 

Dietrich, Robert D 559 

Dietrich, Samuel A 559 

Dietrich, Prof. S. P 559 

Dietrich, Mrs. Susanna 559 

Dietrich, William A 554 

Dietrich, William H 563 

Dietrich, William H., Jr 564 

Dietrich, William J 557 

Dietrich, Wilson G 560 

Dillon, George C 1099 

Dinino, Pietro 1199 

Dinkel, George 1169 

Dippery, Nathaniel S 1130 

Dippery, Mrs. Salesa M 1130 

Dorward Family 457 

Dorward, Obadiah B 457 

Dotterer, Mathias H 1195 

Dotterrer Families 609, 1195 

Dotterrer, Dr. Charles B 610 

Dotterrer, Daniel W 610 

Dowling. Frank M 993 

Drayer, John T 1083 

Dreas, Charles E 1163 

Dreibelbies, Rev. George A. . . 497 

Dreibelbies, Alfred H 498 

Dreibelbies, Ambrose E 498 

Dreibelbies, William H 498 

Dreibelbis, Alfred S 1006 

Dreibelbis (Dreibelbies) Fam- 
ilies 496, 1534 

Dreibelbis, Carrie J 498 

Dreibelbis, Cleophas S 499 

Dreibelbis, George A 501 

Dreibelbis, Gustavus 501 

Dreibelbis, Jacob D ' 500 

Dreibelbis, Joel 500 

Dreibelbis, John S 1533 

Dreibelbis, Perry K 501 

Dreibelbis, Dr. Samuel L 502 

Dresher Family 1038 

Dresher, John 1038 

Drey (Dry) Families 1395, 1716 

Drexel, Mrs. Anna A 1435 

Drexel, George W 1695 

Drexel, Howard L 1046 

Drexel, Reuben 1435 

Dries, Worths A 1063 

Driscoll, Daniel J 567 

Driscoll Family 567 

Driscoll, Rev. John A 567 

Druckenmiller, Benj. D 1527 

Drumheller, Ammon B 1675 

Drumheller Families 1039, 1085, 1675 

Drumheller, George 1675 

Drumheller, Hiram D 1085 

Drumheller, Jacob B 1675 

Drumheller, Jeremiah 1676 

Drumheller, John H 1029 

Drumheller, Mahlon B 1675 

Dry (Drey) Families ....1395, 1716 

Dry, Hiram F 1395 

Dry, Nathan 1716 

Dubbs, Tyrus B 1703 

Dumn, Amos M 1570 

Dumn, Clarence C 1570 

Dumn, J. Frank 1570 

Dumn, Harry J 1571 

Dumn, Wilson M 1570 

Dundor, Adam B., M. D 358 

Dundor, Adam E 883 

Dundor Family 358 

Dundore, Mrs. Amanda 1579 

Dundore, Dr. Darius W 1579 

Dundore, David D 1579 

Dundore Families 358, 883, 1577 

Dundore, Jacob K 1578 

Dundore, James A 1635 

Dundore, Samuel E 1578 

Dunkel, Daniel 939 

Dunkel Families 

477, 851, 939, 1507 

Dunkel, Peter H 1507 

Dunkel, Solomon G 851 

Dunkelberger Family 1706 

Dunkelberger, Howard H 1707 

Dunkelberger, John L 1706 

Dunkelberger, Dr. Nathaniel Z. 1706 

Dunkelberger, Samuel G 1130 

Dunkle, Allen H 770 

Dunkle Families 477, 1507 

Dunkle, Samuel L 477 

Dunkle, Wayne 770 

Dunlap, Alvin 595 

Durham, Dr. Albert R 489 

Duser, Jacob 1632 

Eaches, Jesse E 983 

Eaches, Marcus B 509 

Eagelman, C. F 978 

Earl, Samuel F 1577 

Early Family .- 443 

Early, Rev. John W 444, 1638 

Eberly Family 649 

Eberly, Harry E 1205 

Eberly, Joseph 649 

Eberly, Samuel 649 

Ebling Family 835 

Ebling, Obadiah 835 

Eck, Charles 13^1 

Eck, Jacob 1146 

Eck, Mrs. Susan 1146 

Eckenroad, Adam 1610 

Eckenroad (Eckenroth) Family. 1609 

Eckenroad, Francis H 1544 

Eckenroad, George S 1609 

Eckenroth, Albert L 1609 

Eckenroth (Eckenroad) Family. 1609 

Eckert, Aaron 879 

Eckert, Capt. Conrad 796 

Eckert Families 346, 825, 878 

Eckert, George B 797 

Eckert, George J 825 

Eckert, Henry S 798 

Eckert, Isaac 346 

Eckert, Isaac (Born 1800) 796 

Eckert, Mrs. Mary T 797 

Eckert, John 796 

Eckert, Peter 796 

Eckert, Mrs. Rebecca G 825 

Eckert, Valentine 798 

Eckert, William J 878 

Eckert, William K 347 

Edinger Families 837, 843 

Edinger, Levi 837 

Edinger, William C 843 

Ege, George 332 

Ege, John, M. D 1636 

Egolf, John H 1236 

Ehst Family 374 

Ehst, Irwin T 374 

Eichler, Hugo 1436 

Filer, Howard 1 1669 

Eisenbise, William 1202 

Eisenbrown Family 340 

Eisenbrown, Penrose F 340 

Eisenbrown, Mrs. Sarah S 341 

Eisenhower, James 1489 

EJIiott Family 335 

Emes, Adam 870 

Em'es Family 870 

Emrich, Elias 992 

Emrich Families 580, 992 

Emrich, Levi J 579 

Endlich, Gustav A., LL. D 793 

Endy Family 828 

Endy, James M lis? 

Endy, John L 828 

Engel Families 973, 1540 

Engel, Jacob S 973 

Engel, Lyman G 1540 

Engle Families 376, 1197 


Engle, William 1197 

Engle, William (Reading) 376 

Ensslen, Mrs. Mary 1090 

Ensslen, Rudolph 1090 

Epler, Harrison R 1358 

Epler, John P 723 

Erb Family 1480 

Erb, Nathaniel G 1480 

Ermold, William S 1723 

Ernst, George 1519 

Ernst, J. George 983 

Ernst, Martin J.524 

Ermentrout, Mrs. Adelaide L. . . 760 

Ermentrout, Hon. Daniel 757 

Ermentrout Families 757, 1633 

Ermentrout, James N 343 

Ermentrout, John S. 351 

Ermentrout, William H 1633 

Eschbach, Aaron S 1376 

Eschbach Family 1376 

Eschelman, J. Howard 1104 

Esenwein, Dr. A 733 

Eschbach Family 795 

Eschbach, Levi R 795 

Eschbach, Peter B 795 

Eshelman, Mrs. Emeline B 663 

Eshelman Families ..662, 1104, 1678 

Eshelman, Henry R 662. 

Eshelman, John J 1678 

Esser Family 873 

Esser, Jacob B 873 

Essick, Joseph W 957 

Esterly, Daniel S 623 

Esterly Families 546, 623 

Esterly, Harry S 1122 

Esterly, John S 1241 

Esterly, Romanus 546 

Evans, Charles 333 

Evans, Charles V. R 711 

Evans Family 1090 

Evans,. Hannah 1091 

Evans, Jane 711 

Evans, John H 713 

Evans, John V. R 1090 

Everts, Garrett B 470 

Fahrbach, John A 1448 

Fahrenbach, Charles W 580 

Fahrenbach, George D 580 

Fahrenbach, George W., M. D.. 581 

Farr, Bertrand H 547 

Farr Family 547 

Faust, Allen E 1228 

Faust, John K 1118 

Feather, M. S 1305 

Feather, William C 1035 

Fegley, Amandus N., M. D 403 

Fegley, Emma S 1211 

Fegley Families 402, 1174, 1211, 1357 

Fegley, George 1211 

Fegley, Lewis P. G 1357 

Fegley, Thomas J. R 1174 

Felix Family 637 

Felix, George H 637 

Fenstermacher, Edwin R 1460 

Fenstermacher Families. .. .478, 1460 

Fenstermacher, John D 1550 

Fenstermacher, John P. S 478 

Ferguson, Nathaniel 1331 

Ferguson, Wilson 1321 

Fessler, Irvin P 1597 

Fessler, Thomas J 1136 

Fichthorn, Andrew 1392 

Fichthorn, Clara C 1293 , 

Fichthorn, Eflfenger R 1333 

Fichthorn Families 598, 1323 

Fichthorn, George L 995 

Fichthorn, James 597 

Fichthorn, Mrs. Susan M 995 

Fidler Families 746, 1663 

Fidler, Henry F 1663 

Fidler, William 746 

Field Family 853 

Field, George 617 

Field, William W 853 

Filbert, Charles F 372 

Filbert, Edward H 372 

Filbert Families 372, 1094, 1573 

Filbert, George 1573 

Filbert, Dr. George W 1574 

Filbert, Hiester W 1575 

Filbert, James 1575 

Filbert, John, Jr 1575 

Filbert, Martin S 1574 

Filbert, Thomas 1575 

Filbert, William A 1613 

Filbert, William D 1094 

Fink, Dr. Allen J 714 

Fink, Andrew J., Jr 455 

Fink, Andrew J., Sr 455 

Fink, Henry J 1013 

Fink, John 1655 

First Baptist Church, Reading. .1383 
First U. E. Church, Reading. .1700 

Fischer (Fisheir) Families 

431, 434, 508, 511, 636, 837, 880 
934, 1156, 1285 

Fisher, Absalom H 1084 

Fisher, Adam M 1156 

Fisher, A. W 626 

Fisher, Charles M 837 

Fisher, Daniel D 421 

Fisher (Fischer) Families 431, 

434, 508, 511, 626, 837, 880, 
924, 1156, 1285 

Fisher, Henry G 1016 

Fisher, Jeremiah 881 

Fisher, Jeremiah B 1286 

Fisher, John W. (deceased) .508, 511 

Fisher, John W 1236 

Fisher, J. Wilmer 434 

Fisher, Mrs. Leah 881 

Fisher, Nicholas H 924 

Fisher, Dr. Oliver H 719 

Fisher, Reily L 881 

Fisher, Rosa E 881 

Fisher, Samuel R 881 

Fisher, Wesley H 1084 

Fisher, William B 1286 

Fisher, William E 511 

Fisk, William E 1577 

Fix, Charles H 1395 

Flaig, Joseph F 1398 

Flannery, John A 893 

Flatt, George W 440 

Flatt, Joseph O., Sr 439 

Flatt, Joseph 440 

Fleckner, George 1138 

Fleisher, Michael F 1059 

Flicker, Augustus S 601 

Flicker, Mrs. Emma M 602 

Flicker Family , 601 

Flickinger, Christian S 934 

Flickinger, Martin M 1638 

Flower, Samuel 1486 

Focht, Amos 880 

Focht, Benjamin 1545 

Focht Brothers 880 

Focht Families 375, 443, 1545 

Focht, Jacob 880 

Focht, James S 443 

Focht, Levi H 375 

Folger. Walter -. 1492 

Folk, Charles A 1624 

Folk, John R 1530 

Foos, Charles S 436 

Foos, George 436 

Foreman, Daniel B 981 

Fornwald, Reily M 947 

Forry, William -F 1118 

Fortna, Henry D 1125 

Foutz, Sherman S 471 

Fox, Aaron G 961 

Fox, Cyrus T 1394 

Fox Families 961, 1398, 1544 

Fox, Frederick S 1426 

Fox, James E 1544 

Fox, Joseph D 1398 

Frame, A. L 686 

Frame, Charles N 638 

Frame Families 638, 1399 

Frame, John M 1399 

Frankhauser, Fremont W 1569 

Franks, Alfred 1696 

Franks, Cyrus L 1696 

Frasso, R. A 1373 

Frauenfelder, W. Adam 935 

Frederick, William J 1039 

Freeman, Charles W 579 

Freeman Families 578, 1065 

Freeman, James L 578 

Freeman, Solomon 1065i 

Frees. Mrs. Lizzie S. (Hatt) .1043 

Frees, William R 1116 

Fretz, Dr. Abraham N 389 

Frey, Daniel F 1663' 

Frey (Fry) Families 442, 1662 

Freyberger Family 1629 

Freyberger, George W 1629 

Frick. William 1 1666 

Fricker, Ellsworth 1502 

Fricker. George W 1676 

Fricker, Jacob 368 

Fricker, Jacob B 368 

Fricker, Mrs. Louisa 1676 

Fries, George W 1522 

Fries, Jacob 948 

Fries. John M 740 

Fritch Families 823, 824, 1633 

Fritch, Jeremiah T 823 

Fritch, Levi L 1633 

Fritch, Dr. Milton L 824 

Fritz. Augustus 1536 

Fritz, Edwin 1418 

Fritz, Eli 1444 

Fritz Families.. 1063, 1418, 1444, 1536 

Fritz, George F 690 

Fritz, Henry F 690 

Fritz, John S 1093 

Fritz, Lewis G 689 

Fritz, Mrs. Lovina Y 1444 

Fritz. Martin H 1063 

Fritz, Samuel E 1103 

Fritz, Sylvester F 1534 

From, William H 921 

From (Fromm) Family 921 

Fromm. Thomas H 1243 

Fronheiser, Charles Y 1380 

Fronheiser Family 1380 

Fry (Frey) Families 443, 1662 

Fry, Henry H 442 

Fry, Keyser 800 

Frymire, John 1338 

Fulmer, Samuel H 1425 

Fulton, Andrew M 827 

Fulton, Mrs. Catherine R. . . . 626 

Fulton Family 626 

Fulton. William M 626 

Funk Families 485, 1311 

Funk, James B 485 

Funk, Dr. John H 1311 

Furlow, Henry K 737 

Gabel. Daniel G 1&'81 

Gabel, Daniel L 1281 

Gabel. Ephraim G 1281 

Gabel (Gable) Families ..397, 1280 



Gabel, Mrs. Mary A 1282 

Gable (Gabel) Families .397, 1280 

Gable, Rev. Zenas H 397 

Gaenzle Family 577 

Gaenzle, John 577 

Gailey Family 1715 

Gailey, George A. 1715 

Ganger Family 664 

Ganger, George P 664 

Ganster, Ed. C 1157 

Ganster, Mrs. Emma R 994 

Ganster ■ Families 1157, 1516 

Ganster, George A 993 

Ganster, Joseph 1708 

Ganster, Lewis 1516 

Ganter, Joseph B 1586 

Gartmann, Frederick 1189 

Gartmann, Mrs. Gertrude ...1189 

Gass, Mrs. Charity 882 

Gass. Henry 1386 

Gass, Jacob 882 

Gass, James 88S' 

Gaul. Benneville M 677 

Gaul Families ...677, 879, 1232, 1533 

Gaul, Franklin M 879 

Gaul. George S 1533 

Gaul, James M 1231 

Gebhard, Charles W 987 

Gebhard, Mrs. Sarah A 987 

Gebhart, Jacob 866 

Geehr Family 952 

Geehr. Kat^ie L 953 

Geehr, Thomas B 953 

Geehr, Titus E 953 

Gehman Families 811, 1023, 1039 

Gehman, Franklin B 1039 

Gehman, Peter B 1024 

Gehman, Samuel B 1024 

Gehman, Rev. William 811 

Gehret, Benton R 1341 

Gehret, John 1228 

Gehris Family 1597 

Gehris, Joseph L 1597 

Gehris, L. Howard 537 

Gehris. Mahlon E 114S 

Gehris, Dr. Oscar T 1541 

Gehrke, Herbert W. S 1319 

Gehrke, William L 1319 

Geiger, Ezra D'. 685 

Geiger Families 685, 1333 

Geiger, George H 993 

Geiger, Lewis J 1333 

Geiger, Wellington D 685 

Geigley, George 838 

Geisewite, H. F 1415 

Geisewite, Percival F 1130 

Geiss, Morris J 904 

Geissler, Christian W 958 

Geissler. John G 415 

Geist Family 813 

Geist, Henry S 813 

Genner, Alfred J 1364 

George. Daniel S 1308 

George Family 1308 

George, Rev. Jonathan V. ...1309 

George, Samuel 1309 

Gerber, Edwin R 436 

Gerhard Families 988, 1298 

Gerhard, Rev. George W. ... 458 

Gerhard, Jamies R., M. D 1297 

Gerhard, Milton J 988 

Gerhardt (Gerhart) Family... 534 

Gerhardt, Howard E 534 

Gerhart (Gerhardt) Families 

399, 534, 1437 

Gerhart, Franklin W. 639 

Gerhart, George W 400 

Gerhart, John P 1437 

Gerhart, Peter W., Jr 399 

Gerhart, Mrs. Sarah A 639 

German, William H 1221 

Gery, Allen G 972 

Gery, Erwin C 483 

Gery Families ..483, 1329 

Gery, William A 1329 

Gettis. Oliver S 1129 

Getz Family 339 

Getz, Hon. James K 339 

Getz, J. Lawrence 810 

Gibson, William H 1490 

Gicker, Edward A 1152 

Gicker, James M 1042 

Gift, John M. . . ; 1247 

Gilbert Families 359, 739 • 

Gilbert, John W 359 

Gilbert, Milton Z 739 

Gittelman, John J. K 1592 

Glaes Family 459 

Glaes, John G 459 

Glase. Alfred W 683 

Glase Families 683, 721, 858 

Glase, James L 858 

Glase, J. 721 

Glass, Mrs. Catharine 1202 

Glass, George 1202 

Glass, Martin W 1248 

Glasser Family 1696 

Glasser, Jacob 1697 

Glasser, Jacob D 1696 

Glassmeyer, William R 1245 

Gnau, Jacob 1384 

Godfrey, Hamilton 1020 

Goetz, Ferdinand 540 

Goetz, Fred W 541 

Goldman, Edmund 1068 

Goldman, William 1 946 

Gonser, John R 1718 

Good Family 1649 

Good, Dr. Franklin H 1348 

Good, Jefferson T 1649 

Good, William A 347 

Goodhart Families 999, 1510 

Goodhart, Frederick 999 

Goodhart, Reuben 1510 

Goodhart, Reuben (2) 1510 

Goodhart, Reuben D 1510 

Goodhart, Victor L 1246 

Goodman, Daniel 1216 

Goodman, James 1479 

Goodman, John E 773 

Gordon, David F 357 

Gossler, Andrew 1521 

Gottschall, Clinton . . .' 1207 

Gottschall Families 653, 903, 1075, 1207 

Gottschall, Henry S 653 

Gottschall, Frank B 1075 

Gottschall, Jacob C 903 

Gougler Family 931 

Gougler, James 1 931 

Graeff, Beniamin 1334 

Graefif Family 1354 

Graeff, George 611 

Graeff, George M. (deceased).. 611 

Graeff, George M 539 

Graeff, Isaac 1354 

Graeff, Isaac L 1351 

Graeff. Samuel L 1345 

Grant, Jeremiah K 1324 

Granz, August , 702 

Grater (Crater) Family 362 

Graul, Charles F 1431 

Graul Families 848, 1431 

Graul, George 695 

Graul, Mary 695 

Graul, William L 848 

Green, Hon. Henry D 1243 

Greenawald, Benjamin F 1619 

Greenawald (Greenawalt) Fam- 
ilies 1588, 1619 

Greenawald, John S 1591 

Greenawalt, Edgar D 1590 

Greenawalt, James V 1591 

Gregg, Gen. David McM 334 

Gregg Family, 334 

Gregory Family 469 

Gregory, George R 469 

Greiss (Griess) Families 1117, 1481 

Grei^, Jacob F 1481 

Gresh Family 1369 

Gresh, James B 1369 

Greth, Charles A 1614 

Greth Family 1612 

Greth, Isaac C 1613 

Greth, Samuel U 1613 

Griesemer, Cla3rton B 1713 

Grieseraer, Eli B 1421 

Griesemer Families 1377, 1422, 1713 

Griesemer, Jacob L 1422 

Griesemer, Joseph M 1378 

Grieshaber, William 1170 

Griess (Greiss) Families. .1117, 1481 

Griess, James H. S 1117 

Griffith, Augustus M 1186 

Griffith, Biram 1186 

Griffith Family 1185 

Griffith, Hiram M 1186 

Griffith, Wayne F 1186 

Grill, Adam F. E 465 

Grill, Daniel M 743 

Grill Families .465, 633, 1051, 1550 

Grill, Frank M 1550 

Grill, F. Pierce D 1051 

Grill, John M . : : 778 

Grill, Martin D 633 

Grim, Daniel P 1304 

Grim Families 382, 654, 1304 

Grim, Miss Mabella 382 

Grim, Moses K 654 

Grim, William K 381 

Grimes, Peter 933 

Grimley, Oliver P 1314 

Gring, Charles H 1561 

Gring Families 372, 1429, 1560 

Gring; Franklin H 1561 

Gring, Harry R 1429 

Gring, Lewis W 1562 

Gring, Samuel H 372 

Griscom Family 392 

Griscomi, Rachel D 393 

Griscom, Samuel 392 

Griscom, William M 393 

Grohman, Frederick W. E 1340 

Groman, Israel K 645 

Gross, Mrs. Christiana 1314 

Gross, David 1313 

Gross, David G 868 

Grube, John 1072 

Gruber, Adam R 863 

Gruber, Christian 1004 

Gruber, Alandon J 1462 

Gruber, Calvin L 1001 

Gruber, Christian, Line of 1004 

Gruber Families 

863, 917, 1000, 1001, 1462 

Gruber, George B 917 

Gruber, Henry 1001 

Gruber, Michael A 1000 

Gruber, Mrs. Rosa K 864 

Gruber, Simon, Line of 1005 

Guldin, Abraham 1053 

Guldin, Charles R 1671 

Guldin, Cyrus Q 692 

Guldin, David Y 1054 

Guldin, Mrs. Esther 1603 



Guldin Families 

451, 784, 846, 1053, 1671 

Guldin Genealogy 784 

Guldin, George Y 1054 

Guldin, James H 717 

Guldin, Jeremiah R 1602 

Guldin, John 1603 

Guldin, John R 431 

Guldin, John Y 1054 

Guldin, Mary A 1603 

Guldin, Mrs. Sarah B 1053 

Gundry, Prof. G. Hard 1480 

Guss. Samuel M 1432 

Guth, Amos S 1024 

Guth Family 1024 

• ' U -1.1 . I • J , . 

Haag, A. W 607 

Haage, George De T 1183 

Haak Family 624 

Haak, George E 624 

Haas, Allison F 1205 

Haas, Franklin 1121 

Haas, Isaac 897 

Hackman, Henry D. 1179 

Hafer, Ammon L 581 

Hafer, Edward E 1176 

Hafer Families 

581, 839, 840, 902, 1147, 1176 

Hafer, Howard M 902 

Hafer, James W 840 

Hafer, Lewis M 839 

Hafer, Samuel L 582 

Hafer, William B 1147 

Hagenman, George F. 550 

Hagenman, Judge Jeremiah 333, 550 

Hagy, Bennewell 1175 

Hagy, Mrs. Sallie A 1175 

Hagy, William 693 

Hahn, E. D 926 

Hahn, Rev. Frederick B 5S2 

Hahn, Mrs. R. Ella 523 

Hain, Abraham U 849 

H^in, Benjamin A 895 

Hain, David H., M. D. 661 

Hain Families 

572, 834, 844, 849, 895, 949 

Hain, Jacob 949 

Hain, James M 850 

Hain, Dr. Leonard G 572 

Hain, Lewis J 834 

:Hain, Milton 1 896 

Hain, Peter A 1037 

Hain Richard 844 

Hainly Family 615 

Hainly, Joel W 615. 

Halbeisen, Henry A 1553 

Haller, Henry 779 

Hamilton, Robe'rt T 1153 

Hamm, Charles 1420 

Hantsch, G. Sam 832 

"Hantsch, James N 1576 

Hantsch, Mrs. Rebecca J. ...1577 

Harbach, Charles A 1436 

Harbold Families 1640, 1712 

Harbold, Horace Y 1712 

Harbold, Samuel B 1640 

Harbster, Mrs. Ellen 528 

"Harbster Family 528 

Harbster, Howard E 486 

Harbster, John E 1384 

Harbster, Matthan 536 

THarbster, William 5S'8 

Hare, Mrs. Clara L 1491 

Haring, Daniel E 1197 

"Harner, Augustus 428 

Harner, D. Z 1475 

Harner Families 428, 1061, 1475 

:Harner, Frank 1061 

Harnish, Martin 967 

Harrison, George W 1677 

Harrison, Henry K 1677 

Hart, G. Howard 1698 

Hart, Harry E 1473 

Hartgen, Edward A 1152 

Hartline, Dr. Charles H.' 1306 

Hartline Family 1306 

Hartline, George C 1307 

H'artline, Warren D 1306 

Hartman, Adam 1189 

Hartraan, Ammon S 447 

Hartman, Charles R 1444 

Hartman, Daniel H 1155 

Hartman, Daniel 1 1487 

Hartman, Ephraim R 446 

Hartman Families 

445, 936, 937, 941, 994, 1154, 
1155, 1364, 1445, 1487 

Hartman, Frank 938 

Hartman, Frederick S 941 

Hartman, George H 994 

Hiartman, George W 937 

Hartman, Grant 1641 

Hartman, Harrison E 938 

Hartman, Irvin H 937 

Hartman, James Y 1364 

Hartman, John D. L 937 

Hartman, John S 764 

Hartman, Levi R 446 

Hartman, Mrs. Lizzie K 1642 

Hartman, Sidney J 446 

Hartman, Samuel M 1154 

Hartman, Winfield L 938 

Hartmann Family 1349 

Hartmann, Henry J 1349 

Hassler, Augustus B 761 

H'assler, Ezra S 494 

Hassler Family 494 

Hath or Hatt Families ...948, 1042 

Hatt, Jacob G 948 

Hatt, Samuel G 1042 

Hauder, Mrs. Catharine E 919 

Hauder, William R 919 

Haueisen, Charles A 1217 

Hauser, Michael 1044 

Hawk, Charles A 1091 

Hawk, George W 370 

Hlawley. Jesse G 472 

Hawman. Albert H 1S77 

H'awman, Penrose W 1276 

Haws, John W 15.76 

Haws, Mrs. Mary A 1576 

Heberle, William 784 

Hebner, Samuel S 1520 

Hechler Family 428 

Hechler, William F 428 

Hecht. Edward C 950 

Hecht, Mrs. Matilda 952 

Heckler, Charles T 1464 

Heckman, Adam M 1539 

Heckman, Daniel W 1113 

Heckman Families .1019, 1112, 1539 

Heckman. Harry A 1112 

Heckman, Harry R 1113 

Heckman, Jeremiah W 1019 

Heckman, Monroe 1019 

Heckman. William A 1614 

Heffelfinger. George W 1693 

Heffner, Abraham 688 

Heffner, Daniel A .616 

Heffner Families 616, 688, 691 

Heffner, Franklin D 691 

Heil, Samuel D 804 

Heil. Mrs. Susanna 804 

Heilig. Mrs. Carolina 1435 

Heilig, Elizabeth M. B 1079 

Heilig, Francis M 1078 

Heilig, Nathaniel 1435 

Heilman, Adam 1385 

Heilman, Charles F 1511 

Hein, James H K647 

Heine, Gregory 869 

Heine, S. Julia 1508 

Heinly, David L 531 

Heinly, Enoch J. ■ 1230 

Heinly Families 620, 1230 

Heinly, Harvey F 619 

Heinly, John E 532' 

Heinly, William 522 

Heins Family 457 

Heins, Mary 457 

Heins, Col. William 457 

Heisler, John 1407 

Heisler, Mary 1407 

Heistand Family 1382 

Heistand, Harvey S 1382 

Heizmann, Albert A 666 

Heizmann, Dr. Charles L 665 

Heizmann, Charles R 665 

Heizmann Family 664 

Heizmann, Theodore 1 655 

Heizmann. William A 666 

Helder, William B 1090 

Heller Families 952, 975 

Heller, F. P 952 

Heller, Henry A 975 

Hemmich, Thomas F 998 

Hemmig Families. . .931, 1013, 1334 

Hemmig, Francis M 1013 

Hemmig, Francis Y 931 

Hemmig, Harrison H 1334 

Hiendel, Mrs. Catharine 648 

Hendel, Daniel J 648 

Hendel, Edwin F 649 

Hendel, Harrison P 648 

Hendel, John 648 

Hendel, George 564 

Hendricks, John S 989 

Hendricks, William H 1440 

Htenne, Charles W '. . . 605 

Heller Families 953, 975 

Henne, Howard F 605 

Hienne, Jacob W 1123 

Henne, Oscar D 466 

Henninger, Hiram L 1018 

Henninger, Hunter 1191 

Henninger, John H 763 

Henry, Amandus E 1664 

Henry, Cyrus G 829 

Henry Families 493, 1338, 1517 

Henry, Rev. Jonas 492 

Henry, Lewis R 1517 

Henry, Prof. Samuel 1 1338 

Hepler, Irvin E 1440 

Hepler, John C 766 

Hiepner. Joseph S 932 

Herb Families 1486, 1710 

Herb, Henry G 1711 

Herb, Hiram 1486 

Herb, Willoughby H 1710 

Herbein. Charles G 1205 

Herbein, Daniel M 1413 

Herbein Families 385, 506, 1413 

Herbein, James B 1413 

Herbein, Rev. M. L 984 

Herbein, Oscar B., M. D. ... 385 

Herbine, Charles 506 

Herbine, Charles W 506 

Herbine, Ezra H 723 

Herbine, John G 1051 

Herbst, Dr. Edwin M 437 

Herbst Family 437 

Herbster, William 1139 

Herman, Charles D 123'6 

Herman Families 613, 1226 

Herman. George C 614 

Herr,' Abram, D. D. S 507 



Herr Family 507 

Hertwig, George H 1050 

Hertwig, H. A 1050 

Hertzog, David 640 

Hertzog. Mrs. Margaret 641 

Hertzog,' William R 1548 

Heston, Augustus 815 

Heston, Mrs. Caroline D 815 

Hettinger, Edwin L 721 

Heydt, Abraham M 1596 

Heydt Families 1407, 1596 

Heydt, Henry B 1596 

Heydt, Isaac F 1407 

Hickman. Glendeur, D. D. S. . . 534 

Hiester, Adam W 1692 

Hiester, Daniel F 977 

Hiester, Edward K 353 

Hiester. Eli E 1403 

Hiester Families 

352, 510, 755, 1061, 1403 

Hiester, Gabriel (1749-18S'4) . . . 756 
Hiester, Gabriel (1779-1834)... 326 

Hiester, Harry K 1061 

Hiester, Isaac 756 

Hiester, Dr. Isaac 757 

Hiester, John A 510 

Hiester, Capt. John A 716 

Hiester, John K 353 

Hiester. Joseph 32'6 

Hiester, Thomas K 353 

Hiester, William M. (1818-1878) 

331, 756, 1692 

High, A. M 381 

High, Charles P 531 

High, Conrad B 1064 

High, David K '617 

High, Ezra 785 

High (Hoch) Families 

381, 617, 1341, 1439, 1582 

High, James M 409 

High, Peter K 1582 

High, Samuel H,. 1584 

High, Brig.-Gen. William 785 

High (Hoch), William M 1439 

High, William P 785 

High, William R 617 

Hilbert. Henry E 1217 

Hildebrand, P. H 1085 

Hill, Charles F 1116 

Hill, Charles S 1632 

Hill, Daniel B 1244 

Hill, Mrs. Emma B 808 

Hill, Ephraim Y 1348 

Hill Families 

914, 1089, 1116, 1348, 1406 

Hill, James M 914 

Hill, James S 807 

Hill, Jonas F 1089 

Hill, Samuel J 1405 

Hiltebeitel. Mrs. Elizabeth 1317 

Hiltebeitel, Jesse 1317 

Himmelberger Family 772 

Himmelberger, Franklin R. . . . 772 

Hine, Charles H 1714 

Hine Family 1714 

Hinkle, Mrs. Amanda 1228 

Hinnershitz, Mrs. Catherine . . 689 
Hinnershitz Families ....689, 1301 

Hinnershitz, Frederick A 689 

Hinnershitz, Peter A 1302 

Hinnershitz, William E. S. ...1302 

Hinnershitz, William R 1087 

Hintz, J. George 1207 

Hipsch, Martin H 1518 

Hirner, Mrs. Chiristiana 722 

Hirner, Henry C 72'2 

Hirshland, Solomon 1202 

Hobart, Nathaniel P 351 

Hoch, Daniel D 1584 

Hoch (High) Families 

381, 617, 1341, 1439, 1582 

Hoch, Gideon A. D 1583 

Hoch, Henry R 1415 

Hoch, Jacob V. R 1585 

Hoch, Maberry S 1585 

Hoch, Martin R 1341 

Hoch, Philip D 15fi3 

Hoch (High), William M 1439 

Hoflfa -Family 1006 

Hoffa. Isaac 1006 

Hoffeditz, Mrs. Clara C 1128 

Hoffeditz Families 1128, 1670 

Hoffeditz, John C 1128 

Hoff ert Families. 1472, 1549 

Hoffert, Moses M 1472 

Hoffert, Nelson 1549 

Hoffman, Charles P 429 

Hoffman. Dr. Christian N. . . . 379 

Hoffman, Mrs. Ellen A 355, 380 

Hoffman Families 

380, 425, 844, 983, 1135, 1362, 1640 

Hoffman, Franklin W 1135 

Hoffman, George R 1640 

Hoffman, Jacob D 425 

Hoffman, John H 1362 

Hoffman, John P 983 

Hoffman, Michael W 1135 

Hoffman, Rev. P. P. A 430 

Hoffman, R. Monroe 445 

Hoffman, Samuel F 844 

Hoffmann, Mrs. Augusta 751 

Hoffmann, Emil 751 

Hoffmaster, Henry 1637 

Hofmann Family 657 

Holl, Elizabeth 684 

Holl, Mrs. Esther 1517 

Boll Families 1159, 1523 

Holl, Henry 1517 

Holl, Mark D 1159 

Holl, Peter S 1523 

Holl. Samuel 684 

Hollenbach, Benjamin F 1405 

Hollenbach, Charles M 1628 

Hollenbach Families 609, 734, 1S82 

Hollenbach, George K. ._. 733 

Hollenbach, Isaac ~ 608 

Hollenbach, Jacob 1282 

Hollenbach. William J 1282 

Hollenback, William S 1021 

Hollis, W. G 700 

Holmes, Joseph W 1111 

Holtry, Mrs. Adeline G 971 

Holtry, Daniel 971 

Holzman, J. Adam 1203 

Homan, Charles A 1303 

Homan Family 130£' 

Homan, John L 1303 

Homan, Samuel 1303 

Honeker, Andrew 607 

Hoover Family 1036 . 

Hoover, Roger S 894 

Hoover, Samuel S 103S 

Hoppes, Charles H 1013 

Hoppes Family 1013 

Hornberger, Charles B 1619 

Hornberger, Cyrus D 1617 

Hornberger Family 1616 

Hornberger, Harry G 1617 

Hornberger, Joseph D 1618 

Hornberger, Josephus S. .....1617 

Horning, Aaron ' . . . .105i6 

Horning, Mrs. Clara 770 

Horning Family 1054 

Horning, Isaac Z 1055 

Horning, Jeremiah lO'iS 

Horning, John B 1056 

Horning, Wesley 770 

Horst, Amos 956 

H/ossler Family 462 

Hossler, Fred B 462 

Hottenstein Family 1076 

Houck Family 1687 

Houck, Hon. Thomas J. R 1687 

Howden, Edward 1032 

Howden, Mrs. Lavina 1033 

Howerter, Samuel K 1375 

Hoyer Families 971, 1093, 1410 

Hoyer, Helen A 1411 

Hoyer, Henry 1410 

Hoyer, Isaac S 971 

Hoyer, Isaiah 1411 

Hoyer, John 1411 

Hoyer, William 1093 

Huber, Charles M 1670 

Huber, Henry 743 

Hubley, Edward B 334 

Huesman, Henry J 1038 

Hull. Charles Barton 971 

Hull: George A 1314 

Humbert, Rev. David K 1226 

Humbert Families 455, 1227 

Humbert, George D 455 

Humma, Henry 1010 

Hunsberger, Charles G 1325 

Hunsicker, B. F 1023 

Hunsicker, Jacob P 1114 

Hunter, Mlartin D 885 

Huntzinger, Benjamin K 1000 

Huntzinger Family 488 

Huntzinger, Rev. Franklin K. . . 488 

Huntzinger, George H 902 

Huy, George F 1231 

Huyett, A. H 449 

Huyett, D. H 369 

Huyett Families 1096, 1496 

Huyett, Harvey T 1498 

Huyett, I. S 369 

Huyett, Irwin W. L 1096 

Huyett, Mrs. Matilda V 1096 

Huyett, M. Luther, M. D. ...1499 
Huyett, Robert P. R., M. D. ... 713 

laeger. Rev. G. F. T 401 

laeger, Mrs. Mary A 402 

laeger, Samuel T 1662 

laeger, Rev. Thomas T 401 

Imhoff. Berthold J 495 

Irwin, William J 1336 

Isett, Dr. Benjamin F 805. 

Isett, J. Frederick, M. D 805 

Jackson, William E 1664 

Jacobs, Mrs. Hannah E 616 

Jacobs, J. Howard 616 

Jacobs, John : 647 

Jacobs, John W 1591 

Jacobs, Mrs. Mary A 647 

Jacobs, 0=win A. H 123S 

- Jaootos, William R 1171 

Jacoby, Conrad 1170 

Jacoby Family 1170 

Janssen, Henry K 371 

Jennings, John A. L 1366 

Je'iberg, Harry D 10''6 

Je=berg, William D 1125 

Johnson Family 1345 

J"hnsnrf, Mrs. Grahame D. ...1572' 
Johnson, Harvey C, D. D. S. ..1305 

Johnson, H. T 1318 

Johnson. Morris Y IS'iS 

Jones, Alfred S 439 

Jones, Amanda G 1095 

Jones, Charles H 754 

Jones, Mrs. Fllen E ' 1178 

Jones Families 

..339, 354, 384, 694, 816. IT'S 
Jones, George M 806 



Jones, J. Glancy 323 

Jones, John P 327 

Jones, Levi G 1470 

Jones, Jonathan 352 

Jones, Capt. Richard H 1177 

Jones, Richmond L 384 

Jones, Samuel 355 

Jones, William H 694 

Kachel, Charles S 905 

Kachel Families 1210, 1400 

Kachel, Henry T 887 

Kachel, Levi 1210 

Kachel, Nathan G 1400 

Kahl Family 948 

Kalbach, Aury E 774 

Kalbach Family 819 

Kalbadh, William A 819 

Kantner Family 408 

Kantner, F. J., M. D 408 

Kapp Families 731, 1184 

Kapp, George J 731 

Kapp, Leonard 1 1184 

Katzenmoyer, Mrs. Mary 762 

Katzenmoyer, William 762 

Kaucher, John R 1322 

Kaucher, William 1438 

Kauffman, Albert W 1711 

Kauffman, Ephraim K 831 

Kauffman Families 634, 830, lOl'l, 1711 

Kauffman, Henry E 1011 

Kauffman, James G 634 

Kauffman, Oliver F 943 

Kaufman, David K 738 

Kaufman, Frank Y 831 

Kaufman, John M 831 

Kaufmann, Albert B 641 

Keehn, Daniel B 999 

Keehn, Peter B 732 

Keeler, Henry E 1512 

Keen, George I., M. D 670 

Keen, Morris R 1215 

Keeport, Amos E 1324 

Kehr, Frederick H 1546 

Kehs, Irwin B '. 1548 

Keim, Mrs. Bettie T 496 

Keim, Mrs. Emma T 405 

Keim Families 328, 1647 

Keim, George de B. (son of 

George May Keim) 496 

Keim, George de B. (son of John 

May Keim) 359 

Keim, Gen. George May 328 

Keim, Henry May 405 

Keim, Mrs. Lillie T 359 

Keim, Mrs. Mary A. R 636 

Keim, Gen. William H 327 

Keim, William M 636 

Keim, William R 1647 

Keinard, David 1107 

Keiser, Henry P 1565 

Keith Family 491 

Keith, Michael K 491 

Kelchner, Daniel F 410 

Kelchner Family 410 

Keller, Mrs. Amelia 1377 

Keller, David C 1702 

Keller Families 1258, 1700 

Kelkr, Irvin K 709 

Keller, Jacob M 1258 

Keller, John G 1702 

Keller, Levi 1377 

Kelso Family 1715 

Kemmerer, Elias R 1564 

Kemmerer Families 1392, 1564 

Kemmerer, Frank K 1392 

Kemmerer, William R 1565 

Kemp, Alfred L 1708 

Kemp, Alvin F 1708 

Kemp, Annie E 1309 

Kemp Families 964, 1707 

Kemp, George 1174 

Kemp, Harvey W 1707 

Kemp, Henry 1708 

Kemp, Pierce G. S 964 

Kemp, William W 1708 

Kennedy, Edwin 1241 

Kennedy, William H 918 

Kepner, Charles E 831 

Keppel, Mrs. Eva M 1450 

Keppel, Samuel B 1449 

Keppelman, Albert 1441 

Keppelman Family 507 

Keppelman, John H 507 

Kercher, George S 1631 

Kern, Mrs. Elizabeth 578 

Kern Family 578 

Kern, Franklin Boone 578 

■ Kern, Harrison T 1158 

Kern, John J 1164 

Kern, Milton 1248 

Kerper, William F 767 

Kershner, A. M 1372 

Kershner, Edwin 1118 

Kershner Families 867, 1118 

Kershner, James P 699 

Kershner, Lewis P 867 

Kershner, Mrs. Mary A 868 

Kerst, Henry A 1577 

Kerst, Samuel W 1338 

Kessler Family 811 

Kessler, Jacob C 1059 

Kessler, Miss Mary C 811 

Kessler, William A 811 

Kieffer, E. C, M. D 1492 

Kieffer, Lewis M 915 

KiUian, Monroe C 1149 

Killian, Mrs. Sue S 1149 

Kilmer, Levi A 1103 

Kindt, Charles D. B 1167 

King, William D 1677 

Kintzer, David M 894 

Kintzer Families 873, 894, 1330, 1369 

Kintzer, Mrs. Elizabeth E 895 

Kintzer, George 895 

Kintzer, Isaac Y 1369 

Kintzer, John A 1330 

Kintzer, Mrs. Matilda 874 

Kintzer, Michael 873 

Kirby Family 818 

Kirby, Stanly J 818 

Kirk, Nicholas H 1666 

Kirkhoff, Jacob G.. . . : 1482 

Kissinger, A. N 503 

Kissinger Families 

503, 644, 844, 1229, 1244, 1399, 1443 

Kissinger, Harvey D 1443 

Kissinger, Mrs. Henrietta Z 1224 

Kissinger, Henry G 1229 

Kissinger, Isaac 1043 

Kissinger, Jacob 844 

Kissinger, John 1399 

Kissinger, John M 1224 

Kissinger, Washington S 503 

Kistler, Rev. Charles E 1144 

Kitchin, Dr. Elias C 453 

Kitchin Family 453 

Klapp, Mrs. Elizabeth 724 

Klapp, Joseph G 723 

Klee Family 820 

Klee, William S 820 

Klein, Rev. Daniel R 954 

Klein, James M 954 

Kleinginna, Adam L 1667 

Kleinginna Family 1667 

Kleinginna, Prof. George L. . . 506 
Kleinginna, George S 1300 

Kleinginna, Peter S 1667 

Kleinginni, B. Franklin 475 

Kleinginni Family 475 

Kleinginni, Sallie 475 

Kleinschmidt, John C 941 

Klemmer, Benneville 1025 

Klemmer, Joseph A 1171 

Kline, Albert W 1509 

Kline, Mrs. Catherine 769 

Kline, David C, M. D 655 

Kline Families 

530, 655, 833, 1201, 1223, 1343, 
1409, 1452, 1509 

Kline, Frank 1098 

Kline, Harry 530 

Kline, Rev. Harry C 605 

Kline, H. Nathan 1223 

Kline, Jerome 1 1409 

Kline, John S 833 

Kline, Joseph G 769 

Kline. J. W 1343 

Kline, Mahlon 716 

Kline, Mahlon N 776 

Kline, Morgan W 1107 

Kline. Morris H 1201 

Kline, Peter S 833 

Kline, Samuel B 1452 

Kline, Simon 1673 

Klinger Families 877, 1030 

Klinger, Isaac B 877 

Klinger. John W 1030 

Klobs (Close) Family 1686 

Klopp, Andrew J 1689 

Klopp, Cyrus P 979 

Klopp, Edwin J 1691 

Klopp Families 979, 1688 

Klopp, Irwin D 1691 

Klopp, Isaac P 1689 

Klusewitz, Mrs. Elizabeth 1201 

Klusewitz, Lawrence M 1489 

Klusewitz, Matthias 1200 

Knabb, Daniel Y 856 

Knabb, Mrs. Ellen M 568 

Knabb Families 568, 856, 1312 

Knabb, Jacob 568 

Knabb, Mrs. M'alinda C. 857 

Knabb, Peter H 1312 

Knapp, George 773 

Knapp, George, Sr 595 

Knapp. Mrs. Mary 773 

Knetz, Mrs. Abigail 1543 

Knetz, John 1543 

Knittle Family 972 

Knittle, Jonathan S 972 

Knoll Families 1070, 1631 

Knojl, John L. J 1631 

Knoll, J. Michael 1070 

Knoske Family 404 

Koch Families 1033, 1050 

Koch, Henry H 1050 

Koch, J. Clinton D 1033 

Kioch, Johannes 1232 

Koch, John Peter 1401 

Koch, Samuel 1233 

Koch, William 1360 

Kochel, Samuel H 1130 

Kohl Family 1008 

Kohl, Henry 1156 

Kohl, Henry B 1008 

Kohl. Milton S 1009 

Kohl, Nathan S 1009 

Kohl, Nelson S ...1009 

Kohler, A. Charles 1172 

Kohler, Dr. Daniel R 833 

Kohler, David A 821 

Kohler Families 821, 822 

Kolb, J. Adam 1111 

Koller Families 850, 1396 

Koller, Owen H 1395 



Koller, Solomon S 850 

Komp Family 673 

Komp, David 673 

Koser Family... < 587 

Koser, Ralph S 1677 

Kraemer, Adolph 530 

Kraemer, Louis 349 

Kraemer, Louis F 348 

Kramer, Albert F 700 

Kramer, Daniel F 873 

Kramer Families 

737, 871, 994, 1168, 1532 

Kramer, Frank D...^ 994 

Kramer, George F 872 

Kramer. Henry F 1532 

Kramer, Milton H 1168 

Kramlich, Rev. Benjamin E...1608 

Kramlich, Prof. George E 1608 

Kramlich, Rev. John F 1608 

Kramlich. Mrs. Sophia B 1608 

Kramlich. Rev. William W....l!608 

Krauss, Curtis E 1124 

Kreider Family 596 

Kreider, Milton C 596 

Kremp, Edward S 408 

Kremp Family 408 

Kremp, Joseph P 1241 

Kremp, Mrs. Laura A. M 1241 

Kremp, Louis 1242' 

Kreps, Frank L 779 

Kressley, Rev. George S 516 

Krick, Anna S 631 

Krick, Daniel H 1071 

Krick Families ..529, 627, 1143, 1488 

Krick, Henry B 630 

Krick. Jacob B 628 

Krick. James M 1143 

Krick, Joel H 529 

Krick, John 1 1488 

Krick, Mrs. Mary A 1139 

Krick, Richard B 630 

Krick, Rev. Thomas H 629 

Krick, Wellington B 792 

Krick, William F 629 

Krick, William R 1366 

Kriebel, Andrew G 1473 

Kriebel, Allen S 775 

Kriebel, Howard W 1118 

Kriebel Families 775, 1367, 1473, 1664 

Kriebel, Jonas S 1367 

Kriebel, Lewis G 1664 

Kriebel, Rev. Dr. Oscar S 775 

Kroninger Family 1022 

Kroninger, Theodore J 1022 

Krum, Wilson P 915 

Kuhns. James A .1183 

Kulp, Milton 1483 

Kulp, Solomon 1483 

Kunkel Families 794, 1394 

Kunkel, Nathan 794 

Kunkel, William 1394 

Kupp, D. Webster B., M. D... 592 

Kupp Family 592 

Kurfess, Frank A 1154 

Kurtz, Abram S 1068 

Kurtz, Adam 5i90 

Kurtz, Adam A 1125 

Kurtz, B. Frank 1552' 

Kurtz Families 399, 590, 1068 

-1079, 1125, 1331, 1415, 1552 

Kurtz, Mrs. John 1642 

Kurtz. Dr. J. E 661 

Kurtz, John B 1415 

Kurtz-, John B. (Reading) 1694 

Kurtz, Kauffman C 1331 

Kurtz, Reuben L 1079 

Kurtz, Samuel ( 1235 

Kurtz. Samuel L., M. D 399 

Kurtz, William S 1235 

Kutz, Benneville 1193 

Kutz, Bernard L 727 

Kutz, Calvin J 727 

Kutz, Charles W 1192 

Kutz, Cosmos D 1194 

Kutz, Daniel B 1193 

Kutz, Daniel S 1195 

Kutz, Edwin S 1192 

Kutz Families 406, 1191 

Kutz, Franklin S 119S' 

Kutz, Ira G 1193 

Kutz, John J 406 

Kutz, Nicholas J 1193 

Kutz, Samuel D 1193 

Kutz, S. Jairus 727 

Kutz, William S 1195 

Lacey, Theodore R 1106 

Ladd, Mrs. Amanda S ,...1152 

Ladd, Samuel W 1152 

Lamm, Charles F 884 

Lamm Family 884 " 

Lamm. Lewis F 884 

Landis' Families 381, 1279 

Landis, Harrison 380 

Landis, Homer L 1280 

Landis, John H 1426 

Landis, Levi S 724 

Landis, Oliver M 745 

Landis, Reuben T 1279 

Landis, Samuel 1426 

Landis, S. Edward 1439 

Lash, George H 594 

Lash, Mrs. Mary A 594 

Latshaw, Adam 594 

Latshaw, David 514 

Latshaw, David H 5«14 

Latshaw, George 514 

Latshaw Families 513, 593 

Latshaw, Harvey H 513 

Latshaw, Howard 594 

Latshaw, Jacob S 514 

Latshaw, John H 513 

Latshaw, Samuel B 514 

Latshaw, Samuel H 513 

Lattemann, Frederick A 1141 

Lauer, Franklin P 783 

Lauer, Frederick 783 

Laueir, George i- . . .; 784 

Lauer, Mrs. Mary 784 

Lauer Monument 784 

Lauer, Solomon E 1450 

Lauter, Gerhard 1512 

Lawrence, Edward 1458 

Lawrence, Richard L 1322 

Leader, Adam H 594 

Leader Family 594 

Leaver. Effinger W 1S37 

Lechner Families 882, 1297 

Lechner, Hamlin Y 1297 

Lechner, Richard 882 

Lechner, Wallace L 1297 

Leedom, George W 991 

Leedom, John 991 

Lefevre Family 380 

Lefevre, Levi E 380 

LeFevre, R. E., M. D 1377 

Leh, Ephraim M 1463 

Lehman Family 1109 

Lehman. Sarah E 1109 

Leibelsperger, Adam K 1332 

Leibelsperger Family 1644 

Leibelsperger, Joel M 1644 

Leibold Family 1392 

Leibold, James 1392 

Leidy, Albert S 643 

Leidy Families 643, 1464 

Leidy, Frank G 1464 

Leinbach, Rev. Aaron S 1260 

Leinbach, A. Ellsworth 379 

Leinbach, Albert 769 

Leinbach, Mrs. Ann E 1263 

Leinbach, Benjamin F ...1342' 

Leinbach, B. Franklin (Read- 
ing) 1380 

Leinbach, Calvin A 1108 

Leinbach, Charles H 695 

Leinbach, Daniel G 625 

Leinbach Families ....518, 582, 593, 

625, 862, 1108, 1258, 1337, 1343 

Leinbach, George A 592 

Leinbach, James B 582' 

Leinbach, J. Calvin 1337 

Leinbach, Jonathan G 720 

Leinbach, Joseph L 1519 

Leinbach, Llewellyn 1262 

Leinbach. Mahlon A 1211 

Leinbach, Peter M 862 

Leinbach, Rev. Samuel A ia'59 

Leinbach, Rev. Thomas C 1259 

Leinbach, Tyler 1260 

Leinbach, William 1260 

Leininger, Albert G 1046 

Leininger, Charles 818 

Leininger Families 999, 1044 

Leininger, George H , 1045 

Leininger, Howard S 1045 

Leininger, Irwin G 999 

Leininger, Isaac G 1045 

Leininger, William G 1046 

Leippe, Charles E 681 

Leitheiser, Charles 1105 

Lencke, Mrs. Alice 1086 

Lencke, Henry 1086 

Lengel Families 855, 1331 

Lengel. Jerome C. 1206 

Lengel, Joel S 1331 

Lengel, William W 1468 

Lenhart, Elmer T. . . .- 1680 

Lenhart Families 819, 1626, 1627, 1680 

Lenhart, Mrs. Missouri 1680 

Lenhart, Samuel H 1626 

Lenhart, Solomon H 819 

Lerch, George W IIS'S 

Lesher, Allen R 703 

Lesher, Augustus A 920 

Lesher Families 

703, 919, 1121, 1143, 1190, 1513 

Lesher, Franklin W 919 

Lesher, Oscar L 1142 

Lesher, William W 1513 

Lessig, Cyrus 1225 

Levan, Abraham F 1084 

Levan, Cyrus B 878 

Levan, Elizabeth H 1546 

Levan, Mrs. Emma 980 

Levan Families 

494, 608, 878, 

957, 1048, 1052, 1066, 1388, 1491 

Levan, Francis L 1160 

Levan, Francis W 1066 

Levan, Dr. George K 1389 

Levan, George K 1190 

Levan, Harry E 1414 

Levan, Henry B 494 

Levan, Isaac B 1049 

Levan, Jacob B 1052 

Levan, Jacob K 1546 

Levan, James B 1388 

Levan, John S 1491 

Levan,, John Y 980 

Levan, Joseph H 878 

Levan, Mrs. Kate 1663 

Levan, Mrs. Mary E 1414 

Levan, Nathan E 957 

Levan, Walton G 608 

Levan, Wellington R 1663 

Levan, William J 1121 

Levan, William S 909 



Levari, William Y 1048 

Levengood, Andrew J., 1630 

Levengood, William B 1163 

Lewis, Mrs. Anna E 979 

Lewis, Charles A 979 

Lewis, Mrs. Emma E 1384 

Lewis, John H 1447 

Lewis, John P 1522 

Lewis, Mirs. Mary E 1523 

Lewis, Samuel P 1384 

Leymaster Brothers 1490 

Leymaster, Charles 1490 

Leymaster, William 1490 

Lichtenwallner, John 1450 

Lichtenwalner, Dr. Milton D. . . 674 

Lieb, Aaron L. 908 

Lieb Families 908, 926 

Lieb, Nathaniel W 926 

Ligh'tf oot, Jasper Y 916 

Lincoln, Abraham, Berks Coun- 
ty Ancesitry 324 

Lincoln Families 

324, 597, 1147 

Lincoln, Richard G 1147 

Lindenmuth, Rev. Anson W. ..1646 

Lindenmuth Family 1646 

•Linderman Families " 806, 1314 

Linderman, George K 806 

Linderman! Warren F; 1314 

Link, William 1524 

Litschi, Charles 769 

Livingood, Mrs. Anna H 343 

Livingood, Charles J 1227 

Livingood, Frank S 66S 

Livingood, Jacob B 1251 

Livingood, William H 343 

Livingood, W. W., M. D 1305 

Lochman, Conrad 838 

Loder, Joseph 1320 

Long, Rev. A. Johnson 5i05 

Long Families ..505, 700, 1123, 1383 

Long, Frank B 1383 

Long, Henry W 615 

Long, Joel 615 

Long, Marcus 700 

Long. Thomas 1122 

Lord, Cyrus 690 

Lord. Luther W 1673 

Lott, William K 1390 

Lotz, Casper H 592 

Lotz Families 350, 591, 671 

Lotz, George E 593 

Lotz, Col. Nicholas 350 

Lotz, Philip H '. 671 

Lowe, Lewis N 685 

Loy, Phaon 1124 

Loy, Walter J 1030 

Loy, Walter S 738 

Luckenbill. Cyrus IS'53 

Luckenbill Families 1253, 1466, 1551 

Luckenbill, Thomas 1551 

Luckenbill, Thomas R 1466 

Luden, William H 768 

Ludwig, Brooke 1079 

Ludwig, Charles R 1311 

Ludwig, Clayton C 1123 

Ludwig Families 1079, 1310 

Ludwig, James M 1310 

Ludwig, Philip D '. . 1310 

Luft, Benjamin 1484 

Luigard, Edward 1488 

Luken, Harry J 1108 

Luppold Family 518 

Luppold, William H 518 

Lutz, Allen 1271 

Lutz. Charles A 1271 

Lutz Families 1143, 1270 

Lutz, George K 1069 

-Lutz, George W 1270 

Lutz, John C 1270 

Lutz, John F 1141 

Lutz, Wellington L 1371 

Lutz,' William B 1143 

McCauley, Patrick J 1140 

McCormick, William 515 

McCullough, Joseph 1 1441 

McCulIougb, Michael 1441 

McDonough, Mrs. Mary A 1170 

McGowan, Allison F 718 

McGowan, non. Howard G. ..1658 

McGowan, James 1331 

McGowan, J. Wallace R 1434 

McGowan, Mrs. Louisa 719 

McHose, Isaac 1316 

McKittrick, Robert 525 

McKnight Family 367 

McKnight, Mrs. Lydia A 1717 

McKnight, Milton B 3i57 

McKnight, William S 1717 

McLean Family 510 

McLean, James B 1337 

McLean, William F 510 

McLenegan, John A 705 

McLenegan, Mrs. Mary A 706 

McM'urtrie Family 335 

McNurney, John J 1398 

Machemer, Henry L 1634 

Machemer, Henry S 1636 

Machemer, Joseph B 1654 

Machmer, Charles H 771 

Machmer Family 771 

Madeira, Ambrose B 1167 

Madeira. Charles S 1165 

Madeira Families ...939, 1167, 1645 

Madeira, Lee D 1645 

Madeira, Levi 1645 

Madeira, Robert W 996 

Maiden Creek Hosiery Co 1656 

Mallery, Garrick 350 

M'altzberger, Charles C 1319 

Maltzberger, ' Emma E 1375 

Maltzberger Family 474 

Maltzberger, George R 474 

Maltzberger, Henry 438 

Maltzberger, Levi 1374 

Maltzberger, Mrs. Margaret C. 1319 

Malusecki, Rev. Adalbert 847 

Mannerback, William A 1141 

Manwiller, Daniel H 15i85 

Man wilier Families 1047, 1585 

Manwiller, Irvin N 1047 

March, Isaac F 485 

March, Mrs. Sarah R 485 

Markert. Geo. A 1415 

Markley, Mrs. Amanda E 618 

Markley, D. Frank 618 

Markley, Frank A 618 

Marks, George W 1233 

Marks. Howard F 1034 

Marks, Dr. William F 1400 

Marquett, John G. H 967 

Marquett. Mrs. Mary R 967 

Martin, Adam S 598 

Marx Family 463 

Martin Family 598 

Marx, Frederick A 463 

Massey, Dr. Franklin F 1495 

Mast Families 

1028, 1143, 1508, 1564 

Mast, George L 1508 

Mast, Heber 1488 

Mast, John H 1143 

Mast. John R 1564 

Mast, Levi ; 1028 

Mattern, F. L. R., M. D 1651 

Matternes Family 504 

Matternes, James G., M. D 504 

Matthew, John A 414 

Mathias Family 652' 

Mathias, Morris M 653 

Matthias, John S 639 

Matthias, William C 1310 

Matz (Motz) Families ..1189, 1428 

Matz, Isaac 1427 

Matz, James ' 1189 

Mauger, David B 527 

Maugcr. David F 527 

Mauger, Mrs. D. L 1191 

Mauger, Daniel R 1678 

Mauger Families 538, 1678 

Mauger, Samuel B .' 1678 

Maurer, Charles A 933 

Maurer, Dominic 663 

Maurer Families 663, 923, 1007 

Maurer, Franklin 1008 

Maurer, Isaac 763 

May Family 32'9 

May, James 329 

Mayer. Samuel C 5i93 

Mays Families 996, 1110 

Mays, H. Robert 1494 

Mays, Jacob H 1110 

Mays, William H 996 

Meek, Benjamin 817 

Meek Families 641, 841 

Meek, Jacob R 817 

Meek, Randolph S 641 

Meek. Samuel H 841 

MeckstrotJh Family 808 

Meckstroth, William L 808 

Mee, Francis H 772 

Megerly, Charles 1470 

Meharg Family 886 

Meharg, George F 886 

Meinholtz, Conrad 974 

Meinig, E. Richard 482 

Meitzler, Frank E 1111 

Melcher Family 1095 

Melcher. George W 1096 

Melcher, John R 1597 

Melcher, Nicholas 1095 

Mell, John ' 1356 

Mellert, Albert H 1668 

Mellert, John H 1084 

Mellert, Mrs. Ludema 687 

Miellert. Magnus 687 

Melot, Morris B 1097 

Mengel, David G 982 

Mengel, Ephraim 1333 

Mengel Families 

460, 520, 968, 982, 1334, 1476 

Mengel, J. Hain 1305 

Mengel, K. Laura 968 

Mengel, Martin R 743 

Mengel. Melancthon 1476 

Mengel, Ralph H. ..■ 460 

Mengel, Solomon 968 

Mercer. James B 1494 

Merckel (Merkel) Families 

598, 618, 789, 1071, 1541 

Merkel, Augustus P 1541 

Merkel, David 589 

Merkel, Elias ) 791 

Merkel Families 

589, 618, 789, 1071, 1541 

Merkel, Elwood S 792 

Merkel, Esther H 791 

Merkel, James J 1071 

Merkel. James R 618 

Merkel, John E 790 

Merkel, Mrs. Sallie M 590 

Merkel, Titus S 790 

Merkel, William D 790 

Merkel, William S 791 

Merkel, Wilson C 791 


Merkel, Wilson W 790 

Merkel, Zacharias K 791 

Merkey Family 987 

Merkey, Joseph M 988 

Merritt, Thomas P 480 

Mertz, Allen G 1058 

Mertz, Elias Y 1614 

Mertz Families 1059, 1614 

Mertz, Mrs. Florenda 763 

Mertz, G. Fred 1404 

Mertz, Isaac . 763 

Mervine, Moses ! . 1519 

Messner. Archibald 1538 

Miller, Albert G 936 

Miller, Amandon M 1641 

Miller, Rev. Dr. Benneville H. 802 

Miller, Charles J. i 1451 

Miller, Clayton I , 1063 

Miller, Cyrus A 1538 

Miller, Daniel 1174 

Miller, Daniel H 599 

Miller Families 

441, 463, 599, 671, 676. 803, 867. 

889, 947, 1017, 1063, 1337, 1313, 

1352. 1449, 1451, 1467, 1537, 

1538, 1611, 1621, 1641 

Miller, Franklin K '603 

Miller, Prof. Franklin P 1612 

Miller, George 1449 

Miller, George J 1527 

Miller, George W. 1549 

Miller. G. Wilson 1437 

Miller, Harry R 1467 

Miller, Harvey A 1020 

Miller, Henry G 132'5 

Miller, James M 1313 

Miller. J. Jerome 1053 

Miller, John H. (Werners- 

ville) 889 

Miller, John H. (Topfion) 463 

Miller. John J 836 

Miller, J. Milton 573 

Miller, Jonathan B 1353 

Miller, Jonathan H 698 

Miller, Joshua L 671 

Miller, Lafayette 1621 

Miller, Levi M 1017 

Miller, Lewis 1240 

Miller, Lewis F 867 

Miller, Martin L., M. D 830 

Miller. Mrs. Matilda 1549 

Miller, Peter S 1613 

Miller, Mrs. Rebecca S 112'3 

Miller, Samuel 676 

Miller, Samuel F 359 

Miller, Solomon S 1227 

Miller, WilHam A 1611 

Miller, W. Oscar 441 

Miller, William W 1244 

Mills, W. E 686 

Minkhouse, Albert 1551 

Minnich, Charles 1339 

Minnioh Family 1339 

Mishler, John D 696 

Missimer, John D 442 

Mitchell, Augustus D 1470 

Mogel, Albert F 1316 

Mogel Families 636, 1316 

Mogel, Dr. Peter S 636 

Mohn, Benjamin 527 

Mohn Family 728 

Mohn, Rev. Henry V 896 

Mohn, Jeremiah G 728 

Mohn, J. G. & Brothers 7?;9 

Mohn, John G 729 

Mohn, Richard 739 

Mohn, Samuel K 730 

Mohn, Wesley D 527 

Mohn, William H 729 

Mohr, Edwin F 374 

Mohr, John H 1391 

Mohr, Raymond 373 

Mohr, Susannah M 1393 

Mohr, William S 714 

Moll, Charles L 545 

Moll Family 843 

Moll, William B 843 

Monier, William S 1684 

Montgomery, Morton L...!... 402 

Moore, A. B 1441 

Moore, M'rs. Amanda 1535 

Moore, George K 1317 

Moore, Geo'rge L 1493 

Moore, James 1535 

Moore, John W 1088 

Morgan Family ■... 355 

Morgan, Jacob 355 

Morgan, Thomas H 1027 

Morret, H. Eckert, M. D 1333 

Morris, Edward J 545 

Morris Families 545, 1507 

Morris, William 15i07 

Moser, A. Monroe 1155 

Moser, Calvin D 1035 

Moser, Edwin L 566 

Moser Families 

566, 915, 1138, 1212, 1688 

Moser, George B 915 

Moser, Henry G 1688 

Moser, Howard L 1212 

Moser, Samuel H 1330 

Mosser, Benneville G 1473 

Mosser, Daniel A 1128 

Mosser. Franklin G 1347 

Mosser, John G 1539 

Motz (Matz) Family 1428 

Mould, Jonathan 704 

Mountz Family 1542 

Mountz, Henry 1543 

Moyer, Adam F 1650 

Moyer, Alfred K 1066 

Moyer, Charles G 1210 

Moyer Families 714, 814, 859, 996, 

997, 1027, 1066, 1067, 1374, 
1296, 1514, 1650, 1696 

Moyer. Frederick 906 

Mtoyer, George B 1514 

Moyer, George L 996 

Moyer. Jaco'b 859 

Moyer, Jacob B 1067 

Moyer, Jeremiah H 1274 

Moyer, John E 715 

Moyer, Joseph H 1374 

Moyer, Joseph H. (deceased) . . 604 

Moyer, Joseph 814 

Moyer, Joseph Y 814 

Moyer, Luther 1547 

Moyer, Mahlon A 715 

Moyer, Mrs. Margaret C 604 

Moyer, Nathaniel 1396 

Moyer, Peter, Sr 1027 

Moyer, Tobias H 1374 

Moyer, William' 1404 

Moyer, Wil'iam H 609 

M'oyer, William J 139'; 

Moyer, Wilson E 997 

Muhlenberg. Charles P 793 

Muhlenberg, Henry A. (1) 440 

Muhlenberg, Henry A. (2) 780 

Muhlenberg, Henry A. (3) 783 

Muhlenberg, Hiester H., M. D. 780 
Muhlenberg, Dr. William F 35i4 

Naftzinger Family 470 

Naftzinger, Jacob E 471 

Naftzinger, Peter E 471 

Nagle Family 672 

Nagel, Col. George 434 

Nagel, Capt. Peter 434 

Nagle, Hiester M., M. D 673 

Nagle, Mrs. L 673 

Neff, Mrs. Lizzie N 503 

Nein, David D 1586 

Nein, William R 1671 

Newcomet, Dr. Isaac W 1384 

Newcomet, Mrs. Sarah K 963 

Newcomet, William W 962 

Ne wkirk, Harry E 1431 

Newman, Newton R 1610 

Nice, Benjamin, M. D 1644 

Nice Families 946, 1644 

Nice, Frank M., M. D 946 

Nice, Dr. Franklin B 503 

Nicks, David L 549 

Nicks Family 549 

Nicks, Henry R 549 

NicoUs, Mrs. Anne H 782 

NicoUs, Frederick W 781 

Nicolls, Gustavus A 520 

Niethammer Family 393 

Niethammer. John G 393 

Nolan, Edward C 577 

Nolan, James 456 

Nolan, William 448 

Nolan, William, Jr 576 

Nolde, Jacob 600 

Noll. Harry N 1077 

Noli; William H 1413 

Northeimer, John E 1434 

Northeimer, Oliver L 1434 

Nunemacher, Lloyd M 1349 

Nyce, Percival C 807 

Oberholtzer Family 426 

Oberholtzer, Jacob B 426 

Oberlin Family 533 

Oberlin, Thomas J 5.33 

Obold Families 597, 1196 

Obold, Harold 1196 

Obold. John H 597 

O'Brien, Harry L 1070 

Odeair Family 863 

Odeair, William S 863 

O'Harra. Isaac H 843 

O'Harra, Mrs. Maria J 843 

Ohnmacht, Adam A 1481 

Ohnmacht, Samuel S 1479 

Ohnmacht, William S 1478 

Oneaill Family 602 

Oneaill, James 602 

O'Reilly Family 385 

O'Reilly, Joseph P 385 

O'Reilly, Mrs. Sallie 1331 

Orr Family 407 

Orr, J. Allison 407 

Orth. A. R 645 

Oswald, Benjamin 1641 

Otto Family 930 

Otto, Harry W 732 

Otto, Henry M 92-0 

Otto, Jacob 731 

Otto, Mrs. S. A 920, 9^0 

Oxenreiter, John S 935 

Paine, Allen C 13'"i7 

Painter, George W 1466 

Painter, J^^hn R 833 

Painter. Mrs. Rebecca 824 

Palm, Milton S 1175 

Palmer-Poroner, F 1510 

Pannehecker (Pennypacker) 

Families 396, 1317 

Parker, J. Heber urs 

Parvin. Mordecai S g^S 

Paul, Harry T 1531 

Paxson, Levi B 3R6 

Pearson, John S 934 



Peif er, Daniel N 860 

Peifer Families 860, 1528 

Peifer. George N 860 

Peifer, Peter 1528 

Peifer, Robert L 1528 

Peiff er, Charles S 1065 

Peiflfer Family 1065 

Peipher, Jacob S 1313 

Pengelly, Edward 533 

Pennebacker, Adam M 1218 

Pennebacker, Richard H 1217 

Pennepacker, AmoS" B 396 

Pennypacker (Pannebecker) 

Families 396, 1217 

Penrose, George D. 356 

Penrose, Mrs. Kate M 356 

Penta & Radnazzo 1127 

Pepper, Harlan N..- 1523 

Perkiomen Seminary 776 

Peters Family. .' 134S 

Peters. Jacob 1343 

Phillips. Charles S., M. D 709 

Phillips Families 710, 1068 

Phillips, Frank 1514 

Phillips. Irwin Y 1068 

Pilgert Family 1014 

Pilgert, Henry P 1014 

Planer, George 959 

Plank, Charles M 467 

Plank, Isaac 976 

Plank. J. L 1552 

Plowfield, Frank 1346 

Pohlig. Louis 747 

Poole, Ernest J 1636 

Porter, Robert 356 

Pott, William 1469 

Potteiger, Abraham L 1594 

Potteiger, Albert 1594 

Potteiger, Albert S 1595 

Potteiger. Amos W 644 

Potteiger, Charles E 1595 

Potteiger, Charles W 1595 

Potteiger Families 644, 1593 

Potteiger, Howard W 1615 

Potteiger, Samuel N 644 

Potteiger. Samuel 1595 

Potteiger, Webster J 1594 

Potter Family 334 

Potter, William 333 

Potts, Andrew J 1603 

Potts Families 845, 1603 

Potts, Howard J 797 

Potts, Mrs. Susan M 845 

Potts, William H. R 845 

Price, Edward C 1028 

Price Family ; 1028 

Price, Henry 698 

Price, Josiah E 1608 

Price, Lizzie V 1522 

Printz, Daniel F 640 

Printz, John C 651 

Printz, Mrs. Lavinia C 651 

Printzenhoff Family 435 

Printzenhoiif, Henry F 435 

Prutzman, Asaph 808 

Prutzman, Mrs. Margaretta M. 808 

Prutzman, Walter 1138 

Purdy, W. A 1699 

Putt, George 733 

Quier, Edwin A 472. 713 

Quimby, Allen G 1007 

Quimby Family 1006 

Quinter, F. H 1199 

Raab, George 1175 

Raab, George J 1072 

Raab. Charles T 1175 

Radenbach, John 1456 

Radenbach, Rebecca 1456 

Radnazzo (P^nita & Radnazzo) 1127 

Rahn Families 857, 1483 

Rahn, John W 1483 

Rahn, Merkel M 1537 

Rahn, Wilson M 857 

Ramer, James H 684 

Ranck Family 702 

Ranck, H. Herbert 703 

Rankin, Robert A 1115 

Rapp, Eli M 1269 

Rapp. John W 751 

Rafhje Family 1667 

Rathje, William 1667 

Rathman, Amos S 1029 

Rathman, Howard C 980 

Raubenhold Family 891 

Raubenhold, Walter M 891 

Ranch, David B 1344 

Rauch Families 517, 1328, 1344 

Rauch, Frank 1 538 

Rauch, James M 1344 

Rauch, John W 517 

Rauch, Wellington H 1328 

Raudenbush, Dr. Abraham S... 687 
Raudenbush, Dr. Charles H. . 614 

Raudenbush, Richard B 1563 

Rauenzahn Family 719 

Rauenzaihn, Harry S 720 

Rauenzahn, Henry B 720 

Rauenzahn, William B 719 

Ravel. George A 503 

Reber, Albert D 1043 

Reber, Conrad S., M. D 1056 

Reber, Commodore V 1043 

Reber Families 343, 

1043, 1056, 1239, 1255, 1298, 1320 

Reber, Henry C. G 1321 

Reber, Henry M 1299 

Reber, Horatio K 1562 

Reber, Ira J. J 1240 

Reber, James B 910 

Reber. James T 343 

Reber, Mrs. Mary A 15S2 

Reber, Morris B 896 

Reber, Samuel M. 1254 

Reber, Simplecius. .' 766 

Reber, Solomon R 1299 

Redcay Family 667 

Redcay. James Elias 668 

Redcay, William D 1472 

Reed, Capt. Edward F 660 

Reed, Elmer F 590 

Reed Families 

590, 660, 848, 898, 906, 1450 

Reed, Dr. John H 847 

Reed, Thomas W 906 

Reed, Wayne A 898 

Reed. William A 1450 

Reedy Families 877, 900 

Reedy. Franklin 900 

Reedy, Henry 877 

Reedy, J. Thomas K 897 

Reeser, Abraham F 652 

Reeser, Charles C : 1462 

Reeser, Daniel H 1372 

Reeser, Eugene S 1426 

Reeser Families 

652, 876, 886, 1136, 1371, 1463, 1684 

Reeser, Jacob H 1371 

Reeser, James D 1684 

Reeser, Jarius H 887 

Reeser, Jerome P 1136 

Reeser, Levi 876 

Reeser, William D 887 

Reichert, J. H 667 

Reichwine, Penrose L 1157 

Reidenauer Families 1148, 1543, 1587 
Reidenauer. Harrison M 1588 

Reidenauer, Mahlon M 1588 

Reidenauer, William B 1587 

Reidenouer, Jonas B 1148 

Reider, Daniel T 1485 

Reider, Daniel Q 970 

Reiff Family 1685 

Reiff, Charles 1686 

Reiflf, Lot W 168!6 

Reiff, William M 1073 

Reifsnyder, Mrs. Annie G 597 

Reifsnyder Family 1361 

Reifsnyder. Frank K 1148 

Reifsnyder, John F 596 

Reifsnyder, Samuel S 1361 

Reigner, S. Y 1406 

Reimer, Marx 917 

Reinart, Mrs. Catharine 609 

Reinert, David M 1424 

Reinert, Franklin B 1201 

Reinert, Henry H 676 

Reinert. Samuel B 1102 

Reinhart, Charles 835 

Reiniger, Daniel J 1£'34 

Reinhart Family 835 

Reitenauer, Irwin G 1471 

Reitnauer, John A 1543 

Remp, Aaron K 992 

Remp Family 1345 

Remp, Henry E 1344 

Remp, Samuel K 992 

Renninger, David 1139 

Renninger. James H 1058 

Rentschler, Albert 1471 

Renitschler Families. .903, 1074, 1471 

Rentschler, John F. 903 

Rentschler. Morris F 1074 

Rentz. C. Milton 1355 

Reppert, Charles B 1253 

Rhein Families 1123, 1623 

Rhein. Henry S 1623 

Rhein, J. G 762 

Rhein, Mrs. Mary E 762 

Rhoads, Ambrose L 1126 

Rhoads, Ben J 4Si 

Rhoads, Calvin S 1713 

Rhoads, Catharine E 1268 

Rhoads, Charles S ; 449 

Rhoads. Daniel L 1268 

Rhoad,, Dani"' P 1417 

Rhoads, Elam H 1S46 

Rhoads CRoth) Families 427, 449, 
481, 670, 1076, 1268, 1288, 1485 

Rhoads, Henry 1417 

Rhoads, Henry E 670 

Rhoads, Henry W 1336 

Rhoads, Jacob H 1076 

Rhoads, James F 4''7 

Rhoads, J. Newton 707 

Rhoads. John G 4«3 

Rhoads, Newton 1 1"S9 

Rhoads, Dr. Reuben B isqn, 

Rhoads, Dr. Thomas J. B IZ^n 

Rhoads, William L 1''89 

Rhoads, William R 1268 

Rhode, Arus 11 in 

Rhode, Cyrus J 12R 

Rhode Families 428, 1140, l-^o 

Rhode, Homer J 'i'"' 

Rhode, Luther A 1667 

Rhode, Neff H I?""?; 

Rhode, WiHiam H ^''■"i 

Rhode, William S i^^i 

Richards, Rev. EHas L ''''«; 

Richards, Emanuel "6^ 

Kichards Families 435. p"^ 

Richards, Joseph W 7';'; 

Richards, Louis si? 

Richards, Richard -f-"; 

Richards, Thomas M 4T? 


Richardson, Charles M 434 

Richardson Families 434, 1165 

Richardson, Robert E 1165 

Richardson, Wilson 946 

Rick, Charles 431 

Rick, Cyrus 544 

Rick Families 431, 538, 544, 552, 1171 

Rick, George A 608 

Rick; James i 544 

Rick,' John 538 

Rick, John G 1232 

Rick, Paul A 1171 

Rick. William 552 

Rickenbach, Levi P 1026 

Riegel, J. Allen 958 

Riegner, Austin H 826 

Riegner Family 8S'5 

Riegner, Robert E 826 

Rieser Family 857 

Rieser. William S 857 

Rigg Family 801 

Rigg. John A 801 

Rigg. Mrs. Mary Ellen 1322 

Rigg, Samuel E 1322 

Ringler, Mrs. Kate 1399 

Ringler, John W 1399 

Ringler, Lewis 967 

Rishel Family 1685 

Rishel, James 1 1685i 

Rishel, William P 1685 

Ritner, George 1537 

Rittenhouse Family . , 467 

Rittenhouse, Dr. Jacob S 467 

Ritter, Albert 423 

Ritter, Christian 658 

Ritter, Daniel K 927 

Ritter Families 

423, 656, 912, 928, 1451 

Ritter. Daniel S 763 

Ritter, George G 1517 

Ritter, Henry L 912 

Ritter, Jacob R 659 

Ritter, Jeremiah G 1451 

Ritter. Hon. John 423, 657 

Ritter, Louis 657 

Ritter, Mrs. Mary E. W 657 

Ritter, Mrs. Rebecca 763 

Ritter. William C 657 

Ritter, William S 656 

Ritzman. Levi W 1683 

Roberts. John D 916 

Roberts, Owen B 899 

Rodgers, Joseph F 1214 

Roehrich, John 666 

Rohrbach, Daniel 1188 

Rohrbach, Henry H 1707 

Rohrbach, John F 1423 

Rohrbach, Lewis F 1187 

Rohrbach, William F 1188 

Roland Farnily 434 

, Roland, Francis, Jr 1630 

Roland, Frederic A 424 

Rolland, Charles L 1164 

Rollman. Adam M 545 

Rollman Families 545, 135i6 

Rollman. Francis 1 1355 

Rollman, William H 1136 

Romich, William H 1417 

Romig, George 1010 

Romig, George W 1182 

Romig, Joseph 1183 

Romig, Samuel H 1503 

Romig, William E 1503 

Rosch (Rush) Family 403 

Rosenthal, Wilhelm 1177 

Rote, John F 961 

Roth, Albert 1442 

Roth (Rhoads) Families 427. 449. 
481, 670, 1076, 1140, 1368, 1288, 1485 

Roth, John C 1485 

Rothenberger, Clayton M 934 

Rothenberger, Cornelius K. . . . 669 

Rothenberger, Daniel 1373 

Rothenberger, Daniel A 1495 

Rothenberger Families 669, 1373, 1486 

Rothenberger, Francis 1466 

Rothenberger, Frank M 934 

Rothenberger, George W 669 

Rothenberger, Isaac M 914 

Rothenberger, John C. 1495 

Rothenberger, Lewis 1374 

Rothenberger,. William K. ...1486 

Rothermel, Abraham H 440 

Rothermel, Adam S 938 

Rothermel, Prof. Amos C. . . . 787 
Rothermel, Mrs. Catherine M. 650 

Rothermel, Daniel H 854 

Rothermel, Mrs. Deborah .... 854 

Rothermel, Enoch G 977 

Rothermel Families 

650, 854, 922, 938 

977, 978, 1158, 1184, 1307, 1625 

Rothermel, Frank H 115.8 

Rothermel, Ira P ,415 

Rothermel, Jackson ' 978 

Rothermel, Jacob H 1206 

Rothermel. Jeremiah R 1184 

Rothermel; John G 922 

Rothermel, John H 1626 

Rothermel. John K 502 

Rothermel, John S 650 

Rothermel, N. G 899 

Rothermel, Silas R 1311 

Rothermel, Wilson H., M. D. . 820 

Row, Frederick 734 

Rowe Family 491 

Rowe. Joseph Z 1523 

Rowe, William G 491 

Royer. Jeremiah W 1467 

Rubright, David W 1213 

Rudy, John 1120 

Ruhl, Christian H 551 

Ruhl Family 551 

Runyeon, F. G., M. D 1494 

Rupp, Dr. John D 16'S6 

Rush (Rosch) Family 403 

Rush, Jacob 328 

Ruth, Calvin 1169 

Ruth, Daniel 1630 

Ruth. Edwin C 1442 

Ruth, Mrs. Ellen 1139 

Ruth, Mrs. Emma 1696 

Ruth Families 519, 

833, 869, 893, 1169, 1442, 1634, 1695 

Ruth, Isaac 1634 

Ruth, John A 1138 

Ruth, John J 1700 

Ruth. John J. (Cumru) 833 

Ruth, Leonard M 519 

Ruth. Levi 1695 

Ruth, Morris M' 1075 

Ruth, William H. (Hotel- 
keeper) 893 

Ruth, William H. (Farmer) . 869 

Sailer Family 646 

Sailer, Mrs. Sallie Ann 912 

Sailer, Samuel H 646 

Sailer. Solomon H 912 

Salem Reformed and Lutheran 

Union Church 987 

Sallade, Abraham G 469 

Sallade Family 468 

Sallade. Jacob 332 

Sallade', Dr. James W 468 

Sallade, William H 468 

Sander Family 1634 

Sander, Oliver H 1634 

Sanders, Charles F 1301 

Sandt, Eugene 1 1190 

Sartorius, Henry L 1153 

Sassaman Families 516, 1347 

Sassaman, George W 1391 

Sassaman, Horace M 1347 

Sassaman, Louis A 516 

Sauer Family 595i 

Sauer. John 595 

Sauer, Mrs. Margaret 595 

Saul, Daniel 1600 

Sausser, Albert B 1£16 

Savage, James M 1622 

Saylor, Howard B 672 

Saylor, Benjamin 672 

Saylor, John 672 

Schadel. Amandus G 1478 

Schadler, William P 1487 

Schaefer, Mi's. Fredricka V. . . 771 

Schaefer, J. George 771 

Schaeffer, Annie 1558 

Schaefier, Mrs. Catharine Y. .1023 

Schaeffer, Charles H 36S 

Schaeffer, Charles P 1298 

Schaeffer, Rev. Daniel E 816 

Schaeffer, David Y 1447 

Schaeffer, D. Nicholas 573 

Schaeffer Families 573, 707, 

801, 816, 1173, 1298, 1456, 1558 

Schaeffer. George B 405 

Schaeffer, Harry D 404 

Schaeffer, Capt. Henry 533 

Schaeffer, Jacob 1558 

Schaeffer, James 801 

Schaeffer, James D 1173 

Schaeffer, Joel B. ... I 893 

Schaeffer, Joel M 707 

Schaeffer, John E 1456 

Schaeffer. Nathan 1023 

Schaeffer. Dr. Nathaniel C. .. 356 

Schaeffer, Sallie 1558 

Schaich, Karl A 1132 

Schall, David 786 

Schall Family 785 

Schall, D. Horace 924 

Schall, Capt. Wm. A 786 

Schannauer, Abraham R 1090 

Schappel (Schappell, Shappell) 

Families 490^ 1255 

Schappel. Chester E 1257 

Schappell (Schappel-Shappell) 

Families 490, 1255 

Schappell, Franklin S 1£'56 

Schappell. John S 490 

Scharff Family 631 

Scharff, John L 631 

Schealer, John G 682 

Schearer Family 1300 

Schearer, John. M 1300 

Schearer, Weaver H 1301 

Scheetz, John D 693 

Scheifley, John 1427 

Schell, George P 1463 

Schellbammer, Henry W 1712 

Schitler. Hiram W 1491 

Schitler, Miltron J. H 1402 

Schlappich, Charles E., M. D. .1493 

Schlasman, James F 1072 

Schlegel, Adam H 1165 

Schlegel, Charles H 944 

Schlegel, Daniel 846 

Schlegel Families 846, 945, 1223 

Schlegel, George S,. D. D. S. . 537 

Schmeck, Frank H 1703 

Schraehl, Elias B 1328 

Schmick Families 1151, 1621 

Schmick, George E 1171 

Schmick, Henry J. (Hamburg) 1621 
Schmick, Henry J. ..^ 115] 



Schmidt (Schmit, Smith) Fam- 
ilies 643, 915, 975, 1110 

Schmucker, pred A 1676 

Schnabel, Joseph G 73S' 

Schnader Family 1340 

Schnader, James F (. . .1340 

Schneider, Augustus 1514 

Schneider (Snyder) Families 
413, 476, 484, 678, 1100, 1443, 1671 

Scnneider, Leander 981 

Schoender, Jacob B 1571 

Sohoedler Families 1454, 1487 

Schoedler, George P 1456 

Schofer, Charles D 1309 

Schofer, Christopher Henry 1208 

Schofer, Franklin A 1309 

Schofer, George E 1209 

Schofer, Harry L 1209 

Schofer, Jacob A 1209 

Schofer, James A 407 

SchoU, Edward Z 707 

Schollenberger, Edgar R 1248 

SchoUenberger (Shollenberger) 

Families 929, 1249, 1699 

SchoUenberger, Franklin A. ..1700 

Schrader, Charles E 1401 

Schreiner, John 1139 

Schroeder, Adam H 1306 

Schroeder, Daniel E 663 

Schroeder Family 662 

Schucker, Urias M 1647 

Schuez, Charles 1531 

Schuldt, Edward 1188 

Schuler, George J 1448 

Schultz, Andrew 423 

Schultz^ Daniel N 908 

Schultz, Edwin N 412 

Schultz Families 411, 42S', 573. 838, 
975, 1357, 1370, 1387 

Schultz, Horatio K 1370 

Schultz. Joseph K 574 

Schultz'. Mary A. M 423 

Schultz, Owen K 574 

Schultz, Samuel S 828 

Schulze, Edward 735 

Schulze, Elias 735i 

Schumacher, John G 1100 

Schutter, Christopher 850 

Schwartz, Ellen 1016 

Schwartz, Mrs. Emily S 1269 

Schwartz Families 1016, 1269 

Schwartz, Henry N 1269 

Schwartz, Hiram H 356 

Schwartz, Joseph H 1016 

Schwartz, Thomas H 1016 

Schwartz, William S 1369 

Schweimier, Andrew L 1085 

Schweitzer, Augustus W 1536 

Schweitzer, Emery 1526 

Schweitzer Family 1535 

Schweitzer, Franklin K 1379 

Schweitzer, Theodore 1526 

Schweriner, S. S 1413 

Schweyer, Daniel H 1535 

Schweyer (Sweyer, Swoyer) Fam- 
ilies 1-105, 1535, 1553 

Schwoyer, Cosmos M 708 

Schwoyer, Mrs. Maria 708 

Schwoyer, Peter S 1553 

Schwoyer, Samuel G 1105 

Scoitt Family 826 

Scott, Miss Laura R 837 

Scott, William A 836 

Scull, Edward ....1334 

Scull. William 1334 

Seaman, Moses B 939 

Seaman Family 939 

Sechler Family 1653 

Sechler, Levi 1653 

Sechler, William 1654 

Seibert, George M 1082 

Seibert, Isaiah B 1078 

Seibert, Rush G 834 

Seidel, Alfred S 703 

Seidel, Benjamin H 890 

Seidel, Charles V 923 

Seidel, Claude L 1657 

Seidel (Seidle) Families 853, 890, 

923, 932, 1120, 1178, 1315, 1416, 
1481, 1659 

Seidel, Francis F 1659 

Seidel, Franklin 1416 

Seidel, Franklin H 1120 

Seidel, Henry 890 

Seidel, Henry C 1315 

Seidel, Henry G 1249 

Seidel, Henry U 1481 

Seidel, Jacob J 853 

Seidel, Mabry S 933 

Seidel, Oliver H 1131 

Seider, Jeremiah '646 

Seiders, Henry 1496 

Seiders, Henry E 1345 

Seidle, Thomas C 1178 

Selling, George 1579 

Seitzinser, Mrs. Anna B 779 

Seitzinger, Mandon W 1233 

Seitzinger, William W 779 

Selak, Frank C 1322 

Sellers, Elmer J 799 

Sellers, Jam^es P 528 

Seltzer, Charles M.. M. D. ... 349 

Seltzer Families 350. 82'4 

Seltzer, Jonathan R 824 

Sembower, C. H 1403 

Shaaber, I3aniel 645 

Shaaber, Harry C 1563 

Shaaber, Mahlon 964 

Shade, Ignatius 1026 

Shadle, John 1323 

Shadle. Mrs. Mary 1323 

Shaffer. Charles W 1154 

Shaffer. Mrs. Elizabeth 1154 

Shaffner, George W 907 

Shalter, Benjamin 599 

Shalter FamiHes 599, 916, 1228 

Shalter, M. J 1228 

Shalter, Reuben G 599 

Shalter, William K 916 

bhalter's (Salem) Luth. Union 

Church 987 

Shane, William C 1539 

Shapiro, Philip 662' 

Shappell, Adam A 1356 

Shappell (Schappel-Schappell) 

Families 490, 1355 

Shappell, P. Sassaman 1257 

Shappell, Sassaman S 1256 

Sharadin Family 1332 

Sharadin, Francis E 1333 

Sharman, David 1580 

Sharman (Sherman) Families 

525, 1547, 1579 

Sharman, Irwin M 535 

Shartle, Alvin J 1656 

Shartle Families 1397, 1656 

Shartle, Harry H 1397 

Shearer, Christopher 734 

Shearer. Christopher H 1566 

Shearer, David R 1332 

Shearer Families 

518, 724, 1040, 1222, 1300, 1598 

Shearer, Frank D 1600 

Shearer,' James Y., M. D 1041 

Shearer, Joseph 1599 

Shearer, Solomon 1599 

Shearer, Wayne L, M. D 518 

Shearer, William Y 1040 

Sheeder, Benjamin F 746 

Sheeler Family 871 

Sheeler, Harry W 870 

Sheidy, Joseph 1137 

Sheidy, William E 1137 

Shenk, Tobias K 713 

Sheradin, William G 1625 

Sherman (Sharman) Families . 

535, 1547, 1579 

Sherman, George B 1581 

Sherman, Thomas C 1547 

Shilling Families 684, 1673 

Shilling, Howard M'. 1673 

Shilling, John Jacob, Sr 684 

Shilling, John Jacob, Jr 1711 

Shirey, Daniel W 943 

Shirey, Jesse 1093 

Shirey, Milton L 1374 

Shollenberger, Calvin D 859 

Shollenberger (Schollenberger) 

Families 859, 939, 1249, 1699 

Shollenberger, Milton D 929 

Shomo Family 526 

Shomo, Harvey H 1409 

Shomo, Joseph N 445 

Shomo, William A 526 

Shoup Families 520, 958. 1436 

Shoup, George K 1436 

Shoup, Henry 959 

Shoup, James G 959 

Showalter Family -. 1360 

Showalter, Elwood 1360 

Showalter, Emma V 1360 

Shultz. Benneville S 976 

Shultz (Schultz) Families 411, 432, 

573, 828, 975, 1357, 1370, 1387 

Shultz, Henry H 1387 

Shulze, Gov. John A 333 

Sidel Family 891 

Sidel, James H 891 

Siegfried Family 969 

Siegfried, Mrs. Mary E 969 

Siegfried, William 969 

Sigmund, Matthias C 1356 

Simmon Family 928 

Simmon, Henry F 928 

Sindel, Reuben 1300 

Slater, Samuel W 1397 

Slater. Wilmer H 1151 

Slegel, W. Scott 1333 

Slichter, Frank W 1531 

Slipp, John W 833 

Smeck, Charles M 1218 

Smink, F. C 432' 

Smink, Harry A 432 

Smith, Charles A 591 

Smith, Cyrus B 843 

Smith, Hon. Edmond L 949 

Smith, Edward D. ■. 1518 

Smith, Edwin F 371 

Smith, Emma E 747 

Smith Families 

417, 464, 642, 843, 975, 1058, 1110 


Judge Frederick ...354, 464 

Frederick Leaf 464 

Rev. George B 643 

George W 1531 

Isaac 747 

James F 373 

Joseph 831 

Levi B 416 

Mrs. Magdalena R. . . . 949 

Marie C... 465 

Mrs. Mlary E 1141 

Milton W 1110 

Thomas J 1058 

William A 646 

William B 975 

William D 424 



Smoyer. Henry L 1310 

Snell, John H 1568 

Snyder, Charles W 475. 

Snyder (Schneider) Families 

413, 476, 484, 678, 1100, 1448, 1671 

Snyder, George W. 69S' 

Snyder, James E 678 

Snyder, Jefferson 413 

Snyder, Jonas H 1698 

Snyder. Jorias K 1104 

Snyder, Joseph S 1100 

Snyder, Mrs. Louisa R 689 

Snyder, Peter H 932 

Snyder, William M 1443 

Snyder, William T 484 

Snyder, William W 689 

Snyder, Wilson S. 1670 

Soaar, Edward W 1363 

Spaar Family 1363 

Spaar, William J 1598 

Spang Families 519, 1371 

Spang, Frederiik 1585 

Spang. Jacob K 1371 

Spang, Robert W 734 

Spang, Samuel K 519 

Spangier, Harry 1059 

Spangler, John 1510 

Spannuth Family 595 

Spannuth, Harvey A 595 

Spatz, Adam P 853 

Spatz, Charles B 456 

Spatz, Cyrus K 650 

Spatz Families 650, 852, 1181 

Spatz. Isaac S 1048 

Spatz, John H 1048 

Spatz. Samuel K 1181 

Spayd, Charles E 1300 

Snayd, John 340 

Soayd, Henrietta 943 

Spayd, William 943 

Spears. Cyrus G 1653 

Spears, Ida M 1653 

Spears, James 733 

Specht, Prof. Charles G 809 

Speidel, John G 1064 

Spengler. Jacob B 1568 

Sperry, Wm. H> .' 1393 

Spiess Ref. and Luth. Union 

Church 984 

Spohn, Evan M 885 

Spohn Family 884 

Spohn, Lewis E 885 

Sponagle, James W 1430 

Sponagle, John 1013 

Spotts. Mrs. Emma 1099 

Spotts. John J 1099 

Sprecher, Jesse M 1113 

Sproesser, William H 1537 

Spuhler, George M 886 

Spuhler, John M 868 

St. James Luth. Church. Read- 
ing 1709 

St. John's Evan. Luth. Church, 

Boyertown 1391 

St. John's Evan. Luth Church, 

Hamburg 1378 

St. Luke's Evan. Luth. Church 1381 
St. Paul's Church, Windsor 

Township 1379 

St. Paul's Memorial R'ef. 

Church 1393 

Stahl, Edwin C 1220 

Stahl, Otto J 1110 

Stamm, Adam S 543 

Stamm, Cornelius S 542 

Stamm, Mrs. Emma Mi 543 

Stamm Family 541 

Stamm, Rev. James C 542 

Stamm, Levi S 541 

Stamm, William J 

Stamm, William W. B 

Stangier, Charles E 

Stapleton, John P 

Stark, John 

Staudt, Aaron L 

Staudt (Stoudt, Stout) Fam- 
ilies 505, 804. 

1419, 1432, 1461, 1463, 1484, 

Staudt, Franklin H 

Staudt, Henry L 

Staudt, William B 

Stauf er Family 

Staufer, William M 

Stauffer, Abner K 

Stauffer, Elmer E 

Stauffer Family 

Stauffer, Judge John 

Steckler, David H 

Steckler, Mrs. Theresa 

Steckline, George L 

Steckline. Mrs. Kate M 

Steffe, C. Gilbert 

Steffy, Benjamin Franklin 

Steffy, Joseph K 

Steffy Families 1013, 1385, 

Steffy, John 

Steffy, John H 

Steffy, Pierce K 

Steffy, Rudolph 

Stehraan, D. W 

Stehman. Mrs. Mary V. R.... . 

Steiger, Samuel S 

Steigerwald. Thomas 

Stein, Jacob D 

Steiner, Frank P 

Steininger, Walter G 

Steinman Family 

Steinman, George H 

Steinman, John F 

Stephan, David 

Stephan, Mrs. Julia A 

Sterley, Mrs. Amanda R 

Sterley Family 

Sterley, John B 

Sternbergh, Herbert M 

Stembergh, James H 

Sterrett, Jacob K. 

Stetson, Capt. Prince R 

Stetson, Mrs. Rebecca H 

Stetzler, Jeremiah W 

Stevens Family 

Stevens. Garrett B 

Stevens, J. B 

Stevens, William K 

Stewart, Mrs. Angeline 

Stewart, Lemuel, M. D 

Stiely, Adam S 

Stimmel, Elton, D. D. S 

Stimmel Family 

Stimmel, William F 

Stirl, George S 

Stitzel, Ephraim H 

Stocker, John G 

Stocker, J. George 

Stoltzfus. Christian U 

Stoner, John H 

Stoner, Solomon 

Stoudt, Edwin B 

Stoudt Csee Staudt, Stout) Fam 

ilies 804, 

Stoudt, George B 

Stoudt, George W 

Stoudt, Rev. John B ,. . . 

btoudt, John B '. . . , 

Stoudt, Joseph 

Stoudt, Lewis B 

Stoudt, Lucian 

Stoudt, Nathaniel P 

542 Stout, David E 5fl5 

543 Stout, Edward H 505 

1655 Stout (Stoudt, Staudt) Families 

1150 505, 804. 1093 

1663 1419, 1423, 1461, 1462, 1484, 1683 

1094 Stoyer Family 493 

Stoyer, Henry 493 

1093 Strasser, Cornelius H 1083 

1682 Strasser Families 586, 1082 

1484 Strasser, Robert E., M'. D 589 

1094 Strasser, Dr. Thomas A 588 

1422 Strasser, Wilson H 1083 

1032 Strauser. Thomas 1703 

1033 Strauss, B. Morris 386 

390 Strauss, Cameron E 1057 

413 Strauss Family 386 

414 Strauss, James 1108 

390 Strohecker. Albert J 1449 

1044 Strohecker, John A 1390 

1044 Strohecker, Sarah L 1524 

1106 Strong, William 343 

1106 Stroud. Edward 1681 

532 Stroud, Mrs! Susan 1681 

1049 Stroup, John 1050 

1013 Strouse, Jonathan M 1468 

1545 Strunk, Ammon S 477 

96'2 Strunk (Strunck) Families 476, 1016 

1545 Strunk. Henry S 477 

1385 Strunk. Jacob S 477 

962 Strunk, John M 1016 

436 Strunk, Milton R 956 

436 Stump, Adam G 1134 

962 Stump, Calvin S 679 

1234 Stump Families 

1475 419, 679, 1076, 1137, 1133 

1146 Stump. Franklin S 1127 

1304 btump, Henry L 1076 

1364 Stump, Jacob H 679 

13'55 Stump, John B (Oley Tp.)....1077 

1365. Stump. John B 1133 

1513 Stump, Milton L 1134 

1513 Stump, William B 1134 

585 Stupp, Aaron S 1443 

585 Suender, George C 610 

585 Suender, James W 1064 

515 Sullenberger Family 858 

341 Sullenberger. Henry M 858 

1628 Summons, Edwin S 1173 

16S9 Sunday, Elias B 860 

1639 Sunday Families 860, 977, 1630 

1252 Sunday, John A 1620 

543 Sunday, William 977 

782 Swavely Families.. 1533, 1556. 1558 

782 Swavely, Frank S lEo8 

543 Swavely. John L 1556 

493 Swavely, Wellington G 1532 

493 Sweitzer, Abraham' 989 

944 sweitzer, Edward E 988 

998 Sweitzer, Harry K 1536 

997 Sweney, Mrs. Pamelia C 696 

997 Sweney, Thomas W 695 

1099 S wope, Jacob 1250 

1569 Swope, Jonathan -...1350 

1447 Swoyer, Albert M 1377 

1447 Swoyer. Eli H 876 

1526 Swoyer. Jacob ■ S 1069 

447 Swoyer, Walter D 1069 

909 Symons, William S 1557 


Talley, James F 1327 

1093 Tavlor, S. Banks, M. D 1307 

1430 Teel. Rev. Warren F 383 

739 Templin, James 1562 

804 Templin, William 1563 

1042 Thiry, Oden F 1224 

1461 Thompson. John S 370 

1419 Thompson, Nicholas 370 

1682 Thompson, William D IS'13 

1462' Thornburg, William C 1515 



Thun. Ferdinand 433 

Tobias, Albert H 1556 

Tobias, Charles H 1555 

Tobias, Charles L 1487 

Tobias Families 1487, 15i54 

Tobias. Herman R 1555 

Tobias; James R 1487 

Tobias, Solomon H 1555 

Todd, C. W. B 481 

Tomlinson, Lewis K 966 

Townsend, Frank A 524 

Townsend, Prof. R. A 452 

Trate, James 1470 

Trate. Mrs. Sarah 1470 

Treat, Albert 1583 

Treat Family 387 

Treat. Isaac G 387 

Treichler, David G 1375 

Treichler Families 483, 1375 

Treichler, James G 482 

Trethewey. Richard 730 

Trexler Families 529, 1604 

Trexler, Benjamin K 1607 

Trexler. Charles L 1606 

Trexler; Joel 1607 

Trexler, Jonas 1607 

Trexler. Jonathan D 1606 

Trexler, Mrs. Leanda S 1606 

Trexler, Levi B 1607 

Trexler, Nathan D 1606 

Trexler, Richard G 1607 

Trexler. Col. William 529 

Trickel,' Joseph 671 

Trinity Lutheran Church 1385 

Trinity Reformed Church 985 

Troop, Mrs. Magdalena 1534 

Trestle Families 704, 888 

Trostle. Henry F 704 

Troup, Theodore 1637 

Trout, Daniel M 1465 

Trout, James R 676 

Troutman Family 1359 

Troutman. Frank W 135i9 

Troutman, John M 1360 

Troxel, John E 1247 

Turner, Amos 1272' 

Turner, Newton R 1373 

Ubil. James G 1023 

Udree, Col. Daniel 353 

Ulle, Francis A 1118 

Ulrich, Morris J 1330 

Umbenhauer Family 818 

Umbenhauer, Isaac S 818 

Umble,' Joseph D. C. 533 

UndercuflSer, Harvey B 1316 

Unger, Allen S 1538 

Unger, Alue F 1354 

Unger, Calvin A 1477 

Unger, Charles W 891 

Unger Families 

466, 891, 1355, 1477, 1538 

Unger, George W 466 

Unger, Isaac 465 

Unger, Mrs. Syria 466 

Unterkofler, Daniel 1538 

Urich, Ellsworth P 993 

Van Buskirk. Ephraim 1420 

Van Denberg, J. E. Delner 1531 

Van Reed Families 471. 479, 681 

Van Reed, George R 479 

Van Reed, Henry 359 

Van Reed, S. J 681 

Van Reed, Wellington 471 

Vath, Leonard A., Jr 1517 

Verrendo, Leonardo 1127 

Voelker, Charles 401 

Voelker. Charles T 401 

Vogel, Mrs. Annie E -.1530 

Vogel, Francis F 1520 

Von Nieda, Rev. J. Heller 1685 

Wagenhorst Brothers 1304 

Wagenhorst, Llewellyn 1305 

Wagenhorst, Mahlon Ig05 

Wagener, Samuel B 1472 

Wagner, Aaron S 745 

Wagner, Mrs. Catharine 685 

Wagner, Mrs. Catherine M 724 

Wagner Families 

..458, 579, 745, 1315, 1470, 1559 

Wagner, Frank 135.0 

Wagner, Frank K 1469 

Wagner, George W 1177 

Wagner, Henry T 579 

Wagner, James H 458 

Wagner, Dr. John R 1314 

Wagner, John S 724 

Wagner. Julius 685 

Wagner^ Levi F., M. D 1559 

Wagner, Moses H 1568 

Wagner, William H 1143 

Wahl, Dr. J. H 740 

Walbert, Levi A 918 

Walley, Sam^uel N 1065 

Walter, Dr. Robert 504 

Walter, Robert F 1159 

Walter, William A 1318 

Walter, Col. William F 1318 

Wanner, Abram K., M. D 1557 

Wanner, Charles A 613 

Wanner, Daniel R 1563 

Wanner, Elmer E 684 

Wanner Families 

426, 612, 907, 925, 1096, 1453, 1557 

Wanner, Frank R 907 

Wanner, Jacob 1453 

Wanrrer, Jacob S 925 

Wanner, J. Edward 426 

Wanner, Peter D 1096 

Wanner, Solon A 613 

Warner, Aaron R 470 

Warren, John 1245 

Wartman, George W 1052 

Wartman, Lewis M 1199 

Wartman, Mrs. Mary A 105<3 

Wartzenluft, Daniel L 836 

Wartzenluft Family 836 

Weand, Harry B 1403 

Weand, O. M 1677 

Weasner, Harvey K 751 

Weaver Families 817, 965, 1335 

Weaver, Henry G 9'55 

Weaver. William 1335 

Weaver, William B 817 

Webber, William W 1137 

Weber, Fidel 462 

Weber FamiHes 463, 966, 1556 

Weber, Albert S 1557 

Weber, Harry C 1635 

Weber, Herman G 1673 

Weber. Paul 577 

Weber, Rudolph S 1556 

Weber, William F 462 

Weber, W. Wayne 462' 

Weida, George W 1472 

Weidenhammer Family 1648 

Weidenhammer, George S 1648 

Weidraan Families 960, 1571 

Weidman, Joel K 960 

Weidman, Marion D 1573 

Weidman, William M.. M. D.. .1571 

Weidner, Caleb 394 

Weidner, Daniel H 10:33 

Weidner Families 395, 565, 

903, 1211, 1348, 1414, 1437, 1649 

Weidner, George A 1414 

Weidner, George L 1211 

Weidner, Harry J 1348 

Weidner, John 1437 

Weidner, John Y 1649 

Weidner, Mahlon E 5.65 

Weidner, Milton N 903 

Weidner, William R 1062 

Weigley Family 813 

Weigley, Miss Lizzie R 813 

Vv eigley, Jonathan W 813 

Weil, Morris 1654 

Weiler, John 519 / 

Weis- Family 603 l^ 

Weis, Samuel S 60S 

Weiser. Alvin 911 

Weiser, Conrad 330 

Weisner Family 1691 

Weisner, Jonathan A 1691 

Weller. Emanuel M 1403 

Weiler Families 509, 1403, 1421 

Weller, Harvey H 1431 

Weiler, Joel H 509 

Weller, Nathan N 1403 

Wells, Mrs. Anna S. . . .' 834 

Wells, Llewellyn U 761 

Wells, Wesley H 834 

Wendler. Harry J 1041 

Wendling. Frank R 1147 

Wenger, Leroy J., M. D 800 

Wenrich, Albert D 901 

Wenrich, Ezra S 1049 

Wenrich Families 400, 508, 981, 1074 

Wenrich, Mart H 981 

Wenrich. Nathan M 1074 

Wenrich; Paul A 1163 

Wenrich, Dr. Reuben D 508 

Wentzel, Augustus L 855 

Wentzel, David S 1459 

Wentzel Families 855, 1459 

Werley, Dr. Charles D 1179 

Werley, Cyrus E 938 

Werley, Thomas G 852 

Werner, Ephraim G 647 

Werner Family 963 

Werner, John G 989 

Werner, William G 963 

Werner, William W 747 

Wert, Mrs. Amelia 743 

Wert, Daniel R 1632 

Wert Family 1632 

Wert, George 742' 

Wertz, Edward S 378 

Wertz Family. . . .' 839 

Wertz, George W 839 

Wertz, Samuel 378 

Wesley, John H 740 

Wessner, Jerry M 1418 

Westley Family 1009 

Westley, John L 1009 

Weyman, William A 1135 

Wharton, Hon. Thomas 325 

Wharton. Susan F 325 

White, John R 1694 

White, Josep'h A 706 

Whitman, Abraham S 607 

Whitman, Joel W. D 763 

Whitman, Richard M 607 

Whitner, Calvin K 408 

Whitner Family 408 

Wieand, Rev. Daniel 1663 

Wieand, Mrs. Matilda 166&' 

Wilder, O. B. S 670 

Wilgeroth, John 1406 

Wilhelm, Mrs. Catherine 1490 

Wilhelm, Henry A 1457 

Wilhelm, William H 1490 

Williams, Jacob N 1319 

Wilsion, Gile J 680 

Willson, M. Elizabeth 680 

Wilson, Chalkley 1203 



Wilson, John B 807 

Windbigler, Charles 1468 

Winings, Howard K 1073 

Winter, Ferdinand 1513 

Winter, Mahlon D 1099 

Winters. John M. S 927 

Wise (Weiss) Family 1101 

Wise, Harvey L 1101 

Wise, Warren L 1534 

Wise, Wellington L 1101 

Wisser, Stephen S 1458 

Withers, Eh M 864 

Withers, Mts. Emeline 723 

Withers Family 864 

Withers, Martin- M 723 

Witman, Ephraim 841 

Witman Family 841 

Witman, John F 1115 

Witman, William A 1699 

Witmoyer, Mrs. Elizabeth 1220 

Witmoyer, John 1S'20 

Wittich, Arthur 531 

Wittich, John D 531 

Woerner, Oscar L 1433 

Wolf, James G 980 

Wolfe, David S 1683 

Wolfers.berger, Richard A 1109 

Wolff Family 536 

Wolff, Oliver M 526 

Woodward, Warren J 348 

Wootten, John 1443 

Wootten, Mrs. Margaret A 1443 

Worley, Ellis M 1343 

Worley Family 1474 

Worley, Henry H 1475 

Worley, Levi 683 

Worley, Mrs. Mary M 684 

Worley, W. M 1343 

Wrede, Mrs. Barbara 1523 

Wrede, Christian 1523 

Wren, William W 1325 

Wunder, William L 1198 

Wunder, W. W 1320 

Xander, John G 438 

Y'arnelli Family 1366 

Yarnell, Jared G 1366 

Yarrington Family 356 

Yeager, Edward 1493 

Yeag'er Families 606, 1263, 1493 

Yeager, Hiram P ises 

Yeager, William B 606 

Yeagley, George W 1037 

Yeakel, Dr. Isaac B 1639 

Yeakel, Joseph B 1642 

Yerger Families 604, 1465 

Yerger, James M 604 

Yerger, John 1465 

Yetter, Charles M IS'44 

Yetzer, Joseph 1160 

Yocom, Albert S 935 

Yocom, Charles S 1351 

Yocom Famihes . . .' 935, 1350 

Yocom, Harry Y 1350 

Yocomi, William S 1717 

Yocum, Mrs. Agnes G 342 

Yocurti, James W 342 

Yocum, Valeria 1634 

Yocumv William 1633 

Yoder, Absalom S 623 

Yoder, Adam 1088 

Yoder, Amos 1088 

Yoder, Amos S 1433 

Yoder, Augustus K 1325 

Yoder, Daniel B 62S 

Yoder, David S 623 

Yoder Families 

620, 995, 1325, 1395, 1404, 1433, 1485 

Yoder, Frank D 1395 

Yoder, Frederick F 1485 

Yoder, Frederick S 995 

Yoder, Henry H 621 

Yoder, John S 1423 

Yoder, Kensie N 995 

Yoder, Mabry K 623 

Yoder, Mary B 623 

Yoder, Nathan R , 1404 

Yoder, Samuel D 1395 

Yoder, S. Herbert 1063 

Yoder, Solomon R 1439 

Yorgey, Alfred B 1339 

Yorgey Family 1339 

Yost, Albert R ii03 

Yost Families 708, 1102, 1494 

Yost, Heber Y 1494 

Yost, Henry H 909 

Yost, James F. R 709 

Yost, Rufus R 709 

Young Families 641, 1315 

Young, Henry G '641 

Young, Mrs. Hettie A 643 

Young, Walter S 1315 

Young, William J 811 

Young, William S 642 

\ ouse, Abraham H 1381 

Youse, Charles H 840 

Youse, Edwin S 1173 

Youse Families : 841, 1382' 

Yundt Family 837 

Yundt, Horace A 827 

Zable, Harry 1524 

Zacharias, Daniel K 1483- 

Zacharias, iarah 1483 

Zeller. George M 752 

Zeller, Wilson B 754 

Zellers, John 116S 

Zellers, William F 1168 

Zerbe (Zerby) Families 717, 866, 988; 

Zerbe, Levi M 717 

Zerbe, Reily 98S 

Zerby. Thomas J 866- 

Zerby, William A '. . . 717 

Zerr Family 77T 

Zerr. John H 783 

Zerr, Ben H 777 

Zerr, Samuel 778 

Zieber, Philip S 544 

Zieber, William E 921 

Ziegler, Capt. Aaron 417 

Ziegler, Jarius W 765 

Ziegler, J. F 1361 

Ziegler, Mrs. Sarah A 551 

Ziegler, Dr. Philip M 550 

Zimmerman, Eldridge 438 

Zimmerman Families 438, 668 

Zimmerman, Mrs. Sarah B 547 

Zimmerman, Thomas C 363 

Zion's Church, Perry Township 


Zion's (Spiess) Ref. and Luth. 

Church 984 

Zook, Christian 1071 

Zook Family 1071 

Zook, Mrs. Susan 1071 






Mountains. — The Appalachian chain of moun- 
tains extends through the eastern territory of the 
United States from the St. Lawrence river on the 
north to the State of Georgia on thfe south. The 
greatest heights are in North Carolina. There they 
are between 6,000 and 6,800 feet above the sea. This 
conspicuous chain includes all the ridges ; and two 
ridges extend through Berks county. They are the 
Blue Mountain and the South Mountain. 

The Blue Mountain, in its course south twenty- 
five degrees west from the Delaware at Easton to 
flie Susquehanna at Harrisburg, forms the present 
northern boundary line of Berks county. It was 
a barrier to migration in the earliest settlements 
of this section of the State, and it was the limit of 
the earliest surveys which were made northwest- 
wardly from the Delaware river. The earliest map 
of surveys, which was prepared by Lewis Evans, 
and published by him in 1749, is in the possession 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania at Phila- 
delphia. Several drafts of earlier dates appear in 
the first two volumes of the Pennsylvania Archives, 
and relate to purchases of land from the Indians. 

The apex of this mountain undulates. Its aver- 
age height above the sea is about 1,200 feet. The 
distinguishing peculiarities in the formation of the 
mountain in Berks county are the "Pinnacle," the 
"Schuylkill Gap," the "Round Head," and numerous 
ravines which were washed out in the mountain- 
side by rolling waters in the course of time, and 
came to be useful to man in having marked out for 
him easy passes over the mountain. 

From a distance, the mountain has a bluish ap- 
pearance. Hence it was and is called Blue Ridge. 
On one of the early maps it is called the "Kittatinny 
Mountain," corrupted from the Indian word Kau- 
ta-tin-chunk, meaning endless. It is also sometimes 
called North Mountain. 

The South Mountain extends through the county 
southeastwardly. It enters about the middle of the 
western boundary, near the corner-stone of the 
dividing line between Lancaster and Lebanon coun- 

ties. At this point it is distant from the Bliie 
Mountain about fifteen miles. It is called South 
Mountain because it lies south of the Blue Moun- 
tain. The distance between them increases as they 
diverge eastwardly. At Reading it is about twenty- 
three miles. The highest point in this mountain 
is near the county line in Lebanon county, on a 
spur extending several miles southwestwardly. Its 
height is about twelve hundred feet. 

In the southern section of the county, this moun- 
tain has a greater width. It includes a succession 
of rolling hills, almost entirely covered with grow- 
ing trees. Some portions have been cleared and 
converted into farming lands. This district, being 
thus covered and having the appearance of a forest, 
is called "The Forest." The "Welsh Mountain" 
and the "Flying Hills" are included in this range. 

The "Flying Hills" extend along the southerly 
side of the Schuylkill river for several miles. They 
comprise a small ridge broken by gorges, and were 
given this name by the early settlers because num- 
erous grouse were seen flying there. They aj^ in- 
dicated on an early map of 1743, and from that 
time till now they have been so known and called. 
They can be seen and identified for forty miles 
down the Schuylkill Valley. From afar they re- 
semble great monuments, and they were famous 
for game until about 1860. Of the gorges men- 
tioned, the "Gibraltar" is the most remarkable and 

Numerous hills are scattered throughout the 
cotinty, which subserve the agricultural districts 
admirably in respect to wood and water. Their 
natural arrangement and distribution are wonderful. 
The cupidity of man is, however, gradually break- 
ing up this harmony of nature by cutting down 
the trees and tilling the land. 

In the western section, the most conspicuous hills 
are "Stoudt's Hill," located at the great bend of 
the Schuylkill, about six miles north of Reading 
(named after the owner of the land), and "Scull's 
Hill," distant about five miles farther to the north 
(named after Nicholas Scull, the surveyor-general 
of the province from 1748 till 1761). 


In the eastern section, the county is consider- 
ably broken by intersecting hills which extend in 
different directions, mostly, however, to the north 
and south. The "Oley Hills" are most conspicuous 
in a historic aspect. They are mentioned in patents 
and deeds of lands before 1720. Since 1783 the 
most prominent hill in that vicinity has been called 
"Earl Mountain," because it was cut from Oley 
and included in a new township of that name then 
erected. The "Monocacy Hill," cone-shaped, is 
situated several miles southwardly, near the river. 

The "Reading Hills" are the most conspicuous 
in the central section in a natural aspect. They 
were included in the "Manor of Penn's Mount," 
a large tract which was set apart for the use of 
the Penns before the erection of the county, and 
included about twelve thousand acres. The hill 
known by the citizens of Reading as "Penn's 
Mount" adjoins the city on the east. To the north 
and west its elevated top commands a magnificent 
view of the Schuylkill and Lebanon Valleys, which 
are especially rich in agriculture, manufactures and 
internal improvements ; and it overlooks an area of 
territory including about five hundred square miles. 
It has two conspicuous spots at the apex, facing 
the west, which are called "White Spot" and "Black 
Spot." They are visible to the naked eye for a 
distance of thirty miles, and were so called by the 
first inhabitants of Reading. Their general appear- 
ance does not seem to change ; they are bare spots 
on the hillside, composed of stones and rocks. The 
"White Spot" is the nearer and more accessible. 
It has been for many years, and is still, resorted 
to for stones for building purposes ; and it is fre- 
quently visited also by resident and stranger for 
the view it commands. The removal of the stones 
gives the spot a white appearance. Time and the 
weather are not given an opportunity to darken 
the surface of the stones. The "Black Spot" was 
not disturbed till 1889, when the Mt. Penn Gravity 
Railroad was constructed, and the "Tower" erected 
on the top; hence its black appearance. Their ele- 
vation above the Schuylkill river at the foot of 
Penn street is as follows: White Spot, 7fi7.64 
feet: Black Spot, 879.78 feet. The elevation of 
the higher point above the sea is about 1,100 feet. 

The hill known as the "Neversink" adjoins the 
city on the south. Its highest point is somewhat 
lower than Mt. Penn. It commands a magnificent 
view of the Schuylkill Valley to the southeast for 
forty miles, and of "The Forest" to the south and 
southwest for upward of ten miles. It overlooks 
the double bend in the river, which forms a large 
S, both projections being mostly farming land: the 
one extending northwardly being known as "Lewis's 
Neck" (from the first settler there), and the other 
southwardly as "Poplar Neck" (from the great 
poplar trees) for more than one hundred and fifty 
years. This hill lies east and west and forms, with 
Mt. Penn, a large T. Its northern declivity is 
rather gentle, but the southern steep and rugged. 
It has been known bv the name of "Neversink" 

for many years. It is mentioned in surveys of ad- 
joining land which were made as early as 1714. 

An interesting, though ridiculous, tradition is 
connected with its origin. It was said by early 
settlers that an Indian had devised a flying ma- 
chine, by which he proposed to fly from the one 
hill (Flying Hill at Poplar Neck) to the other and 
"never sink." His efforts proved a failure. In- 
stead of flying into fame he sank into shame. The 
word is of Indian origin, "Navesink," and means 
fishing-ground. The Schuylkill river in this vicin- 
ity was formerly a famous fishing-ground for shad. 
Fisheries were carried on successfully until the con- 
struction of the canal about 1820. 

"Schwartzwald" is situated several miles to the 
east. It was included in the "Manor lands." The 
woods are dark and like a forest. This name was 
given by the early settlers in commemoration of 
their native place. 

"Irish Mountain" is near the center of the 
county. It is prominent and overlooks the Schuyl- 
kill Valley from the Blue Mountain to the South 
Mountain, especially the fertile lands which adjoin 
the Maiden creek and its tributaries. The early 
settlers round about were mostly Germans. They 
named the hill after English settlers who had lo- 
cated or rather "squatted" there. The language 
and manners of the latter were more or less objec- 
tionable to them, and they among themselves en- 
tertained contempt for the intruders, and in con- 
versation called them the "Irish." 

"Spitzenberg" is a cone-shaped hill near by the 
Pinnacle. Its peculiar shape makes it conspicuous. 
It is not as elevated as the mountain to the north. 

Valleys. — Nature has arranged the earth's sur- 
face within the borders of Berks county in a super- 
ior manner. Its rolling character, interspersed 
with hills and mountains, and intersected by num- 
erous irrigating rivulets and streams, renders it 
most admirable for successful cultivation with or- 
dinary labor. The well-directed energy and enter- 
prise of the farmers have enriched and improved 
it to a wonderful degree. 

A depression in the central portion of the county 
extends from the Blue Mountain on the north to 
the boundary line on the southeast, a distance of 
thirty-two miles. It resembles an L irregularly 
drawn. It is called "Schuylkill A'alley," and take's 
its name from the meandering river that flows 
through its bosom. It is not distinguished for 
width. Above Reading it is rather open, below 
rather confined. Valleys enter it on the east and 
on the west. The most conspicuous of the eastern 
valleys are the Maiden-creek, the Antietam, the 
Monocacy and the Manatawny : and of the western, 
the Tulpehocken, the Wyomissing, the Allegheny, 
and the Hay-creek. All take their names from the 
streams which flow through them. On both sides 
they begin at the extreme limits of the county, ex- 
cepting the Antietam and the Monocacy, which be- 
gin in the central portion. 

NOTE. — Gan'-sho-han'-ne, meaning "the mother of waters," is the Indian name for the 
Schuylkill river. The Dutch name, Schuylkill, means hidden stream, the outlet of the 
Schuylkill flowing into the Delaware river being so wide as not to be observable. 

The Schuylkill is the principal stream of Berks county, with important branches — Onte- 
launee and Manatawny, flowing into it from the east, and Tulpehocken and Allegheny from the 
west. They together flow into the Delaware river below Philadelphia, and thence into the 
Atlantic ocean. 


Together these valleys present a remarkable con- 
formation. They distribute the water supply equal- 
ly. Their depression is from the limits of the county 
toward the center, with a southerly inclination. 
The principal valley has the lowest points of the 
county from the northern limit to the southern. 
The limits on the east, west and south are water- 
sheds to a great degree; inside the waters flow 
inwardly, but at the lines and outside they flow 
outwardly — on the east into the Lehigh river and 
Perkiomen creek, and on the west and south into 
the Swatara creek and Conestoga creek, which 
empty into the Susquehanna river. These valleys, 
therefore, gather all the waters within the county 
and direct them into and through its territory for 
the great benefit of its industrious inhabitants be- 
fore they allow them to depart. 

Berks county occupies the central portion of the 
large district, in area forty-six hundred square 
miles, which lies between the Delaware and Sus- 
quehanna rivers. The plan of distribution of val- 
leys and waters between these rivers is marvelous, 
and the leaders in the mdvement for the erection 
of the county in this large body of land displayed 
remarkable foresight and knowledge in obtainirig 
such boundary lines. 

The Tulpehocken Valley forms the eastern sec- 
tion of the Lebanon Valley, the Swatara Valley 
(which extends westwardly through Lebanon and 
Dauphin counties) the western section. These two 
valleys together are about fifty-four miles long, and 
they take the name of Lebanon Valley from the 
town which occupies the highest point midway. 

There are other valleys, but they have only a 
local character and take their names from the re- 
spective streams which flow through them. There 
are several gaps in the county, but the Schuylkill 
Gap in the Blue Mountain, where the Schuylkill 
river enters, possesses the most marked features. 

Streams. — Springs are the great sources of all 
streams. They arise mostly in the mountains and 
elevated portions of country, and supply all the 
streams in Berks county, almost the entire quan- 
tity flowing from numerous springs which are sit- 
uated within its borders. This is exceptional; for 
comparatively little water is drained from the ad- 
joining counties into Berks county, but a great 
quantity is drained from Berks county into all .he 
adjoining counties, excepting Schuylkill countv on 
the north. This indicates that the borders of Berks 
county are higher than the surrounding territory. 

Bethel township, in the northwest, is e;itirely 
drained by the Little Swatara creek into the Swa- 
tara, and the waters pass through Lebanon and 
Dauphin counties into the Susquehanna river. 
Caernarvon township, on the south, is entirely 
drained by the Little Conestoga and Muddy creeks, 
into the Conestoga, and the waters pass through 
Lancaster county into the Susquehanna nyer. A 
part of Union township, on the southeast, is drained 
by French creek, and the waters pass through 
Chester county into the Schuylkill river. Consid- 

erable parts of the eastern townships (Colebrook- 
dale, Washington and Hereford) are drained by 
Perkiomen creek, and the waters pass through 
Montgomery county into the Schuylkill. And the 
greater part of Longswamp township on the north- 
east, and the remaining part of Hereford, are 
drained by the Little Lehigh into Lehigh river, and 
the waters pass through Lehigh county into the 
Delaware river. 

The streams of the county are numerous. They 
irrigate every section and contribute much to the 
natural fertility of the soil. The most conspicuous 
feature of the water system is the Schuylkill river. 
Streams flow into it from the east and from the 
west, and the territory on each side, thus supplied, 
is about equal in area. On the eastern side, begin- 
ning in the upper section, they are 1, Windsor; 
2, Perry; 3, Maiden creek (which has two principal 
tributaries flowing into it, both on the east — Mose- 
lem and Sacony) ; 4, Laurel Run ; 5, Bernhart Run ; 
6, Rose 'Valley run; 7, Antietam; 8, Monocacy; 
and 9, Manatawny (which has two principal tribu- 
taries flowing into it — the Ironstone from the east, 
and the Little Manatawny from the west). Of 
these, the Maiden creek and Manatawny are espe- 
cially large. The Bernhart, run and the Antietam 
(formerly, for a time, known as Ohlinger creek) 
have been.entirely appropriated by the city of Read- 
ing for a municipal water supply. 

On the western side they are 1, Mill creek; 2, 
Irish creek; 3, Tulpehocken; 4, Wyomissing; 5, 
AngeHca; 6, Allegheny; 7, Hay creek; 8, Sixpenny; 
and 9, Mill creek. Of these, the Tulpehocken, Wy- 
omissing and Hay creek are especially large. 

All the streams mentioned afford valuable water- 
power. They attracted the attention of the early 
settlers of the county and their inexhaustible sup- 
ply was fully appreciated, having been appropriated 
immediately by the settlers, and turned to account 
in running gristmills and iron forges. Many of 
the early deeds on record relate to this. 

Schuylkill.— The word Schuylkill is of Dutch or- 
igin and means Hidden creek, or Skulk creek. The 
Dutch named the river when they took possession 
of the land about its mouth. The outlet is very 
wide and deceiving, and appears to be a part of the 
Delaware river instead of being a tributary. By 
some persons it is said to be of Indian origin, but 
this is not correct. The name given to it by the 
Indians was "Ganshowehanne," which means a 
roaring or falling stream. Rupp says they called 
it "Manajung," which means mother. The river 
rises in Schuylkill county. It flows generally in a 
southeasterly direction and traverses the State for 
a distance of one hundred and twenty-five miles, 
until it empties into the Delaware river at Phila- 
delphia. It has many important branches which 
flow into it on the east and on the west, from its 
source to its. mouth. These contribute much to the 
physical and productive welfare of the southeastern 
section of the State. Together they drain a very- 
large area of territory. 



The important branches are the following: On 
the east, beginning in the north: 1, Main Branch; 

2, Little Schuylkill (formerly called Tamaqua) ; 

3, Maiden creek; 4, Manatawny; 5, Perkiomen; 
and 6, Wissahickon; and on the west: 1, West 
Branch ; 2, Bear creek ; 3, Tulpehocken ; 4, Wyo- 
missing; 5, French creek; and 6, Pickering. Each 
is conspicuous for length and large flow of water; 
and in a general way they are about equal in these 
respects. This harmony in their proportions is 
wonderful. The earliest drafts show the Maiden 
creek, Manatawny and Tulpehocken, which indi- 
cates that the surveyors regarded them of more 
than ordinary importance. The Schuylkill is not 
only the grand trunk of this system of water, but 
it occupies the central line of the territory in which 
this system is arranged. 

Latitude and Longitude. — The county of Berks 
lies in the lower central portion of the North Tem- 
perate Zone, between 40° and 41° North Latitude, 
and between ^° and 1|° East Longitude, reck- 
oning from Washington. 

Relative Elevations. — The following state- 
ment exhibits the elevation, above mean ocean tide, 
at Philadelphia, of the several places in Berks coun- 
ty, and other places out of the county, as compared 
with Reading, in different directions. The figures 
to the left of the places indicate the distance in 
miles from Reading, and those to the right, the 
elevation in feet. 


Seventh .and Penn Streets 265 feet 

Foot of Penn Street 198 feet 

I.riles NoRl H Feet 

17 Hamburg 372 

35 Pottsvillc 611 

Tamaqua 800 

18,.-, Topton 482 

36 Allentown 254 


M'anatawny 189 

Boyertown 386 

Barto 466 


9 Eirdsboro 170 

18 Pottstown 147 

41 Norristown 72 

58 Philadelphia 25 


13,0 White Bear 346 

19.2 Joanna 624 


8.5 Fritztown 469 

10 Deep-Cut 570 

35 Lancaster 369 

45 Columbia 261 


15 Womelsdor 453 

28 Lebanon 463 

54 Harrisburg 318 

Iron Ore. — The mining of different ores was 
carried on quite extensively from the beginning of 
the settlements in Berks county, particularly iron 
and copper. The former of these was mined in 

connection with the manufacture of charcoal iron. 
Rich deposits were found at many places within 
the limits of the county, and became a great source 
of profit to miners and manufacturers. These de- 
posits were mostly in the townships of Cumru, Al- 
sace, Oley, Ruscombmanor, Colebrookdale and 
Caernarvon, and along the East Penn Valley. 

In 1880 the Census Report placed Berks county 
third in the list of ore-producing counties in Penn- 
sylvania, and seventh in the United States. The 
iron ore produced in that year was :352,940 tons and 
over one hundred mines were in successful opera- 
tion. The character of the ore was primitive and 

Copper Ore.- — It is believed that copper ore was 
found in the southern section of the county before 
1700. Subsequently, a tract of one thousand acres 
of land came to be owned and occupied by David 
Jones, in 1735, and he mined large quantities of 
copper ore, causing the locality to be known from 
that time uii' as the "Jones Mines." No st.:i- 
tistics have been published relating to it. It was 
operated at different times afterward for nearly one 
hundred and fifty years. 

Clays. — A number of beds of clay have been 
found and worked in recent yearb, which are de- 
scribed in the several townships where the opera- 
tions have been carried on. 

Minerals. — Prof. David B. Brunner (prominent 
educator of Berks county for many years) tabu- 
lated a list of the minerals found in the county and 
this list comprises seventy different kinds. 

Geology. — A geological survey of Pennsylvania 
was made from 1836 to 1857 by the State, and this 
immediate section, including Berks county, was 
found to contain four principal strata, which 
extend through the county from northeast to south- 
west. By a published map it appears that the jflaie 
formation covered nearly the upper half of the 
county, or four-tenths ; the limcstouc, the central 
section, or three-tenths; the white sandstone, the 
lower central, or one-tenth; and the red sandstone, 
the lower, or two-tenths. 

When the province of Pennsylvania was granted 
to" William Penn by Charles II., King of Great 
Britain, in 1681, no township or county organiza- 
tion.s existed within its limits. But the arrival of 
Pent was the dawn of government, progress and 
civilisation, and within a month afterward he 
caused three counties to be laid out — Bucks, Chester 
and Philadelphia. County government then began, 
and county representation in the Provincial As- 
sembly was inaugurated. 

Durinji^ this period, thousands of immigrants 
came into the province and effected permanent set- 
tlements ■ and each succeeding 3'ear found them 
farther r'lmoved from the county-seats of the coun- 
ties named. They proceeded up the courses of 
streams .nostly. Very few followed the streams 
from their sources to their outlets. Onlv one col- 


ony came from New York overland, and this was 
nearly fifty years after the settlements had begun, 
and the government had been given a fixed charac- 
ter. Nearly all landed at Philadelphia; and thence 
the great majority proceeded toward the interior 
districts and the head-waters of streams. This is 
particularly the case with the Schuylkill river and 
all its tributaries. 

The settlements between the Schuylkill and Del- 
aware rivers were numerous before 1700. Every 
decade thereafter found them farther northward 
from the Wissahickon to the Perkiomen, from the 
Perkiomen to the Manatawny, and from the Man- 
atawny to the Maiden creek. And so they pro- 
■ceeded between the Schuylkill and Susquehanna 

Gradually those who had settled in the interior 
districts toward the mountains began to feel the 
inconvenience and expense incident to their location. 
They were compelled to travel, regardless of roads 
or weather, to the county-seat far removed from 
their settlements, and to haul their goods many 
miles to the market before they could realize any 
value for the products of their hard manual labor. 
Naturally they felt inclined to improve their condi- 
tion. A county organization was the first step 
toward accomplishing this object, as well to bring 
the county-seat into their midst as to create a mar- 
ket near by for the disposition of their produce. 

But, notwithstanding the numerous settlements 
and the large population in the great district of 
territory east of the Schuylkill and south of the 
Blue Mountain, no additional counties were erected 
hefore 1750. It was different to the west of the 
Schuylkill. The tide of immigration seems to have 
"been greater in that direction. They did not have 
the natural facilities to enable them to reach their 
county seat in Chester county, as the settlers had 
in the districts to the east of them, which lay in 
Philadelphia and Bucks counties. In 1739 they 
induced the Executive Council to separate them 
from Chester county and erect their settlements 
into a new county, which they called Lancaster. 

During the first quarter of the eighteenth century 
many immigrants proceeded to the right into Per- 
kiomen Valley along the West Branch, and into 
Oley Valley along the Manatawny and its tribu- 
tarie's. These were mostly Germans; some were 
English, and others Swedes. Other immigrants, 
mostly Welsh, proceeded to the left into Conestoga 
Valley. The settlements for miles on both sides 
of the river were mostly confined to the south of 
the succession of hills commonly called South 
Mountain. This was especially the case to the right. 
In this district of territory the settlements were 
then known by the names "Amity," "Oley" and 
"Colebrookdale." But to the left, a small settle- 
ment of Germans had taken place in the Tulpe- 
hocken Valley, the enterprising settlers having come 
down the Susquehanna river from New York, and 
migrated eastwardly to the head-waters of the Tul- 
•pehocken creek ; and another settlement, of English 

(commonly called "Friends") and Welsh, had taken 
place along the Allegheny and Wyomissing creeks. 
These settlements were known by tne names "Tul- 
pehocken" and "Robeson." An earher settlement 
to the south was called "Caernarvon." Accord- 
ingly, during the first quarter of that century, six 
distinct settlements in this vicinity had come to be 
formed and recognized. 

During the second quarter, the way for settle- 
ments north of the South Mountain was opened by 
the purchase of the territory from the Indians- 
The Friends were the first to enter the new dis- 
trict to the right of the river. They took up large 
tracts of land along the Ontelaunee, called by them 
Maiden creek. Many Germans followed imme- 
diately afterward. And to the left, many Germans, 
Friends, and Welsh were added to the settlements 
along the Tulpehocken, Wyomissing and Allegheny 

Improvements were carried on with great energy 
and success throughout the greats valleys which lay 
between the South Mountain and the Kittatinny 
Mountain (sometimes called "North," but com- 
monly "Blue Ridge"). New districts were formed 
to encourage local government and to facilitate 
intercourse. To the right they were called Doug- 
lass, Exeter, Ruscombmanor, Alsace, Maxatawny, 
Maiden-creek, Richmond, - Longswamp and Alle- 
mengle; and to the left, Heidelberg, Bern, Cumru, 
Bethel and Brecknock. Altogether, till 1750, the 
districts were twenty in number. This was the 
territorial situation of the settlements in this sec- 
tion of the province toward the close of the second 
quarter of the eighteenth century. 

The settlers had provided themselves with meetr 
ing-houses and schools for their religious and secu- 
lar education. In this respect they had exhibited 
commendable zeal. The German population pre- 
dominated; consequently, the preaching and teach- 
ing were mostly done in the German language. But 
the Friends were not backward. They were prom- 
inent in Oley, Exeter, Robeson and Maiden-creek; 
and their schools were distinguished for excel- 

Manufactures were carried on everywhere; spin- 
ning was a common, if not a necessary employ- 
ment in every household. Wearing apparel was 
home-made; carpenters, masons, blacksmiths and 
shoemakers were in every locality; and iron ore 
mines and furnaces and forges were in operation 
to the north, south, east and west. 

The great highways were comparatively few, 
the most prominent public road being the Tulpe- 
hocken. It extended from the Tulpehocken settle- 
ment in the west, in a southeasterly .direction, via 
the ford across the Schuylkill (now the site of the 
Penn street bridge at Reading) and Pine Iron 
Works, to Phila:lelphia. From this ford a prom- 
inent road extended to the north, on the eastern 
Fide of the river, called ATaiden-creek road ;" and 
another to the south, on the western side, called 
Schuylkill road. 


This point of concentration naturally attracted 
attention toward this locality as a practicable place 
for a town-site. Elsewhere, for many miles 
round about, there was no town, not even a village ; 
and there were then apparently no steps toward 
founding either. But just as the settlers had labored 
for years to establish a county out of the surround- 
ing territory, similar efforts were expended for a 
town here. 


The first efforts for the establishment of a new 
county out of the upper sections of Philadelphia 
and Lancaster counties, adjoining the Schuylkill, 
were made in the latter part of 1738. On Jan. 
13th, of that year, the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
province laid before the Council two petitions ad- 
dressed to him — one from the inhabitants of Prov- 
idence, Limerick, etc., in Philadelphia county; and 
the other from the inhabitants of the northeast 
side of the county of Lancaster (with a map of the 
Province of Pennsylvania) — praying that a new 
county may be bounded as by the dividing lines 
in the said map, for that they labor under great 
inconveniences and damage by reason of their 
distance from the courts held at Philadelphia and 
Lancaster, and for many other reasons in the said 
petition mentioned ; which were read and ordered 
to lie on the table for further consideration. The 
first petition has not been found ; but a copy of 
the other is in the possession of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, and it 
includes the names of 172 subscribers, of which the 
first 61 were Welsh, the others Germans. 

In May, 1739, the Lieutenant-Governor addressed 
a message to the Assembly, in which he referred 
to these petitions, but the Assembly took no action. 
The petitioners waited patiently for six years with- 
out any progress in the matter ; then they forwarded 
another petition, renewing their request for a new 
county. It was read to the Council, "and their case 
being thought proper to be recommended to the 
Assembly, the same was done," in a message sim- 
ilar to the first. The Assembly ordered it to lie on 
the table. It was signed by John Potts, Henry 
Harry, William Bird, Francis Parvin and num- 
erous other inhabitants. 

On Jan. 14, 1745, a similar petition was pre- 
sented, in which the petitioners (the persons named 
"in behalf of themselves and a great many other 
inhabitants") prayed "that their former petition 
might now be considered." It was read and or- 
dered to lie on the table. The next day (15th) 
it was again read, but referred for further con- 
sideration. In two weeks afterward (on the 30th), 
another "petition from a considerable number of 
inhabitants of Philadelphia and Lancaster counties, 
praying to be set off into a new county," was pre- 
sented, read and ordered to lie on the table. On 
Feb. 28, 1745, sundry persons appeared before the 
House and urged the matter of the erection of this 

new county, but the matter was dropped for five 
years more. 

In the mean time settlements had been extended 
westwardly and northwestwardly beyond the Sus- 
quehanna river. York county was erected on Aug. 
19, 1749, and Cumberland county on Jan. 27, 1750, 
both out of the westerly part of Lancaster county. 
This successful action on the part of the German 
settlers west of the Susquehanna awakened a new 
interest in behalf of the new county between the 
Susquehanna and the Delaware; for, some months 
afterward (May 7, 1750), a petition was presented 
and read, but again it was not effective. If they 
were then disappointed, they were not discouraged. 
Their determination prepared them for another 
effort. A year afterward, they tried it again. 
They caused their petition to be brought up before 
the Assembly Aug. 16, 1751, and read a second 
time; but it was "referred to the consideration of 
the next Assembly." 

When the next Assembly met, these earnest 
petitioners were on hand. They prepared the way 
by presenting still another petition, Feb. 4, 1752, 
which represented — ■ 

That they were inhabitants of Reading-town, upon 
the Schuylkill. That they had settled in the said town, 
expecting that it would be a great place of trade and 
business, and had put themselves to vast expenses in 
building and removing thither with their families, several 
of whom had left tolerably good plantations; that though 
the said town had not above one house in it about two 
years ago (1750), yet it now consisted of one hundred 
and thirty dwelling-houses, besides forty-one stables and 
other out-houses; and that there were one hundred and 
sixty families, consisting of three hundred and seventy- 
eight persons, settled therein; that they had good reason 
to believe that in another summer they would be much 
increased, as the chief part of the province that could 
be settled was already taken up, and the settling oi the 
town would be of great benefit to tradesmen and others 
who are not able to purchase tracts of land to live on; 
that they humbly conceived it their interest, to the hon- 
orable proprietaries as well as to themselves, and that 
unless this House would be pleased to erect part of the 
counties of Philadelphia, Chester and Lancaster into a 
separate county, they should be entirely disappointed 
in their expectations, notwithstanding all the cost and 
trouble they had been at; they therefore prayed that this 
House would take their case into consideration and grant 
them relief by erecting such parts of said counties as 
they should think most proper into a new county, with 
the same privileges that the other counties of this prov- 
ince enjoyed; and that the seat of judicature should be 
fixed within the said town of Reading. 

And on the following day (5th) another petition 
was presented, in which they stated that 

Although their grievances were laid before the As- 
semblies of this Province several years past, and their 
petition again renewed at the last sitting of the Assembly, 
yet as they find the causes of their complaint still grow- 
ing, they humbly beg leave further to represent that 
they are settled at a very great distance from the place 
of judicature, many of them not less than one hundred 
miles, which is a real hardship upon those who are so 
unhappy as to be sued for debts, their charges in long 
journeys, and sometimes in severe weather, with the 
officers' fees, amounting to near as much, if not more, 
than the debts; that the hardships on jurymen, consta- 


bles, etc., in being^ obliged to attend when required, is 
also very great; that now there is a new town laid out 
by the Proprietaries' Order, within fifteen perches of the 
division line between Philadelphia and Lancaster coun- 
ties, and above one hundred and thirty houses built, and 
near as many families living therein; it is very easy 
for rogues and others to escape justice by crossing the 
Schuylkill, which has already been their practice for 
some years; that, thotigh their grievances when laid 
before the Assembly some years past were not redressed, 
because of other weighty affairs being at that time under 
consideration, yet the prayer of their petition was thought 
reasonable, and the number of petitioners being since 
doubled by the increase of the back inhabitants; they 
therefore pray that this House would grant relief in the 
premises, by erecting them into a separate county, 
bounded as to the wisdom of the House shall seem 

In pvirsuance of the reference, the petition 
was read on the 5th, and referred for the next 
day. The 6th arrived and it was read again and 
referred. , On the 12th, the same proceedings 
were had. And finally, on the 13th, the monotony 
of reading and reference was broken; for then 
the House, after having considered the petition, 
and , also the petitions from Reading, "Resolved, 
that the petitioners have leave to bring in a bill 
pursuant to the prayer of their petition." 

On that day, some of the petitioners presented 
themselves before the House and desired leave to 
be heard respecting the bounds which they under- 
stood the House proposed for a new county in 
case it should be granted. Their objections were 
heard; and, after answering such questions as 
were put to them, they withdrew. 

On the 18th, the bill was read the first time 
and ordered to lie on the table. On the 19th, 
it was read a second time, considered paragraph 
by paragraph, and, after some debate, ordered 
to be transcribed for a third reading. On the 
20th, it was read a third time, and, upon the ques- 
tion that the bill do pass it was ordered to be 
given the ■ Governor for his concurrence. After 
some consideration and amendments, the Act was 
finally passed on March 11, 1752. So, after the 
lapse of fourteen years, the zeal and persistent 
efforts of the petitioners were at last crowned with 
success. The Act specified the name of the county 
to be "Berks," fixed the boundary lines, authorized 
the erection of county buildings for tfte public serv- 
ice, and gave the inhabitants the customary powers 
of local. government, etc. . 

Surveying Commissioners, appointed in the Act 
(Edward Scull of Philadelphia county, Benjamin 
Lightfoot of Chester county, and Thomas Cook- 
son of Lancaster county), made a survey of the 
boundary lines of the new county extending them 
as far as the Susquehanna river, which was then 
the limit of settlements. 

The settlers, soon ascertaining that the lines 
were run, then extended their settlements rapidly 

farther on; which caused complaints to arise, be- 
cause the adjoining counties claimed and exer- 
cised the right of levying taxes on the inhabi- 
tants and their property along the lines. 

An Act was therefore passed on February 18, 
1769, which authorized three commissioners to run 
the lines between Lancaster, Cumberland and Berks 
counties on the west, and between Northampton 
and Berks counties on the northeast, by actual sur- 
vey, and extend them in a northwestwardly course 
as far as the lands extended which were purchased 
from the Indians by the Proprietaries in 1768. 

The territory to the east of the Schuylkill river 
was taken from Philadelphia county, and that to 
the west from Lancaster and Chester counties. The 
estimated area of the county, as at present bounded, 
from each of them is as follows: 


Philadelphia county 280,000 

Lancaster county 238,500 

Chester county 7,500 


Districts at Erection. — At the time of the 
erection of the county there were twenty districts 
or townships, and taking the river as the natural 
dividing line, they were as follows: 

















Boundaries of County. — The county is bound- 
ed on. the northwest by Schuylkill county, the Blue 
Mountain forming a natural boundary line in 'length 
about thirty-six miles; on the northeast by Lehigh 
county, the line extending S. 49 degrees E., twenty- 
four miles ; on the southeast by Montgomery county 
and Chester county, the line along the former ex- 
lending S. 33i degrees W., sixteen and one-fifth 
miles, and the line along the latter, S., 53 degrees 
W., eleven and a half miles; and on the southwest 
by Lancaster county and Lebanon county, the entire 
line extending N. 49^ degrees W., thirty-nine miles, 
along the former county nineteen miles, and along 
the latter twenty miles. 

The population of the new couniy at the time 
of its erection cannot be approximately estimated. 
It may have been about twelve thousand. 


First Assessment, 1754 






Colebrookdale . . 





Longswamp .... 
Maiden-creek. . . 









£ 18 
























































Cornelius Treiss 

John Webb 
Nicholas Isch 

Jacob Wiler 
Frederick Mayer 
Benedic Leeser 
Frederick Helwig 
Paul Rodarmell 
Andrew Hauck 
John Hill 

Christopher Witman 
Abram Kiefer i 
Anthony Peck 
Leonard Reever 

409 6 





Brecknock . . 


Heidelberg. . 
Robeson. . . . 






























' 3 






Jacob Reeser 
Nicholas Wolf 
Henry Brandle 

'John Morris 
Leonard Grow 
Ephraim Jackson 
Christopher Weiser 
Thomas Pratt 

70 9 



Brunswick. . 
Pine Grove. 

. |£l0|l8s. 
I 3|16 

56|Francis Yarnall 
29 Nicholas Long 

14 14 6 



694 9 



Alsace. — Tax collector same as Reading. 

Caernarvon. — Tax collector same as Union. 

Douglass.— Established in 1736, included with Amity. 

Brunswick and Pine Grove had not yet been established 
as Districts, but the taxable inhabitants there were as- 

Assessment made after erection of the county, 
tl-e additional districts having been established and recog- 
nized in the meantime. 

First Taxables. — The following- lists show the 
names of the taxables as they appear in a record 
recently found. It is believed that the Assessment 
was made in the year 1752 or shortly afterward 
by direction of the Commissioners for the pin-pose 
of levying the necessary tax to carrv on the local 
government; but 1754 has been set in 'at the head of 
the preceding table as the year when it was probably 
prepared, the Commissioners having in the mean- 
time _ doubtless taken the assessment made of the 
districts in the original counties as a guide until 
they were enabled to put the legal machinery in 
proper motion. It will be noticed that seven ad- 
ditional districts came to be recognized since the 

erection of the county (Greenwich, Herefori.1, 
Reading, Windsor, Union, Brunswick and Pine- 
Grove). This is the first time that the names of 
these tax!ables were published, and no attempt was 
made to correct the improper spelling in many in- 
stances as reported by the several assessors. 


Anthony Adam 

John Baily 

Arnold Bittick 

Adam Boose 

Geo. Orchard Bomgartner 

Andrew Haigh Bug 

John Creeker 

Christopher Celphack 

George Cleanman 

Philip Coogler 

John Michael Corker 

Jacob Cuntz 

Adam Drum 

Nicholas Emrich 

William Farmer 

Julius Flack 

Casper Foolweiler 

George Corner 

Jacob Hacker 

George Hard 

Christian Heffeler 

Christian Henrick 

Michael Herbester 

Fredrick Hower 

Jacob Jarkmer 

Martin Keffer 

John Kesler 

Peter Kistner 

Jacob Lantz 

George Lember 

George Lentz 

Fredrick Mensel 

John Miller 

Jacob Backer 
Henry Baker 
Peter Bingaman 
Detrick Bittleman 
Dewalt Boom 
George Born 
John Close 
Herman Dehaven 
Jacob Dehaven 
Mathias Drenkle 
Simon Drisebogh 
John Eabling 
Michael Fether 
•Mjichael Fisher' 
Adam Garrett 
Henry Garrett 
Rudolph Garrett 
Leonard Glaser 
Fredrick Goodhart 
John Haberacker 
Philip Haflick 
Jacob Heidelshoe 
George Heir 
Samuel High 
Barnard Keller 
Conrad Keller 
Christian Kinsey 
George Kline 
Mathias Knip 
John Kulp 

Michael Mowner 
Casper Nigh 
Valentine Peter 
Anthony Petershiminer 
Michael Proabst 
Martin Probst 
Felty Probst 
Nicholas Ratick 
Henry Reifeldorfer 
Fredrick Rickelderfor 
Henry Ritter 
Jacob Stam 
William Smader 
William Stamp 
Philip Stampack 
Tobias Stapleton 
Nicholas Strawser 
Daniel Smith 
Christopher Swing 
Peter Treese 
Henry Treese 
Simon Treese 
Cornelius Treiss 
Andreas Wenner 
Nicholas Wenner 
John Witt 
Henry Zimmerman 

Single Men 

Nicholas Milderberger 
Solomon Packerman 
Adam Staler 


John Lamer 
Jacob Lansiscus 
George Lorah 
Casper Millhouse 
Baltser Moon 
Christian Morian 
George Nees 
Peter Norgong 
William Null 
Conrad Pop 
Philip Reaser 
Adam ReifTel 
Rinehard Rorebaugh 
Christopher Spangler 
Adam Swasbogh 
Jonas Seely Esq. 
Ernst Seydel 
John Smeck 
Bolser Swenck 
Peter Smith 
Henry Snider 
Victor Spice 
George Sowerbeir 
Stephen Shlunacker 
Adam Wagoner 
Lawrence Winsel 
Henry Wolf 
Francis Yost 
Nicholas Yost 


Rinehard Abershan 
Abram Andrew 
Daniel Andrew 
Mary Antis 
Jacob Arly 
Philip Jacob Bakel 
Thomas Banfield 
Thomas Barnard 
Joseph Boone 
Moses Bower 
John Boyer 
John Boyer 
Nicholas Boyer 
Thomas Bromfield 
James Burn 
Andrew Busserd 
Samuel Busserd 
David Cambell 
John Campbell 
Godfrey Cassebe 
Derick Cleaver 
Balster Creesman 
John Child 
Michael Cogel 
John Colter 
Lawrence Cooper 
John Close 
Jacob Crust 
Bridget Davis 
Cornelius Dehart 
Marg't Dehart 
Edward Doughty 
Edward Drury 
Francis Eckerman 
Aaron Eppler 
Lodwic Eisey 
Morris Ellis 
Daniel Fraley 
John Fretz 
Lodwic Filinger 
George Adam Fisher 
John Fye 
Francis Gibson 
Ellis Griffith 
John Griner 
Lodwic Gowger 
John Hammer 
George Hansleman 
Rowland Harris 
Adam Hatfield 
Joseph Holoway 
Martha Howard 
Michael Hufman 
Andrew Huling 
John Hulings 
Marcus Huling 
Jonas Jones 
Nicholas Jones 
Peter Jones 
Felty Keely 
John Kerlin 
Peter Kerlin 
John Klinger 
Simon Lightner 
Peter Livergood 
Daniel Lodwick 
Jacob Long , 
John Lowrow 
George Lutts 
William Macky 
Patrick Magw.ire 

John Abler 
ChristiPTi A'brecht 


Stin Mayberry 
Hugh McCaffery 
Michael Messinger 
Hugh Mitchell 
Mathias Moudv 
Jacob Naugle 
Philip Near 
Martin Peker 
Walter Price 
John Potts 
John Powell 
Adam Reed 
Andrew Reingberry 
Jacob Roads 
Leonard Rodermel 
Barnabas Rhoads 
John Rutter 

Abijah Sands 
John Sands 

Balster Stas 

George Shedler 

John Ralph Snider 

George Stinger 

George Swiger 

John Taylor 

Joseph Thomas 

Michael Trump 

Henry Vanreed 

Jacob Waren 

James Waren 

John Waren 

Jacob Weaver 

Peter Weaver 

John Webb 

George Adam Weidner 

Isaac Weisman 

Stophel Wigel 

Daniel Will 

Elisabeth Williams 

William Winters 

Fredrick Wombach 

Daniel Womeldorff 

Peter Yoacam 

John Yocam 

Jonas Yocam 

Single Men 

Michael Berfenstone 
Jeremiah Boone 
Solomon Bromfield - 
Hugh Caain 
Solomon Davids 
William Davis 
Adam Drinkout 
Joshua Evars 
Alexander Gey 
Tames Hickley 
Samuel Hughes 
Mountz Jones 
Valentine Liffhtner 
Henry Martin 
Nicholas Meissner 
Peter Jesse Minker 
Valentine Morte 
Fredrick Stone 
■"■oseph Wallick 
Daniel Walter 
^rmpoh Williams 
William Williams 


'icob Albrecht 
Jacob Appier 

Valentine Appier 
Jacob Allwine 
Christian Althouse 
John Althouse 
Ulrick Bakenstove 
Jacob Bayler 
George Belloman 
George Benter 
Christian Berger 
David Brecht 
Adam Boone 
Philip Boyer 
John Bugs 
Jacob Buikey 
Jacob Burkee Jun'r 
Christian Byler 
Nicholas Clay 
Jacob Conrad 
Hans Curtz 
Titus Denning 
Jacob Dilman 

Mathias Dombach 

Benedic Domma 
John Ebbert 
John Eleman 

Adam Filer 

John Faust 

Christian Fight 

John Fight 

Christian Fisher 

Hieronimus Fisher 

Philip Foust 

Jacob Fox 

Fredrick Frum 

Christian Furry 

George Gernant 

Eberhard Geshwind 

Jacob Gicker 

David Grim 

Jacob Grim 

Jacob Grim 

Jacob Good 

Abram Haas 

John Haas 

Jacob Hackley 

Lawrence Hansel 

Peter Harpine 

Jacob Hartzler 

William Hatrick 

Yost Heck 

Jacob Heek 

Hieronimus Henning 

John Hester 

Yost Hester 

Valentine Himmelberger 

Jacob Hochstutlar 

Peter Hofman 

Nicholas Holler 

John Holly 

John Hufman 

Jacob Jeis 

Paul Junger 

Christian Kaufman 

Isaac Kaufman 

Jacob Kaufman 

Jacob Kaufman 

John Reabert 
Benedic Keprer 
George Kershner 
Martain Kershner 
Christian Kershberger 
Henry Ketner 
Peter Krebiel 
Henry Kicker 
Christian King 
Samuel King 
Peter Kline 

Stephen Kurtz 
Hans Lantz 
Widow Leib 
Michael Lindemoth 
George Loose 
Valentine Long 
William Lymister 
George Magner 
Jacob Mayer 
Philip Magemer 
Jacob Mast 
John Meat 
John Megemer 
Fredrick Meyjer 
George Miller 
Jacob Miller 
John Miller 
Nicholas 'Miller 
Simon Mink 
Valentine M/ogel 
Jacob Neis 
Lodwic Nicholas 
Joseph Obald 
Casper Philips 
Peter Radinbach 
Ulrich Radmacker 
Jacob Reeser 
Adam Rickenbach 
Nicholas Rime 
Philip Jacob Rode 
John Runkle 
Nicholas Runcle 
Sebastian Rutt 
Barnard Shartly 
Henry Staly 
Jacob Stain 
Adam Stam 
George Schall 
Albright Strauss 
Lodwic Seaman 
Martain Specht 
John Sieber 
Conrad Snider 
John Snider 
John Snider 
Samuel Spilbert 
Nicholas Souder 
John Shock 
Yost Shoemaker 
Philip Strouse 
Adam Stoudt 
John Stout 
Martha Stoudt 
Michael Stout 
Christian Stutzman 
Jacob Stutzman 
John Tomlinson 
WiUiam Tomlinson 
George Tripner 
Baltas Ifrbehaviour 
George Wagoner 
Herman Weaver 
Mathias Weaver 
Jacob Weidman 
George Weidman 
Andrew Weiler 
Jacob Wetzler 
Christian Kurtz Willets 
James Williamson 
Andrew Winter 
Samuel Wollason 
Barnhard Wommer 
Nicholas Womm«r 
Christian Yoder 
Christian Yoder Jun'r 
Jacob Yoder 
John Yoder 



John Young 
Roland Young 
Joseph ZoUberger 
Christian Zoog 
Moritz Zoog 
Hans Zimmerman 

John Apple 
Christian Bartorf 
John Adam Bartorf 
George Berger 
Henry Berger 
George Besehore 
Thomas Bover 
Adam Daniel 
Jacob Dene 
Peter Detrick 
John Eichgelberger 
Martin Eichgelberger 
Martin Eisenhocker 
Balster Emrich' 
John Emrich 
Jacob Emrich 
George Emrich 
Leonard Emrich 
John France 
Conrath Further 
Nicholas Gebhart 
George Groff 
Michael Groff 
Michael Groseman 
Lorentz Haucks 
Christopher Herold 
Martin Kapler 
Christopher Knebel 
Andrew Kremer 
Henry Kowbel 
John Kuncle 
Adam Kussel 
Francis Leyenberger 
Jacob Leyniner 
David Marks 
Nicholas Marks 

Michael Zuber 

Single Men 

Henry Reeser 
Peter Suefcr 
Christopher Winter 


Peter Mayer 
Rudy Moyer 
Chrissel Newcomer 
Wiilliam Parsons Esq. 
Peter Pickler 
Nicholas Poncious 
Wendel Reeger 
George Reninger 
Christopher Rier 
Nicholas Seaman 
Martin Speck 
Werich Selher 
Jacob Seirer 
Casper Sneavely 
Daniel Sneider 
Ulrick Spice 
Wendel Sivert 
Detrich Sixth 
Andreas Smith 
Baltser Smith 
Charles Smith 
Jacob Smith 
Bastian Stone 
Henry Shuhin 
John Shuy 
Fredrick Trester 
Martin Trester 
John Adam Walborn 
Michael Weiland 
Nicholas Wolf 
Jacob Zerbe 

Single Men 

Teeter Marcle 
Peter Leening 


John Ahtonberry 
Henry Brandle 
Adam Behmer 
Christian Betz 
Daniel Comer 
Daniel Cuper 
John France 
Adam Fellbon 
Jacob Fry 
Valentine Fry 
John Hemick 
Lodwick Herman 
Peter Holler 
Charles Hornbery 

Adam Housh 
John Loy 
Lawrence Lyfred. 
Francis Marshall 
William Moore 
Adam Niduc 
Henry Ourwaser 
David Pealer 
Peter Sharman 
Baltser Snider 
Michael Slougy 
Leopold Yost 
Jeremiah Zemer 


John Adams 
Burgoon Bird 
Valentine Bomgartner 
Abram Bowlebaugh 
John Bushe 
Tohn Costnets 
Stephen Coufman 
George Crowl 
John Clouser 
Peter Conrad 
Michael Dewer 
Thomas Ellas 

John Fincher 
George Fitchime 
Jacob Fudge 
John Green 
Adolph Henry 
George Honsinger 
Michael Humble 
Paul Hyme 
John Jones 
Joseph Jordan 
Philip Kinder 
Henry Kitner 

Daniel Ladee 
Nicholas Miller 
Henry Miller 
Adam Miller 
Daniel Milberger 
George Mock 
Polser Nifong 
Michael Platner 
Barnabas Purtese 
John Rersh 
Sylvenus Robinson 
Moses Robeson 
Joseph Rue 
Jacob Rust 
Jacob Shafer 
John Starrett 
Richard Stevens 
George Sheffer 

John Brackin 
Michael Close 
John Davis 
John Dobbins 
Robert Ellis 
John Farn 
Francis Fisher 
James Fisher 
Nicholas Hudson 
James James 
Daniel Jones 
David Jones 
Valentine Kirby 

Andrew Asshenbach 
John Backer 
Jeremiah Bacon 
Francis Beally 
Conrad Beam 
Fredrick Bettenman 
Casper Brocke 
David Bookert 
Casper Bowman 
Jacob Buckwalter 
jVIichael Cline 
Peter Clingersmith 
Jacob Cunez 
Michael Deiner 
Peter Erett 
Fredrick Erne 
Philip Fissel 
Adam Gerber 
John Gerber 
Frederick Goss 
John Goulden 
Jacob Haucke 
Stephen Hauck 

Rudolph Hover 
Nicholas Isch 
George Joseph 
Fredrick Kclilcr 
David Kepler 
Peter Kill 
Jacob Klodz 
Conrad Leachlider 
Hans Adam Link 
Deobalt Long 
Peter Lubber 
Nicholas Mathias 
Jacob Mattis 
Jacob Miller 
Cunrad More 
Paul Moser 
Tobias Mouck 

Jacob Shearman 
Peter Smelker 
Barnabas Sidle 
Hanteeter Switese 
Nicholas Timmerman 
George Webb 
Thomas Willits 
George Widener 
Francis Yarnall 

Single Men 

Wm. Anderson 
Conrad Creebaura 
Joseph Lodwic 
John Sheaver 
John Willits 


Jacob Light 
John Light 
Christian Long 
William Low 
Ruth Morgan 
Mark Pealor 
Aaron Ratow 
William Robinson 
John Witson 

Free Men 

Christian Longs 


Emanuel Pifer 

Thomas Potts 

Widow Potts 

Peter Pyfer 

John Adam Reidener 

Casper Rickert 

Mathias Rode 

Conrad Roude 

Paul Rutter 

Thomas Rutter 

Thomas Sehone 

John Sleagle 

George Schwinharth 

Hermanus Sossamanhous 

Michael Spots 

Daniel Stover 

Lawrence Shuller 

Jacob Tongler 

Rudolph Totterolph 

Mathias Tutrow 


Bernhard Wanmacker 

John Werstler 

Thomas Willson 

Charles Wise 

Single Men 

George Church 
John WoUrick Duniari 
Henry Eagle 
John George Eagle 
Erasemus — (tailor) 
Francis Gerleck 
Jacob Machline 
Valentine Machline 
John Negrom 
John Pile 
Anthony Spaez 
Peter Shene 
Thomas Walker 




Jacob Ashman 
John Best 
Martin Briner 
Christian Bowman 
Jacob Bowman 
Francis Creek 
Jacob Cloward 
Michael Crowl 
Nicholas Cour 
Martin Colber 
John Davis 
James Davis Sen'r 
Wm. David 
James Davis 
Elisabeth Davis 
John Dealy 
John Dealy 
David Edwards 
Joseph Evans 
David Evans 
David Evans 
Nathan Evans 
George Englehart 
John Englebrown 
Jacob Ecoy 
Sam"! Emry 
Henry Freyley 
Jacob Frymire 
Geo. Hague 
Conrad Hart 
Henry Harry Esq. 
Andrew Hicman 
Adam Household 
Tho's James 
Wra. Jones 
Michael Laph 
James Lewis 
Geo. Lewis' 
Rich'd Lewis 
Eleanor Lewis 
John Little 
Widow Loyd 
George Mawra 
Geo. Minder 
Lodwick Moon 
Werner iMoon 
John Moon 

Martin Alstatt 
Nicholas Alstatt 
Jacob Bacly 
Fred'k Baker 
John Bishop 
Adam Bouman 
Joseph Boone Jun'r 
James Boone 
William Boone 
Benjamin Boone 
Jacob Boyer 
Christopher Boyer 
Joseph Browne 
Peter Cime 
James Cooper 
Paul Durst 
Rowland Ellis 
Enoch Flower 
Martin Gerich 
George Henton 
John Heeler 
Rudick Heeler 
George Hest 
Jacob Hesterly 

John Morris 
Morgan Morgan 
Peter Munich 
Tho's Nicholas 
Henry Olsloff 
Jno. Geo. Pak 
Tho's Paine 
Evan Price 
John Pinclay 
John Pugh 
Michael Rood 
Geo. Roleman 
Peter Rood 
Jacob Rood 
Matis Ryton 
Henry Staupher 
Francis Steal 
Jacob Stealy 
Jonathan Stephen 
Casper Stever 
Adam Sigler 
Mich'l Shoemaker 
Peter Shoup 
John Stole 
Wm. Thomas 
Evan Thomas 
Peter Weidner 
John White 
Sam'l Wilkinson 
Warner Wisel 
Casper Wineman 
Jacob Worst 
Philip Worstloff 
Isaac Young 

Single Men 

Evan Evans 
James Goudye 
Peter Hause 
Wm. Howell 
Thomas James Jun'r 
Nicholas Kilion 
Daniel Murphoy 
Thomas Perkins 
Peter Penon 
Thomas Weaver 


Peter Hewett 
Ellis Hughes 
Samuel Hughes 
John Hughes 
Edward Hughes 
Leonard Hye 
Henry Kerner 
Henry Kersten 
Michael Keister 
Nicholas Kime 
John Lark 
Isaac Levan 
John Lebo 
Michael Lodwic 
William Maugridge 
Valentine Messersmith 
Martin Moll 
John More 
Ulrick Moore 
Michael Mure 
John Ourhawn 
Benjamin Parks 
Robert Patterson 
George Ritter 

Ferdenand Rutter 
Francis Rutter 
George Rutter 
William Russel 
Widow Sadler , 
Peter Sneider 
John Stitzel 
Mathias Teetler 
Henry Thompson 
James Thompson 
Michael Turlings 
Martin Walls 
Peter Waffer 
Widow Wagoner 
Venal Wawl 
John Webb 
Jacob Wiler 
Christian Wicks 
Adins Williams 
Henry Wolf 

Paul Zerleafel 

Single Men 

Peter Beckley 
John Boone 
George Cross 
Nicholas Herner 
Fredrick Keller 
George Keller 
William Kirbe 
Joseph Kirbe 
Jacob Koop 
Abram Levan 
Mordecai Lincoln 
George Messersmith 
Peter Nol 
John Stadwiller 
Henry Shlieg 
John Thompson 
Martin Vesner 
John Wainright 


Henry Aspbach 

Lawrence Beaver 

Jacob Beel 

Melchior Beele 

Geo. Bouman 

Fredrick Bower 

Adam Bower 

Widow Buzzard 

Rudy Buzzard 

Philip Callback 

George Creamer 

Fredrick Cremer 

Godfrid Cremer 

Simon Derek 

John Duncle 

Philip Foust 

Jacob Foust 

Leonard Fox 

Jacob Grenoble 

Nicholas Gotshall 

Fredrick Hairn 

Peter Haucke 

Simon Isenberager 

Gabriel Isenberger 

Peter Kardenginger 

John Keller 

Mathias Keffer- 

John Keel 

Philip Kerker 

Daniel Kline 

George Komp 

George Koser 

John Kooler 

Mathias Lay 

Peter Lenard 

Michael Lesher 

Fredrick Levey's Widow 

Geo. Mich'l Liver 

Jacob Liver 

John Long 
Daniel iManusmith 
Fredrick Mayer 
George Miller 
Charla Palmer 
Henry Polender 
Mathias Reamer 
Geo. Wm. Reel 
Conrad Reigleman 
Anthony Starren 
Adam Staup 
Fred'k Shallaberager 
John Seseman 
Henry Sheafver 
Rudolph Slear 
John Sweedner 
Jacob Sittlemier 
Michael Smith 
Nicholas Shoemaker 
George Spone 
Peter Suttes 
Daniel Teer 
And'w Unaugust 
Mich'l Undercuffeler 
Jacob Wery 

Single Men 

Jacob Adam 
Christian "-Baum 
Martin Beeker 
Abraham Clease 
Conrad Dennis 
Adam Foust 
Conrad Kefner 
George Keller 
Henry Miller 
Jacob Sheffer 
George Swinger 


John Arts 
Nicholas Bachtle 
John Blank 
Abram Besler 
Simon Bennet 
Peter Betz 
George Brindle 
John Boyer 
Andreas Boyer 
Henry Boyer Sen'r 
Henry Boyer Jun'r 

Adam Bonevitz 
Adam Brown 
Michael Bush 
Frantz Brustman 
Nicholas Clat 
John Cowbel 
Fredrick Cowbel 
Andrew Croff 
Thomas Davis 
Christian Deby 
George Derr 



John Desler 
John Henry Dickert 
John Ditter 
Casper Durst 
Eleazor Evans 
John Echard 
Peter Eberly 
Conrad Ernst 
Christ Frantz 
Peter Feg 
Leonard Feg 
WiHiam Fisher 
John Jacob Fisher 
Henry Fidler 
Philip Fitzmier 
Peter Fitzer 
Conrad Finck 
Yost Fox 
Peter Foust 
Anthony Foust 
Henry Fry 
Fredrick Gerrard 
Leonard Grow 
Henry Haines 
Fredrick Haines 
Hans Christian Haines 
George Haines 
Peter Haines 
Casper Haines 
Adam Haines 
Peter Haus 
Henry Hetterick 
Martin Hehdorn 
Yost Hederick 
William Johnson 
Jacob Kern 
Valentine Keyser 
John Keller 
John Klinger 
Peter Knop 
Jacob Kuhl 
Henry Kruber 
Casper Lerg 
Martin Link 
Paul Lingle 
John Martin Long 
George Louck 
Michael Lower 
Nicholas M&rtin 
Dietrick Marshall 
Melchor Mehl 
Ulrich Michael 
Christian Miller 
Fredrick Miller 

Hans Moyer 
Catherine Mountz 
George Nagle 
Peter Newman 
John Melchor Norr 
Bastian Obaldt 
Michael Oberhauser 
Martin Pattinger 
Tobias Pickle 
Henry Printz 
Peter Pricker 
Gabriel Razar 
William Reeser 
Nicholas Reed 
Peter Reedly 
Ulrich Richard 
Nicholas Rool 
Conrad Sharp 
Detrick Shall 
Casper Shaffer 
Nicholas Shaffer 
Jacob Sencebach 
Michael Smell 
Thomas Stierns 
Adam Shorf 
Philip Stort 
Catherine Stronekin 
Michael Shower 
Adam Shower 
John George Shock 
Adam Spohn 
Henry Spohn 
William Spotz 
Henry Sturt 
John Surby 
Henry Sugar 
John Stump 
Peter Werner 
Balser Wendrick 
Mathias Wendrick 
Philip Weiser 
Conrad Weiser Esq. 
Lazarus Winnert 
Nicholas Weinhart 

Single Men 

Lodwick Durr 
Jacob Fox 
Peter Fry 
Henry Klasner 


Henry Stort 
Peter Werlau 


Thomas Bansfield 

Abram Beightle 

George Beightell 

John Beightle 

Michael Bower 

Abram Bower 

Samuel Bower 

Martin Craden 

Valentine Crasmore 

David Coley 

George Cones 

Valentine Delinger 

Jacob Evener 

Nicholas Fink 

Jacob Fisher 

Christian Gamman 

John Gregory 

Richard Gregory 

Philip Heiney 

Francis Latchor 

Benedic Leeser & Brother 

Fredrick Mason 
David Masters 
Gregories Master 
Sophia Mayberry 
George Mercle 
Jacob Miller 
White Miller 
Adam Moser 
Peter Mull 
Fredric Nesler 
Andrew Oldman 
Conrad Pope 
Conrad Popp 
William Rickert 
John Ridenour 
George Rorebach 
Jacob Rosman 
George Sailer 
Michael Shell 
Theodore Schneider 
Widow Stoneman 

Daniel Stover 
Jacob Stover 
John Stopp 
Benedic Stroam 
Christopher Shultz 
Melchor Shutts 
Martin Sturtsman 
Mason Tark 
Peter Teddrolfe 
Melchor Wagoner 
Jacob Walter 
John Walters 
Peter Weller 
Jacob Welssel 

Valentine Wibell 

Single Men 

George Bawer 
Leonard Crasemer 
Jacob Creesmer 
Richard Gregory Jun'r 
John Godfrey , 

John Latcher 
Philip Lawr 
John Meene 
Casper Meyers 
Henry Routh 
Philip Routh 


Christian Abenshen 
Jacob Bard 
Michael Beeber 
Jacob Beery 
Nicholas Beringer 
Frederick Boffenmoyer 
Henry Bollinger 
Martin Boger 
Jacob Buger 
Samuel Burgher 
Philip Burgher 
Baltus Cleaber , 
George Cumb 
Jacob Danner 
Henry Delong 
John Diehl 
Mathias Eigener 
John Egg 
Philip Emert 
George Falk 
Barnard Fegely 
Jacob Fenstermacher 
Philip Fenstermacher 
John Flamer 
Samuel Fogel 
Frederick Helwig 
Christian Henry 
John Hess 
Jacob Huffman 
Martin Hurcher 
Jacob Hum 
Nicholas Jacoby 
Dewalt Karl 
George Keplinger 
Jacob Kieffer 
Frederick Kieffer 
Nicholas Kintz 
Bernhart Klein 
Dewalt Klein 
Henry Knoblich 
Lorentz Lofer 
Jacob Long 

Jacob Long 
Nicholas Long 
Nicholas Martz 
Peter Martz 
Joast Mertz 
Henry Mentz 
Andreas Milshlegel 
Mathias Morell 
Michael Mothstein 
Michael Nederaur 
Inias Noel 
Peter Putser 
Peter Redler 
George Severt 
George Shaffer 
Andreas Sharley 
Frederick Sheffer 
Christian Shick 
George Shroder 
Michael Shroder 
Henry Strickler 
Nicholas Swartz 
Henry Tear 
Conrad Treiss 
Frederick Ulry 
Jacob Wimer 

Single Men 

Anthony Abal 
John Agner 
John Cline 
Melchoir Danner 
Jacob Drollinger 
Adam Gary 
Philip Heesner 
Adam Helwig 
Philip Hen 
Martin Ibert 
Michael Jacobe 
Elias Klenler 
Peter Kline 
Michael Long 


John Barger 
Stephen Barnett 
Anthony Brest 
Alelchor Clinefelter 
Jacob Dipra 
George Flagly 
Pheliz Franfelter 
Michael Feller 
Philip Fitzsimons 
Rudy Hoy 
John Hutton 
James Hutton 
James Jordan 
James Kays 
Thomas Kirby 

Jacob Lightfoot 
Leonard Mire 
Edward Moran 
Godtred Orby 
Francis Parvin Esq. 
Thomas Pearson 
Richard Penrose 
Joseph Penrose 
William Penrose 
Elias Read 
John Reeser 
Jacob Richard 
Paul Rodarmell 
Moses Star 
Moses Star Jun'r 



Merick Starr 
Urban Shettle 
John Sook 
Philip Wax 
NuUy Whee 
Henry Willits 
John Wily 
John Wily 

Single Men 
Peter Ax 
Simon Barger 
Thomas Barger 
Fredrick Christian 
Barnabas Curree 

Robert Dicky 
Martin Houesman 
Jacob Housman 
Owen Hughes 
Peter Kirby 
B. Parvin 

Francis Parvin Jun'r 
Jeremiah Starr 
James Starr 
John Starr 
George Seere 
Casper Stroal 
Benjamin Wiley 


Conrad Bader 

Christopher Bader 

Christian Bawn 

Peter Braun 

Dewalt Beever 

John Beever 

John Beever 

George Beever 

Dieter Benier 

Anthony Bensinger 

Rudolph Bergy 

Abram Berling 

John Bost 

Lodwick Buss 

Michael Creasman 

Michael Cline 

Henry Christ 

Widow Cuttz (Kutz) 

Fredrick Delaplank 

John Delong 

Peter Dick 

Peter Delong 

Anthony Fisher 

Urbon Fribell 

Henry GrauU 

Jacob GrauU 

Jacob Gireadin (Sharaden) 

Lorentz Groin 

WilUam Groff 

William Gross 

Nicholas Harmony 

John Hartman 

Andrew Hauck 

Conrad Heniner 

Michael Henninger 

John Hergenroeder 

John Hill 

John Hostader 

Widow Huttenstein 

Dewalt Kemp 

Julius Kerper 

Casper Killrain 

Jacob King 

Dorst Kursner 

George Kutz 

Jacob Kutz 

Daniel Levan / 

Jacob Levan / 

Sebastian Levan 

Henry Lukenbill 

Conrad Manusmith 

Nicholas MuflBy 

Casper Reap 

Christopher Ruth 

George Sassman 

Andrew Sassman 

Casper Smack 

Martin Sick 

Joseph Sickfred 

John Sigfred 

Jacob Sigfred 

Jost Henry Sossamanhous 

Henry Wetzstone 

Peter Will 

Casper Wink 

Sabastian Zimmerman 

Single Men 

George Bauder 
Joseph Bridle 
Ulrick Bruner 
Phillip Croul 
Nicholas Dehoe 
Andrew Fridle 
Peter Fock 
Jacob Floher 
William Hauck 
Philip Hen 
Henry King 
Jacob Kumerer 
Michael Man 
Michael Steinborn 
George Shriber 
Peter Weiler 


Conrad Arnold 
John Barto 
Abram Bartolet 
Fredrick Bartolet 
John Bartolet 
John Bechtold 
George de Benneville 
Gabriel Boyer 
George Brown 
Nicholas Clemmons 
Casper Creesmer 
Jacob Deplank 
John Dorke 
Mordecai Ellis 
Jacob Engle 

John Fredrick 
Conrad Fisher 
William Foulk 
John Gelbach 
Casper Gregory 
Fredrick Gulden 
Saniuel Gulden 
Peter Harpel 
Jonathan Harpine 
Peter Herpifle 
Samuel High 
John High 
Jacob Hill 
Michael Hiller 
Henry Hose 

Benjamin Hufnail 
Valentine Hufnail 
John Hunter 
Nicholas Hunter 
Adam Ingboden 
George Katesen 
Jacob Kaufman 
Simon Kraus 
John Kegle 
John Keplinger 
, Widow Kersten 
Jacob Kime 
Widow Kime 
Samuel Lee 
Thomas Lee 
Anthony Lee 
John Lee 
John Lesher 
Nicholas Lesher 
Abram Levan 
Fredrick Limebach 
Henry Limebach 
John Limebach 
Peter Lobach 
Benjamin Longworthy 
Jacob Loutz 
Nicholas Matery 
Peter Mathew 
Jacob Miller 

Henry Neunkerch (New- 
George Oyster 
Abram Peter 
Peter Priel 
William Pott Jun'r 
Conrad Reif 
Stephen Report 
Valentine Rice 
Widow Richard 
dliristian Riple 
Leonard Shaffer 
John Stapleton 
William Stapleton 
Henry Shefer 

Jacob Selser 
Jacob Sneider 
Martin Shinkle 
George Shitz 
Nicholas Shlichter 
Jacob Stover 
Dehecus Weidner 
Lazarus Weidner 
George Windbegler 
David Weiser 
Anthony Yager 
John Yoder 
John Yoder Jun'r 
Samuel Yoder 
John Yoder Yost 
Jacob Young 
Valentine Young 
Widow Younkam 

Single Men 

William Collins 
John Fredrick 
Samuel Gulden 
Jacob Hart 
Christopher Harple 
John Hercher 
John Hill , 
Daniel Hoch 
John Hoch 
John Hoof 
Elias Hufnail 
Michael Knap 
John Mertz 
Henry Musk 
Degenhart Pott 
John Pott 
Peter Reed 
Philip Reiff 
John Schneider 
Nicholas Smith 
Jacob Stutz 
Jacob Yoder 
John Yoder Yost 


Jacob Barger 
John Bresler 
Mathias Brickie 
Christopher Bollinger 
Willpart Compart 
Leonard Conrad 
John Donder 
Nicholas Eshway 
Philip Graver 
Michael Gimberle 
Christopher Hedrick 
Henry Kline 
Andrew Kockendorfer 
Lodwick Kornmer 

William Armon 
William Armald 
Peter Baum 
Marks Beek 
James Biddle 
Peter Bingaman 
Joseoh Brintlinger 
Jacob Boldee 
Earhard Bomgartner 
Jacob Boocher 
Conrad Bower 
Henry Boyle 
Abram Brosius 

Nicholas Long 
Jacob Miller 
George Miney 
Peter Miney 
John Mozt 
Casper Newfong 
Martin Potaker 
George Rith 
Philip Smell 
Jacob Stealy 
George Six 
Peter Smith 
Jacob Shope 
Philip Summer 
Nicholas Youngblood 


Fredrick Brown 
Samuel Cays 
Martin Craft 
John Curtz 
John Crul 
Conrad Deboy 
Fredrick Degohard' 
George Devil 
George Dom 
George Douglass 
Ludwic Emian 
Andrew Engle 
Hieronimus Eigelberger 



Peter Feather 

Michael Figthorn 

Lawrence Fix 

Charles Friken 

Fredrick Poland 

George Gisler 

Henry Goodhart 

Christopher Gotschall 

Bastian Growser 

Joseph Hank 

Philip Hart 

Peter Haus 

Henry Hawn 

Craft Heinier 

Moses Heyraan 

Michael HoUich 

Peter Holtzseider 

Samuel Hude 

William Huttenstone 

William Iddings 

Paul Iselore 

Israel Jacobs 

Evan Jones 

Casper Kepperlin 

Jacob Kern 

Abrara Kerper 

Christian Kimro 

Alexander Klinger 

Peter Klinger 

Peter Kooch 

Peter Kop 

Martin Kost 

John Knorr 

Paul Lebo 

Jacob Leibrook 

Christopher Lemon 

Benjamin Lightfoot, Esq. 

John Margen 

George Marks 

William Marks 

Everhard Martin 

Jacob Masoner 

Henry Medcalf 

Baltser Meyerly 

David Meyerly 

William Miller 

Jacob Morgan 

Jacob Moyer 

Philip Nagle 

Tidrick Parlet 

Benjamin Pearson 

Paul Perlet 

Michael Prest 

Nicholas Pick 

Jacob Pick 

Derst Pister 

John Philippi 

Evan Popkins 

Jacob Rabolt 
James Read, Esq. 
John Ream 
Josiah Rees 
Henry Reidmeyer 
Michael Renner 
John Richards 
Earhard Roade 
Michael Rouch 
Leonard Rupert 
Philip Sailer 
Joseph Shamo 
Nicholas Seysinger 
Adam Sheck 
Adam Slegel 
George Steel 
Henry Shier 
Abram Smith 
John Smith 
Peter Smith 
George Sowerpry 
Nicholas Shofart 
Michael Spot 
George Shuler 
George Shulf 
Tobias Wagner 
Peter Weiser 
Isaac Wickersham 
Fredrick Windish 
Adam Witman 
John Witman 
Lodwic Witman 
Christopher Witman 
George Wonder 
Adam Wordenberger 
Jacob Yager 
George Yoe 
Nicholas Yost 

Single Men 

Christian Busse 
David Fox 
William Graff 
James Gibbins 
Stephen Haveracker 
George Isenbeis 
Peter Momah 
Christian Mourer 
Lyon Nathan , 
John Readinger 
David Rine 
John Rose 
Conrad Sigtor 
Bernhard Shisser 
Mathias Souermilk 
Michael Shun 
Andrew Wolf 
Martin Young 


Michael Adam 
Peter Adolph 
Jacob Breon 
Peter Biel 
Henrick Burget 
William Cowwood 
Jacob Dreblepiss 
Henry Dilbon 
Christopher Disher 
Henrich Edle 
David Ely 
Abram Ely 
Conrad Fogelfender 
John Glas 
Peter Grenewald 
Henry Heffner 

Michael Hesler 
Michael Hessely 
Daniel Hoy 
Jacob Huttenstone 
Henrick Kelkner 
George Kern 
Abram Kiefer 
Peter Merkle 
Nicholas Merckel 
George Merckle 
Conrad Miller 
George Nutes 
George dinger 
Baltas Reim 
Michael Revert 
John Riel 

Peter Roder 
John Rodermell 
Christian Rotermel 
George Sheffer Jun'r 
Michael Steinbumer 
Christopher Shlegel 
Peter Spim 
Philip Suntz 
Martin Wanner 
Michael Weiman 
Fredrick Zirr 

Single Men 
George Mijchael Derr 

James Bird 
Josiah Boone 
Walter Burk 
Jacob Bychle 
John Cadwallader 
France Colony 
Jacob Cough 
Henry Cough 
Garrett Dewese 
Cornelius Dewese 
Stephen Douty 
George Dycass 
Felty Eamse 
Isaac Edwards 
Christopher Ergate 
Enos Ellis 
Christopher Freat 
David Garrad 
Richard George 
Christopher Giger 
John Griffith 
Philip Hart 
Marg't Harris 
William Harvot 
Michael Hewet 
David Howel 
John Howman 
Widow Hoyle 
Hudson Hughes 
Owen Humphrey 
Ephram Jackson 
Evan Jones 
Thomas Lewis 
Peter Liking 
Robert Long 
Samuel Mooney 
John Moore 
Richard More 

Peter Dilbone 
Paul Hboimaii 
David Kamb 
Martin Kamb 
John Kamber 
Jacob Lupfer 
Christian Merkle 
Casper Merckle 
John Rany 
Jacob Shoemaker 
Christopher Wanner 
Conrad Wolf 


Jenkins Morris 
James Nox 
Jacob Overdear 
Thomas Pew 
Elias Redkey 
Jacob Redkey 
Griffith Rees 
Israel Robeson 
John Scarlet 
Adam Shaver 
Samuel Seely 
Robert Stewart 
William Sowers 
George Sowers 
Fredrick Stoner 
Willetrick Stoner 
William Talman 
Thomas Thomas 
Thomas Thomas 
John Thomas 
David Thomas 
Benjamin Williams 
George Windle 
Henry Winterberry 

Single Men 

Andrew Allen 
James Cadwalader 
Joseph Dowdle 
Thomas Emry 
, George Hart 
Jonas Likins 
Owen Nicholas 
Jacob Overdear 
Samuel Robinson 
James Thomas 
Jacob Wilkler 


Adam Ahar 
George Angstat 
George Angstat 
Julius Bauhman 
PhiHp Berninger 
Peter Breifogel 
John Rudolph Camber 
Peter Colb 
Mathias Colb 
Jacob Diser 
Jacob Ely 
Titer Fohl 
Jacob Fox 
Bastian Gernant 
Nicholas Guliard 
Peter Guidleman 
George Hefnor 
Caspar Hoofman 
Ludwic Hospelhorn 
Christian Hufnail 
Philip Keller 

Peter Kulter 
Henry Long 
Jacob Libbert 
Philip Lining 
Jacob Michael 
John Miller 
Godlick Nolick 
Conrad Price 
Anthony Peck 
Casper Piking 
John Reel 
Peter Reif 
George Rock 
Casper Routzhorn 
George Swartz 
Christian Shoemaker 
Adam Shurel 
John Sowers 
Yost Wagner 
John Wickenhammer 
IMichael Widower 



John William 
John Yon 
Jacob Zanger 

Single Men 

Fredrick Bla 
Stophel Colb 

' Jost Faall 
Teetor Folb 
George Kilver 
John Kohl 
Michael Miller 
Henry Rincer 


John Ansbach 

Leonard Ansbach 

Peter Ansbach 

Michael Albert 

William Albert 

George Bachtel 

John Bachter 

Jeremiah Barr 

Adam Crick-Bawm 

WiUiam Crick-Bawm 

Jacob Beck 

George Beel 

Felty Bensel 

Christian Bergke (Burkey) 

George Bleistein 

Philip Bleistein 

Jacob Breck 

Jacob Bizman 

Simon Boreiff 

Fish Bornen 

George Boyer 

Henry Boyer 

Jacob Brown 

Philip Brown Sen'r 

Philip Brown Jun'r 

Jacob Buhz 


Jacob Casser 
Fredrick Clasbrener 
George Christ 
Stephen Conrad 
Peter Grouser 
Nicholas Deck 
Adam Deiffebach 
Barthel Deisinger 
George Dollinger 
Jacob Donder 
Melchor Dotweiler 
Mathias Dubeler 
Andrew Eber 
John Eder 
Jacob Ezberger . 
Jacob Eichler 
Adam Emrich 
Bastian Eruth 
Nicholas Ely 
George Faurs 
Nicholas Framer 
Christian France 
George Fenikle 
Widow Fidler 
Jacob Fisher 
Ulrick Fisher 
George Folk 
Jacob Fomler 
John Force 
Adam Fox 
George Gardner 
Peter Gebhart 
Philip Gebhart 
George Goodman 
Leonard Grow 
Jacob Grub 
Henry Haine 
Michael Hambarger 
John Hartman 
Michael' Hartman 

Jacob Hartman 
George Hauck 
John Haveler 
Peter Hecman 
Samuel Herman 
Jacob Hofman 
Fredrick Hoffener 
Thomas Hon 
Adam James 
David Kaderman 
Jacob Kaderman 
John Kaler 
John Kaufman 
Michael Keal 
David Keisler 
George Klein 
Mathias Kemp 
Daniel Kremer 
Rudolph Kendel 
Thomas Kern 
Daniel Kenzner 
William Kesran 
Peter Kreyer 
Michael Keyser 
William Keyser 
George Kinter & Son 
Nicholas Kinser 
Peter Kissener 
Michael Kitner 
Christian Krugar 
Jacob Kubeller 
Christian Kurtz 
George Kutner 
John Kofp 
Jacob Konner 
Michael Kope 
Thomas Knorr 
Fredrick Koufman 
Nicholas Kouger 
Christian Lawferweller 
Abram Lebo 
Peter Lebo 
George Lechner 
Jacob Lederman 
George Lehman 
Adam Lesh 
William Lightner 
Jacob Livergood & Son 
George, Lodwic 
Casper Long 
John Long 
Nicholas Long 
Jacob Lost 
Christian Lower 
Daniel Lucas 
Abram Luke 
Abram Luke Jun'r 
Peter Luke 
Jacob Lux 
Francis May & Son 
Daniel Mayer 
Philip Meat 
Jacob Miller 
Jacob Miller 
Nicholas Miller 
Wendel Miller 
Jacob Milleisin 

Jatob Ming 

Michael Moser 

John George Moule 

Daniel Moushavner 

Bernhard Mounti 

Christian Moyer 

John Moyer 

Rudy Moyer 

Jacob Moz 

Valentine New 

John Nokle 

George Noll 

Mathias Noxser 

John Oberle 

Andrew Oleback 

George Paffenberger 

Christian Pens 

John Poncious 

Jacob Portner 

George Procias and two 

married sons 
Michael Rice ~ 

John Rigelmiller 
Zacharias Rockroch 
Henry Rodebach 
George Rool 
Joseph Rozs 
Mathias Rozs 
Michael Runcle 
Adam Ryal 
Casper Read 
John Ream 
George Read 
Conrad Reber 
Casper Reed 
Casper Reed 
Fredrick Reed 
Jacob Reed 
Leonard Reed 
Leonard Reed 
Peter Reed 
Widow Reed 
Christopher Reeser 
Andrew Reger 
Godfred Rehrer 
Jacob Rehrer 
Abram Reiber 
Daniel Reigel 
John Repman 
Andrew Shafer 
George Shaffer 
John Shaffer 
Michael Shaffer 
Michael Shaffer Jun'r 
Fredrick Shaffer 
Peter Shaffer 
Michael Sauser 
John Snably 
Jacob Swanger 
Lodwick Swartz 
John Swartz 
Henry Seller 
George Seller 
Jacob Seiber 
Philip Seiper 
Philip Shearman 
Widow Shell 
Adam Stein Jun'r 
Adam Stein Sen'r 
Peter Stein 
Bastian Sweyger 
George Shireman 

Adam Smith 
George Smith 
Mathias Smith 
Abram Snider 
Benjamin Spicker 
Peter Spicker 
Nicholas Swingel 
Adam Sholter 
Bernhard Shoon 
Adam Sonday 
John Shop 
George Stock 
Jacob Stock 
Henry Stoll 
Fredrick Stop 
Martin Stoup 
John Snow 
Michael Summay 
Casper Stump 
Melchor Tabler 
Adam Team 
John Theam 
Melchor Ticeler 
William Ticeler 
Oly Tonkleberger 
John Troutman 
George Ulrick 
Valentine Unrow 
Christopher Urns 
Christopher Ury 
Peter Wagoner 
Mathias Wagoner 
Widow Walborn 
George Weber 
Adam Weeber 
Jacob Welhelm 
Christopher Weiser 
David Weiser 
John Weiser 
France Wenrich 
Henry Wilberger 
Conrad Wirth 
Fredrick Winter 
Jacob Wolf 
Jacob. Wolf 
George Wolf 
George Wolf 
Michael Wolffart 
John WoUeben 
John Wombledorf 
John Zerbe 
Peter Zerbe 
Peter Zerbe Jun'r 
John Zellot 
Oley Zoleberger 
John Zollete 

Single Men 

Fredrick Anters 
Jacob Arbs 
Peter Carbrigh 
Godfret Carkert 
Henry Cuns 
Valentine Grasey 
Jacob Gessler 
Geo. Goodman Jun'r 
Adam Haverle 
Little Jacob 
Fredrick Miller 
Jacob Precias 
William Resman 
John Roster 
Nicholas Sneider 
Lorentz Simple 
John Strosneider 
John Unrue 




Thomas Banfield 
Jacob Bashance 
William Bird 
Jenkin Davis 
Evan Evans 
John German 
John Godfrey 
Mordecai Harris 
John Harrison 
Caleb Harrison 
John Hans 
Andrew Hoffman 
John Hollowav 
Mathew Hopkin 
Edward Hugh 
Mounce Jones 
Steven Lewis 
Morgan Lewis 
John Lincorn 
Charles Magrew 
Jonathan Millard 

Joseph Millard 
Benjamin Millard 
Timothy Millard 
Thomas Pratt 
Christian Standly 
John Stone 
Henry Sudlar 
Conrad Walter 
Abram Wanger 
Andrew Wolf 
Daniel Yoder 

Single Men 
Fennel Evans 
Fredrick Hause 
Obediah Jerman 
Jeremiah Jerman 
Faul Ryley 
Andrew Smith 
Charles Terdman 
George Tishler 
George Trustle 


Reyhard Alsboch 
Mathias Alspoch 
Daniel Baily 
Peter Barteymay 
Isaac Bartolet 
Christopher Brening 
William Bresler 
Christopher Bickel 
George Bowman 
George Craine 
W'endel Cooper 
Mathias Dear 
Michael Dewald 
Qementz Doncleberger 
Peter Donkleberger 
Michael Dunkle 
Martin Fell 
Nicholas Fey 
Patrick Finley 
John Garver 
Jacob Grave 
George Godtchall 
]\Iichael Hansel 
John Hart 
Fredrick Hershe 
Fredrick Hess 
Daniel Hill 
Daniel Hill Jun'r 
John Daniel Hill 
Jacob Hill 
John Hill 
Philip Flingel 
Valentine Hoof 
John Hossinger 
John Houser 
Christian Housgneit 
Conrad Hoiisman 
Jacob Hower 
Wendel Flowers 
Widow Flughes 
Philip FInmel 
Jacob Hummel 
Michael Iseman 
Daniel Kamb 
Michael Iveisher 
Leonard Keplinger 
Conrad Kersner 
George Kersner 
Henry Kime 
Adam Kline 
John Koch 

Christopher Kosner 
Michael Kower 
Widow Kuhn 
Peter Kluke 
Valentine Kyme 
George Lindermood 
Adam Lookinbill 
George Miller 
Hans Moyer 
Jacob Petery 
George Potist 
Henry Proabst (Brobst) 
Leonard Reever (Reber) 
Barnard Rend 
George Resler 
Lawrence Rodermell 
Peter Rodermell 
Jacob Rouse 
Martin Rouse 
Nicholas Roust 
Michael Sleer 
Elias Stein 
Andreas Sidle 
Henry Shiera 
George Shnider 
Jeremiah Shoppel 
ALathias Trayer 
George Adam Wagner 
Theobald Warner 
Peter Weaver 
Philip Wensil 
Caret Will 
Jacob Winger 
Nicholas Winger 
Nicholas Winger 
Thomas Wright 
Jonathan Worral 

Single Men 
Lips Adam 
William Anderson 
William Andlemon 
Peter Cratsler 
Jacob Dewald 
Jacob Hill 
George Hower 
Andrew Humel 
Leonard Ketz 
George Lusher 
James Mai one 
Jacob Meyer 
John Mingel 


Swedes. — The first permanent settlement along 
the Delaware in Pennsylvania was effected by a 
small colony of Swedes in 1638. Ten years before 
this, the subject of encouraging Swedes to settle 
in Pennsylvania, for purposes of trade, had been 
discussed by the King of Sweden ; but his warfare 
with the Germans about that time, and his sudden 
death, ended the matter, till it was reconsidered and 
revised by his lord chancellor under the patronage 
of his daughter, the young Swedish Queen Chris- 
tina. The whole number of settlers then in the 
new country (which they called New Sweden) did 
not exceed fifty. The Swedes effected the most 
of their settlements on the western side of the 
Delaware river, and extended them along this river 
and its prominent tributary, the Schuylkill. In ten 
years, their number did not increase to one hun- 
dred. Notwithstanding their success in carrying on 
trade, they could not acquire such a firm hold upon 
the country as to continue their government a score 
of years. In 1655, their Governor surrendered to 
the Dutch, and this ended the rule of the Swedes 
in Pennsylvania. But those who had settled and 
taken up lands along the Delaware and Schuylkill 
did not abandon their settlements. Penn, upon his 
arrival nearly thirty years afterward, encouraged 
them to move toward the interior. 

The English settlers multiplied rapidly after Penn 
had given a fixed government to the province, and 
toward the close of the seventeenth century the 
Swedes began to consider the propriety of accept- 
ing Penn's ofifer. A small colony, under the lead- 
ership of Andrew Rudman, found suitable land 
along the Schuylkill, several miles above the mouth 
of the Manatawny creek, and they in 1701 petitioned 
for ten thousand acres. Immediately afterward, in 
pursuance of warrants issued, certain tracts, aggre- 
gating 10,500 acres, were surveyed and laid off for 
them. The names of these Swedes were Andrew 
Rudman, Andrew Bankson, Benjamin Burden, 
Peter Boon, Benjamin Boon, Mounce Jones, Justa 
Justason, Mounce Justice, John Cock, Peter Cock,. 
Otto Ernest Cock, Jacob Culinn, Matthias Holston, 
Morton Morton, Richard Roads and Jonas Yocum. 

All of these, excepting Rudman, remained and 
made permanent settlements. A building erected 
by one of them, in 1716, is still standing though 
somewhat altered. It is the oldest building in the 
county. Descendants of some of them are still 
in the township (called Amity shortly afterward), 
notably the Joneses and Yocums. This was the 
only colony of Swedes which came into the county, 
and the only section of the county in which they 
took up lands ; and they did not wander away, re- 
maining in the township almost entirely. 

They were the first settlers who erected a build- 
ing for religious worship in this county. They 
were members of the Lutheran denomination, and 
they possessed admirable characteristics to take up 
and develop a new country. They remained more 



immediately together than any other subsequent 
class of settlers. The Indians must have appfe- 
ciated their virtues in suffering them to remain 
unmolested before the land was released. Hence 


they were a peaceable people. There was amity be- 
tween them, and so the township came to be named 
in 1720. 

Germans. — The German immigrants were the 
second to enter this section of territory. The first 
settlement by them was effected in 1710, along the 
Manatawny, in Oley. Many arrived within the 
next decade. To the east of the Schuylkill river 
they proceeded northwardly from Philadelphia. To 
the west, however, the first colony of Germans, be- 
fore 1730, entered from the west, proceeding from 
New York southwardly and from the Susquehanna 
river eastwardly into Tulpehocken Valley. The 
total number of Germans who settled in the county 
previous to 1752 cannot be estimated, but they 
were certainly more numerous than all the other 
nationalities taken together. In 1747 Governor 
Thomas stated that the Germans of Pennsylvania 
comprised three-fifths of the whole population, or 
about one hundred and twenty thousand. 

Many of them were redemptioners, or persons 
who had bound themselves or one or more of their 
children to the masters of vessels, upon their ar- 
rival, for a term of years, to pay for their passage 
across the ocean. The usual terms of sale depended 
upon the age, strength and health of the persons 
sold. Boys and girls generally served from five 
to ten years, till they attained the age of twenty- 
one years. Many parents were compelled to sell 
the service of their own children in order to sat- 
isfy their passage-money, so that they might be 
released from the vessel upon which they were 
brought to this country. Children under five years 
of age could not be sold to service. They were 
disposed of gratuitously to persons who agreed to 
raise them and give them their freedom when they 
attained the age of twenty-one years. In this man- 
ner the redemptioners came to occupy a very hum- 
ble position ; but "from this class there have sprung 
some of the most reputable and wealthy inhabit- 
ants of the province." 

Prior to 1727, most of them brought considerable 
means, but afterwards, many of them were poor, 
and they came to be redemptioners on that account. 
The years in which they arrived were 1728, 1729, 
1737, 1741, 1750 and 1751. The principal part of 
them were farmers ; but many were mechanics who 
brought with them a knowledge of those arts 
which are necessary and useful in all countries, com- 
prising carpenters and builders, weavers, tailors, 
tanners, shoemakers (cordwainers), comb-makers, 
smiths of all kinds, butchers, paper-makers and 
clock-makers. They became perfect, mechanics and- 
workmen through a custom of "Peregrination" 
(Wanderschaft)j which, as young men, just after 
the close of their apprenticeship, they carried on for 
one or more years in order to make themselves 
more proficient in their several trades. This was 
required of young mechanics before they were per- 
mitted to set up for themselves. By this course, 
they were afforded opportunities of acquiring much 
useful knowledge which books could not supply, 
besides proficiency in their trade. They were called 
"Traveling Journeymen" (Handwerks-Bursch). 

This was the class of Germans which settled 
the country along the Schuylkill and its tributaries. 
They were a valuable acquisition to Penn and his 
sons in the development of their great province. 
They were just what a new country needed to 
start it grandly in the march of material progress. 
Their labor, economy, perseverance and stability 
added great and increasing wealth to the country. 
In this manner they prepared the way for the erec- 
tion of a new county, and having thus fitted the 
settlements for a separate political organization 
they proceeded earnestly in behalf of its establish- 

The Germans were along every stream except- 
ing the Wyomissing, Allegheny, and Hay creek in 
the southern section. They were in the valleys and 
on the hills rather than along the Schuylkill. This 
selection of localities was not accidental, for thev 
found the best quality of land away from the Schuyl- 
kill. The best farms in productiveness and ap- 
pearance are in the localities where they settled — 
in Oley, in Maxatawny, and in Heidelberg. And in 
these respective localities we still find the grand- 
children and great-grandchildren of the first Ger- 
man patentees. 

And the Germans were extreme Revolutionists, 
having encouraged the war for Independence to the 
utmost of their ability. Their conduct was admir- 
able through the whole trying period, and when 
the great struggle was successfullv ended, with 
the acquisition of increased power to the people, 
they naturally asserted their rights and took elect- 
ive offices to t'hemselves. 

Huguenots.— Many of the earlier immigrants 
were Huguenots, who had been encouraged by Penn 
and the English goveirnment to emigrate to Penn- 
sylvania and New York. In France, this name was 
used as a term of reproach for those who aimed 
at a reform of religion according to the principles 



enunciated by Calvin. The name attached itself 
to these reformers when they broke off all connec- 
tion with Lutheranism and began to organize them- 
selves both as a church and as a political body. 
Their churches sprang up with wonderful quick- 
ness during the middle of the sixteenth century; 
but they became very unpopular. 

After the massacre of St. Bartholomew's day, in 
1572, the subordination of their religious interests 
to their political interests became inevitable, and 
having become followers of Henry of Navarre, 
heir to the French crown, their subsequent discon- 
tent obtained from him, as King Henry IV., in 1598 
(April 13th) J the famous Edict of Nantes. But 
the provisions of this Edict were found as help- 
ful for Catholics as for Protestants, and they were 
so modified as to show a decreasing favor of the 
Calvinists, who had dreamed of dominance and 
had hoped for equality, but were put off with tol- 
erance. This situation caused them to become dis- 
satisfied with the Edict; and the King then deter- 
mined to reduce them to nothing. 

About 1590, the Huguenots carried on worship in 
about thirty-five hundred chateaux and two hun- 
dred towns, which were situated chiefly in the south 
and west of France. When Louis XIV took U)) 
his reign, the tranquility of the Huguenots began 
to pass away. In 1657, they were forbidden to 
hold colloquies, lest they might take- to politics; 
and in 1659, they were told to hold no more synods. 
Soon the court went further and conversions were 
undertaken. Wherever a pastor could be bribed, 
converted or got rid of, his temple was torn down. 
Their worship then became almost impossible in 
towns. As the King's conscience ^tcw morbid, he 
became more eager to expiate his own crimes by 
punishing heretics. Within twenty years seven 
hundred churches were destroyed. Throughout that 
tr)'ing period, whilst thousands of them yielded to 
oppression or bribery, thousands ot others fled the 
land. The emigration began in 1666, and contin- 
ued for fifty years. It is ):)robable that, in 1660, 
there were over two millions of Pluguenots who 
were regarded as the best and most thrifty citizens 
in that country; and of these it is said fully a mil- 
lion escaped from their inhospitable fatherland. At 
last, the King revoked the Edict of Nantes, because 
he thought that the Huguenots were suppressed. 
This was on Oct. 15, 1685, and it was the sentence 
of civil death on all Huguenots. It crushed more 
than half of the commercial and manufacturing in- 
dustry of the kingdom. 

French. — Among the Huguenots, there were 
many settlers with French names, which may be 
found in the lists of the first taxables to the east 
of the Schuylkill. The spelling has been changed 
so much that they can hardly be recognized, this 
having been done by the assessors to conform to 
the English or the German pronunciation. Some 
of these names and changes will be enumerated : 
Bardo or Barto was Bardeau ; Bushong. Beau- 
champ ; Bushour, Boucher or Buchat ; Bertolet, 

Berthollet ; Bast, Baste ; Deisher, Duchere ; Deturck, 
De Turcq; Dippery, Duprez; Dilplain, Delaplaine ; 
Lessig, Lesecq; Lorah, Larue; Monyer, Monnier ; 
Plank, De la Plank; Sharadin, Girardin; Shappel, 
Chapelle; Shomo, Chaumont. Several of the un- 
changed names are Boyer, Delcamp, De Long, Le- 

English. — The English entered this territory 
and took up lands shortly before 1720. They were, 
accordingly, the third class of settlers. Their first 
families were the Boones, Ellises, Lees and Lin- 
colns. They settled in Oley, — the Ellises and Lees 
in the eastern section, along the Manatawny, and the 
Boones and Lincolns in the central and western 
sections along the Monocacy and the Schuylkill. 
Within ten years after their permanent settlement, 
they established a meeting-house for religious wor- 
ship. This was about 1726, at a point where the 
Exeter meeting-house stood until recently, in an 
elevated position near the northwestern limit of the 
Swedes' tracts, then called Amity township. 

Shortly after 1730, they also settled along and 
about Hay creek and Allegheny creek, to the west 
of the Schuylkill, and also farther north, along and 
about the Maiden creek, immediately after the In- 
dians had released their rights to the territory. 
The first families in the former settlements were 
the Embrees, Lewises, Humphreys, Scarlets, Har- 
rys, Prices, Webbs, Hughes, Moores, Williamses 
and Thomases ; and in the latter settlements the 
Parvins, Lightfoots, Pluttons, Starrs, Davises, Pen- 
roses, Pearsons, AVileys, Wrights, Willits, Plarveys 
and Reeds ; and these respective families also es- 
tablished meeting-houses in the midst of their set- 
tlements, about the year 1736 — the one at the 
cross-roads near the center of Robeson township, 
and the other near the center of Maiden-creek. 

All these families were connected with the 
Friends. They exerted a strong influence in these 
three sections of the county. The numerous Eng- 
lish names given to the townships east of the Schuyl- 
kill were suggested by them. George Boone was 
particularly prominent in the lower section, and 
Benjamin Lightfoot in the upper section, in res- 
pect to proceedings for setting apart new townships. 
They were surveyors and men of more than ordi- 
nary ability. And just as these two men were prom- 
inent in their branch of service, Anthony Lee and 
Francis Parvin were equally, if not more, prom- 
inent in these respective sections as justices of the 
several courts of the county. Indeed, until the Rev- 
olution, the Friends exerted the most influence in 
directing political affairs here notwithstanding their 
number was far less than the Germans. But dur- 
ing the Revolution and immediately afterward, 
the natural energy of the Germans carried them 
forward in political matters, just as it had carried 
them forward in agriculture and manufactures be- 
fore it ; and Independence having elevated them into 
political rights, they exercised these by placing 
themselves into power. So the Friends lost their 



qfficial positions and consequently their public influ- 

Before the Revolution, their number was strofig 
and their religious meetings were active and suc- 
cessful, but since that time they have gradually de- 

There were English people here besides the 
Friends. At first, between 1735 and 1740, before 
the erection of the county, they were in the south- 
ern and southeastern sections, the one body in Caer- 
narvon township, and the other in Amity. They 
were members of the Established Church of Eng- 
land, here called Episcopalians. Afterward, when 
the county was erected, they also appeared in Read- 
ing, though without sufficient strength to cause the 
erection of a church for themselves until 1824. 

Welsh. — ^Just as the Swedes settled in the coun- 
ty on the eastern bank of the Schuylkill, so the 
Welsh settled in the county to the west of this river. 
They migrated through Chester county till they 
crossed the South Mountain, and though some of 
them reached a point beyond the mountain before 
the purchase of the territory from the Indians in 
1732, yet the most of them entered this district im- 
mediately afterward. The Swedes did riot have a 
township named after any of their places, but the 
Welsh were earnest in this behalf, having named 
three townships, Caernarvon, Cumru and Brecknock. 

The Welsh had purchased from Penn in England, 
before 1700, a large body of land, aggregating 40,- 
000 acres, to be selected in Pennsylvania ; and these 
acres they located to the west ot the Schuylkill. 
They settled the country so numerously that, before 
1698, they had named six townships in the county 
of Chester. 

Rowland Ellis was a prominent Welshman who 
induced a large emig'ration from Wales to this coun- 
try. After having persuaded Thomas Owen and 
his family to emigrate and settle in Chester county, 
he, himself, in 1686, embarked with 109 Welshmen. 
Some of the settlers were named Thomas Evans, 
Robert Evans, Owen Evans, Cadwallader Evans, 
William Jones, Robert Jones, Hugh Grfffith, Ed- 
ward Foulke and John Humphrey. The territory 
which lay to the south of the South Mountain and 
west of the Schuylkill was gradually settled by these 
Welsh people, and they migrated farther and farth- 
er up the river during the next fifty years. Before 
1740, several hundred of them had settled in the 
district beyond this mountain. They were adher- 
ents of the Baptist denomination. Their lands were 
taken up mostly along and in the vicinity of the 
Wyomissing and Cacoosing creeks, and there they 
were most thickly settled, the many tracts they took 
up aggregating 20,000 acres, before 1752. They 
were enterprising, having a gristmill along the Wy- 
omissing before 1740. This flowing stream was 
appreciated by them for its superior water-power, 
and they accordingly erected dififerent factories 
along its banks for the manufacture of gun-barrels, 
files, etc. Agriculture was the principal employ- 
ment. Like the Swedes, they remamed in their first 

settlement, southward of the Schuylkill and Cacoos- 
ing. They co-operated earnestly with the Germans 
in obtaining a new county out of the upper sections 
of Lancaster and Philadelphia counties. 

Irish. — Persons of Irish nativity did not settle in 
Pennsylvania for nearly forty years after Penn had 
obtained the province. Penn visited Germany in 
this behalf, kindling a strong interest in the prov- 
ince ; but it would seem that he did not care for the 
Scotch or Irish, not having encouraged them to emi- 
grate. Accordingly, neither of these came until 
after his death ; and when they did arrive, they set- 
tled that portion of the province which lay mostly 
along the southern borders, adjoining Maryland. 
Though some of them followed the course of the 
Susquehanna and settled in Lancaster county, the 
great body of them migrated into the country which 
lay west of the river. Very few proceeded up the 
Schuylkill Valley. 

Doubtless the German element in this direction 
was not agreeable to them. Hence, they directed 
their way to the westward from Philadelphia, im- 
mediately after landing, rather than to the north- 
ward. No settlement was effected by them in any 
of the districts which are now included in Berks 

Hebrews. — The same can be said of the Hebrews 
in this respect. Their immigration was so limited 
and so quiet that no notice was taken of them. 
Some of them have been in the county for many 
years, but almost entirely at Reading. A number 
of them settled along the head-waters of the Tulpe- 
hocken at or in the vicinity of Myerstown. Single 
individuals wandered to Womelsdorf, and even to 
Reading. In 1836 there were six of them at Read- 
ing — Abraham Speier, John Siegel, Mayer Siegel, 
Mayer Arnold, Alexander Heyman and Bernard 

The Hebrews here have been engaged almost ex- 
clusively in trading, and used the German language 
amongst themselves for many years. Through their 
children and local education, however, the English 
language has become prevalent among them. 

In 1864 the following were in Reading : Bernard 
Dreifoos, Solomon Hirsch, Abraham Speier, Mayer 
Einstein, Aaron Henlein, Solomon Weil, Marcus 
Lyons, Isaac Mann, Isaac Hirschland, Joseph Loeb, 
Jacob Levy, Ralph .Austrian, Abraham Arnold, 
Aaron Einstein and Isaac Schwerin. 

Negroes. — The negro is also worthy of mention. 
Slavery existed here to a very limited extent. The 
slaves of which any notice was found were owned al- 
most entirely by early ironmasters, but they were 
few in number. This condition of servitude was in- 
compatible with the notions of our early settlers ; 
hence it was not encouraged. The farmers had no' 

Pennsylvania instituted an early movement for the 
gradual abolition of slavery. An Act of Assembly 
was passed on March 1, 1780, to this end. The Act 
required the owner of slaves to file a statemerit in 
the Quarter Sessions' office, giving age, surname, 



etc., of each slave. A statement of this kind could 
not be found in the office. 

Colored people were at Reading soon after it was 
founded. It was not, however, till after 1820 that 
they became sufficiently strong to form a society 
for religious purposes. Some of them owned real 
estate before 1800, and long before their enfran- 
chisement in 1863, they were orderly, industrious 
and progressive. 

Descendants of many of the first settlers are 
still flourishing in numbers, industry, wealth and 
social, religious and political influence in the county, 
and they have continued persistently engaged in 
agriculture upon or in the vicinity of the original 
settlements. Some moved to other districts of the 
county ; others to Reading. Many sons and daugh- 
ters migrated to the West and settled particularly 
in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wis- 
consin, Kansas and Colorado. Some of the sons 
•turned to the professions, and others to trades and 
manufactures, in which they realized rich rewards 
for their industry and well-directed energy. In 
tracing down all the pursuits of life carried on in 
the county, it is only occasionally that a complete 
stranger appears and identifies himself with her 
onward movement for any considerable length of 
time. This is especially the case in our politics. 
The names of the old families are continually on 
the surface. Not particularly demonstrative, they 
are like expert swimmers in deep water and float 
on majestically in the great stream of time, their 
heads always visible, their endurance prevailing. 


Oeighst. — Where the Indians of this vicinity came 
from and when they settled in this immediate sec- 
tion of country no one has yet determined. It has 
been generally conceded that they migrated east- 
wardly hundreds of years ago till they reached the 
large body of water which we call the Atlantic 
Ocean. As a nation, they were known as the Lenni 
Lcnapc (original people). This general name 
comprehended numerous distinct tribes which spoke 
dialects of a common language — the Algonquin. 
According to the traditions of their ancestors, the 
Lcnni Lcnapc were an unmixed and unchanged 
race, residing many centuries ago toward the set- 
ting of the sun, somewhere in the western part of 
this continent. For some reasons not explained, 
they determined to migrate toward the rising of the 
sun. After journeying for a time they arrived at 
the Mississippi river {Namasi Sipu^ meaning Fish 
River). There they fell in with another nation of 
Indians, who were also in quest of a new home to 
the eastward. Those were the Mengzi'c, or, as they 
have been named by the French, the Iroquois. At 
that river both nations united their forces, because 
they anticipated opposition to the east of the river 
from the Anigezm, who were a populous race of 
gigantic form. Shortly after their union, and before 

they had advanced any distance, they realized their 
anticipations, for they were compelled to fight many 
severe battles in carrying out their determination 
to march onward. At last their enemy, the Alligewi, 
to escape extermination, abandoned the country, fled 
far southward and never returned. The victors 
then divided the country between themselves — the 
Iroquois choosing the country to the north along 
the great lakes and their tributary streams, and the 
Lenape taking possession of the country to the south 
of them, from the river eastward to the ocean. 

The Lcnapc, on their way hither, became divided 
into three separate bodies. One body settled along 
the Atlantic ocean and the country adjacent for 
some hundreds of miles, comprising, it was sup- 
posed, one-half of the nation ; and the other bodies 
settled to the east and to the west of the Mississippi 
river. That part of the body which was situated 
in Pennsylvania became known as the "Delawares." 
The word "Delaware" is unknown in the Indian 
language. At first the Indians thought that the 
white people had given this name to them in deri- 
sion, but when they were informed that they were 
named after a great white chief — Lord de la Ware 
— they were satisfied. 

Delaware Tribes. — The Delawares divided 
themselves into three tribes — the Unamis or Turtle, 
the Unalachtgo or Turkey, and the Minsi (some- 
times called Monseys) or Wolf. The first two were 
settled on the territory which lay nearest to the 
ocean, between the coast and the high mountains, 
and, as they increased in numbers, the}' extended 
their settlements from the Hudson river to the Po- 

The Minsi lived back of the other tribes, to form, 
as it were, a bulwark for their protection and to 
watch the actions of the Mengtve. Their settle- 
ments extended from Minisink, on the Hudson (a 
place named after them where they had their coun- 
cil-seat) , to the west, far beyond the Susquehanna. 
Their noi'thern boundaries were supposed to be 
along the head-waters of the great rivers, Delaware 
and Susquehanna, which flowed through their ter- 
ritory, and their southern boundaries along that 
ridge of hills known in Pennsylvania by the name 
of Lehigh. 

Man\' clans sprang from these tribes. They se- 
lected distant spots as places of settlement, and 
gave themselves names or received names from 
other tribes. Their names were generally taken 
after simple natural objects or something striking 
or extraordinary. Though they formed separate 
and distinct clans, yet they did not deny their ori- 
gin, retaining their aflfection for the parent tribe, 
of which they were proud to be called grandchildren. 
M!any families, with their connections, lived bv 
themselves. They were settled along the stream's 
throughout the country. They had towns and vil- 
lages, in which they lived in separate clans, with 
a chief in each clan ruling over them. These chiefs 
were subordinate to the council which comprised 
the great chiefs of the nation. 



Minsi Clans. — Tiie clans of the Minsi Indians 
were the Schuylkills, Susquehannas, Neshamines, 
ConestogaSj Assunpinks, Rankakos, Andastakas and 
Shackmaxons. They were regarded as the most 
warlike of all the Indians in these tribes. Each 
clan had a chief to control its actions. The chief 
of the Schuylkill clan, which was settled along the 
Schuylkill and its tributaries, was, for a time, Man- 
angy; and each chief was under the command of 
a Grand Sachem. 
. Ganawese. — The Ganawese (sometimes called 
the Shawnees, or Piscataway) were also one of the 
tribes of the Lenni Lenape. They had lived for- 
merly along the Potomac river, and were permitted 
by the governor of Pennsylvania to locate among 
the Schuylkill Indians, near Tulpehocken-, in pur- 
suance of a request from Manangy (the Indian 
•chief in this section) with a guaranty of their 
friendship by the Conestoga Indians. This request 
was made in 1705, because the Ganawese had been 
reduced by sickness to a small number, and had 
expressed a desire to settle here. It is not known 
whether they came immediately or not ; but four 
jears afterward they were classed with the Indians 
in this vicinity. In 1728 they were represented at 
Philadelphia by their king, Manawkyhickon, who 
was called Shekellamy, also Win jack; and he was 
appointed then by the "Five Nations." It is sup- 
-posed that he lived at Shamokin, his tribe having 
by this time removed thither beyond the Blue Moun- 

After Conrad Weiser had settled in Tulpehocken, 
in 1729, an intimacy was cultivated between him 
and Shekellamy. In 1732 these two were appointed 
to travel between the Indians and the settlers, "in 
order to speak the minds of each other truly and 
freely, and to avoid misunderstandings" ; and as 
such agents they performed invaluable services in 
our early history by the satisfactory and amicable 
adjustment of disputes. "They were universally re- 
spected for their wisdom in council, their dignity 
•of manner, and their conscientious administration 
•of public affairs." 

Grand Sachems. — The sachems of the Lenni 
Lenape, from the time of the first English settle- 
ments till the Indians retreated before the onward 
march of civilization and eventually disappeared en- 
tirely from this part of our country, were, in suc- 
cession, Kekerappan, Opekasset, Taminent, Allum- 
apees^ (who was afterward also called Sassoonan) 
and Teedyuscung. They had their headquarters at 
Minisink, on the Delaware river, some miles above 
the Blue Mountain (now in Pike county), and also 
at Shamokin, on Shamokin creek (in Berks county 
for a period of twenty years, and since 1772 in the 
eastern part' of Northumberland county) . 

Manners and Customs. — The early settlers of 
Pennsylvania found the Indians possessed of a 
kindly disposition and inclined to share with them 
the comforts of their rude dwelling-places. When 
they were guests of the Indians, their persons were 
regarded as sacred. Penn said that they excelled 

in liberality; that they never had much, for they 
never wanted much; that their wealth circulated 
like the blood; that none wished for the property 
of another; and that they were exact observers of 
the rights of property. "They are not disquieted 
with bills of lading and exchange," said he, "nor 
perplexed with chancery suits and exchequer reck- 
onings. We sweat and toil to live ; they take pleas- 
ure in hunting, fishing and fowling, which feeds 
them. They spread their table on the ground any- 
where, and eat twice a day, morning and evening. 
They care for little for they want but little. If 
they are ignorant of our pleasures, they are free 
from our pains." 

The Indians, in their peculiar savage life, pos- 
sessed, on the one hand, certain personal virtues — 
a high sense of honor (according to their concep- 
tions of duty), mutual fidelity among individuals, 
fortitude that mocked the most cruel torments and 
devotion to their own tribe, for whose welfare they 
were ready to make any sacrifice; but, on the other 
hand, they had no appreciation of domestic virtues, 
for they treated their wives with cruelty and their 
children with indifference. They were gloomy, 
stern and severe, and strangers to mirth and laugh- 
ter. They permitted no outward expression of pain. 
Remarkable indifference to the good or ill of life 
was one of the peculiar elements of their character ; 
and they exhibited no pleasure in anything, save 
boisterous joy in the moment of victory. They had 
a great aversion to regular labor, and yet they were 
capable of enduring the greatest possible exertions 
during the chase or times of war. They were ex- 
tremely improvident. When they had an abundance 
of food and liquor they ate and drank great quan- 
tities, not thinking of the morrow and the famine 
they might have to endure. They recognized po- 

They believed in the existence of a Supreme 
Being, and of a Being in a subordinate position. 
The former was the Great Spirit to them which did 
not require prayers for aid and protection, but the 
latter was looked upon as hostile to them, and to 
this they addressed their worship. And they also 
believed in a future state, where the souls of brave 
warriors and chaste wives enjoyed a happy exist- 
ence with their ancestors and friends. Their fun- 
erals were conducted with great decorum. They 
dressed the deceased persons in their best clothes, 
and disposed of their bodies in various ways and in 
different places, some in the air on scaffolds, some 
in the water, and some in the earth. They also 
practised cremation. 

The general dress of the Indian in the temperate 
and cold parts of the country, previous to the ar- 
rival of the Europeans, consisted of three articles 
— a cloak of buffalo skin (which hung from the 
shoulders), a piece of skin used as an apron, and 
a pair of moccasins or loose boots, manufactured 
out of undressed skin. The women wore a long 
robe of buffalo skin which was fastened around 
the waist. 



Their habitations were huts or cabins, generally 
of a circular form, constructed of poles fixed in 
the ground and tied together at the top. The outer 
covering consisted of the bark of trees. A hole 
was left open at the top for ventilation or the es- 
cape of smoke. Beds and seats were made out of 
skins. The diameter of some huts was thirty feet, 
and even forty. 

The painting of their bodies was a universal cus- 
tom. Tattooing was practised. Some painted only 
their arms; others both arms and legs. Those 
who had attained the summit of renown in suc- 
cessful warfare had their bodies painted from the 
waist upward. This was the heraldry of the In- 
dians. Besides this ornamentation, the warriors 
also carried plumes of feathers on their heads. 

Their weapons consisted of the tomahawk, knife, 
club, and bow and arrow. When the Dutch arrived 
the rifle was introduced to them ; and then the In- 
dians became as expert in the use of this weapon 
as they had been in the use of the tomahawk and 
bow and arrow. 

They subsisted chiefly on wild game and fish. 
They were great hunters and fishers. In the use 
of the spear in fishing they were very successful. 
They carried on agriculture to a limited extent in 
raising maize, beans and pumpkins. But the labor 
was performed entirely by their women. 

Each tribe was governed by an elected chief and 
council. In matters of great importance all the 
warriors were consulted. In their deliberations, 
questions were decided by the consent of all, not 
by a majority. Their assemblies were conducted 
with great formality. Their debates were carried 
on by set speeches which abounded in bold figures 
and bursts of impassioned eloquence. The oldest 
chief always commenced the discussion. The young 
men were permitted to attend, but not to speak. 

They conducted their warfare in a particular and 
peculiar manner. They declared war by sending a 
slave with a hatchet (the handle of which was 
painted red) to the offending party. In taking the 
field for action, the)' proceeded in small squads ; 
and from the time of entering the enemy's territory 
they killed no game, they lighted no fires, they made 
no disturbance of any kind ; but they advanced with 
the utmost caution, not even speaking to one an- 
other, only communicating by signs and motions. 
In making an attack, they would first lie flat a whole 
night, and at the break of day, upon the signal of 
the chief, rush upon the enemy. If they succeeded 
("as they generally did succeed in such a quiet but 
deliberate mode of warfare) their horrifying deeds 
baffled description. 

Retee.\t of Indians. — The Indians having 
moved north of the Blue Mountain in 1732, the 
Friends then entered and took up large tracts of 
land in the Maiden-creek A'alley (Ontelaunee Sec- 
tion). Within the previous decade, a small colony 
of Germans had settled in the Tulpehocken Valley, 
having migrated thither from New York against 
the complaints and protests of the Indians. Before 

1750, these settlers had even occupied tracts of 
land beyond the mountain, reaching as far north 
as the sources of the Schuylkill river. And thus 
it appears, as the settlers pressed forward, the In- 
dians retreated westward. 

In 1749, the Delaware Indians left the great 
region beyond the Blue Mountain for thousands 
of square miles, and they departed with the firm 
intention of remaining away. But shortly after- 
ward, having been deceived by misrepresentations 
of the French, they returned, not to retake pos- 
session, but to murder the settlers. In this mali- 
cious invasion, they were very successful, and they 
kept the country in an unsettled condition for eight 
years. Then they fled, never to return. In 1789, 
the general government placed them on a large 
reservation of land in the State of Ohio. In 1818, 
they were located in Missouri. Numerous removals 
followed during the next fifty years, when, in 1866, 
they accepted land in severalty in the Indian Ter- 

A popular notion prevails that the Indian tribes 
are disappearing and their numbers growing less. 
But it has been ascertained that, though certain 
tribes have decreased in number, and others even 
disappeared entirely, many of the tribes have in- 
creased; and therefore the Indian population, as a 
whole, in North America, has not decreased very 
much since the advent of the Europeans. In 1880 
there were in the United States 306,543 Indians 
(of which 240,136 were on reservations and 66,407 
were civilized) ; in 1890, 248,253 ; in 1900, 237,- 
196 ; and in 1908, the number was estimated at 

The general policy of our government has been, 
for some years past, to treat with the Indian .tribes 
in a respectful manner, purchase their lands, place 
them upon certain reservations, where thev are re- 
quired to remain, and appropriate supplies for them 
in the nature of food, clothing, arms and ammuni- 
tion. In this manner the government has been hu- 
manely endeavoring to civilize them. And it has 
accomplished considerable good results in respect 
to some tribes, but failed in respect to others. 

Indd\n Names. — All the prominent streams in 
the county have been given Indian names ; also two 
townships and two mountains. These names are 
as follows : 

Angelica — 

Antictam — 

Allegheny — Fair water. 

Ganshozvchannc — Roaring or tumbling stream. 
This is now known as the Schuylkill. Infold deeds 
it is called Manaiiink, the signification of which 
word was a mother of streams. 

Gokhosing — Place of owls; now Cacoosing. 

Kmt-ta-tiu-chunh — Endless (applied formerly, 
now changed, to Blue Mountain). 

Lechauzveki — Place of forks; now Lehigh. 

Machksithanne — Bear's-path creek; now Maxa- 

]\faschilamehnnnc~TTOut stream ; now Moselem, 



Menakesse — Stream with large bends; now Mo- 

Menhaltanink — Where we drank liquor; now 

Navesink — Place of fishing; now Neversink. 

Olink — Hole, cavern or cell; also a cove or tract 
of land encompassed by hills; now Oley. 

Ontelaunee — Little maiden ; now Maiden creek. 

Pakihmomink — Place of cranberries ; now Perki- 

Sakunk — Place of outlet, where a smaller stream 
empties into a larger ; now Sacony ; also Saucon. 

Sinne-hanne — Stony stream; now Stony creek. 

Sipuas-lianne — A plum stream; now Plum creek. 

Tamaque-hanne — Beaver stream — a stream across 
which the beaver throws a dam ; now Beaver creek ; 
also changed to Little Schuylkill. 

Tulpewihaki — Land of turtles ; now Tulpehocken. 

Wyomissing — - 

Villages. — Some of the Indians had villages in 
this district of territory. They were located in 
different sections, more particularly, however, along 
the Schuylkill and its principal tributaries, and 
known as follows: 

1. Angelica — opposite "Neversink," at mouth of 
Angelica creek. 

2. Ganshowehanne — in the central section, ad- 
joining the Schuylkill, near the northern base of 
"Neversink," at the mouth of Rose Valley creek, the 
place being included in Reading. 

3. Machksithanne — in the northern section, the 
place being now in Maxatawny township, near 

4. Maschilamehanne — situate some miles east 
of Sakunk, on the stream of the same name, now 
known as Moselem. 

5. Sakunk — in the northern section, on the 
Maiden creek in Richmond township at the mouth 
of the Sakunk creek, now called Sacony. 

6. Menhaltanink — at a large spring now in Am- 
ity township, several miles northeast of Douglass- 

7. Navesink — a short distance below the southern 
base of "Neversink," near the Big Dam, on the 
Deturck farm ; and it is believed that a village was 
also in the "Poplar Neck" on the High farm. 

8. Olink — in Oley township, a short distance 
south of Friedensburg, on land included in the 
Bertolet farm. And it is believed that a large vil- 
lage was situated several miles to the eastward, on 
the Lee farm, adjoining the Manatawny creek. 

9. Tulpewehaki — in the western section of the 
county, a short distance east of Stouchsburg, near 
the Tulpehocken creek. 

Indian Relics. — A large number of Indian relics 
have been found in diflferent parts of the county, 
numbering about twenty thousand. Many of them 
were found at certain places where villages were 
situated. Over sixty-five hundred were found on 
and in the vicinitv of Poplar Neck and Lewis's 
Nieck. Prof. David B. Brunner secured a large 
individual collection, numbering over forty-three 

hundred. The relics of Ezra High, found on Pop- 
lar Neck, were presented to the Historical Society 
of Berks County. 

Henry K. Deisher, of Kutztown, has a superb 
collection, local as well as general, the total number- 
ing upward of twenty thousand. [See mention 
of it in the Borough of Kutztown, Chapter XI; 
also in his biographical sketch, which appears in this 


Immediately after Penn had obtained his charter 
for the province from King Charles II. in 1681, and 
had begun his administration of its various affairs, 
he negotiated with the Indians for the purchase of 
their lands. He regarded them as the rightful own- 
ers of the territory by virtue of their possession. 
Many purchases were made by him. He gave in 
consideration for the land mostly articles which 
the Indians regarded as useful, such as blankets, 
coats, guns, powder, lead, etc. Comparatively little 
money was paid to them. Rum was occasionally 

There are two deeds for lands in Berks county 
in which we are particularly interested. One is 
dated Sept. 7, 1733. It is from Sassoonan, , alias 
Allummapis, sachem of the Schuylkill Indians, Ela- 
lapis, Ohopamen, Pesqueetomen, Mayeemoe, Par- 
tridge and Tepakoaset, alias Joe, on behalf of them- 
selves and all the other Indians of the said nation, 
unto John Penn, Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn. 
The territory contained in the grant is described 
as follows : 

All those tracts of land lying on or near the river 
Schuylkill, in the said province, or any of the branches, 
streams, fountains or springs thereof, .eastward or west- 
ward, and all the lands lying in or near any swamps, 
marshes, fens or meadows, the waters or streams of which 
flow into or toward the said river Schuylkill, situate, 
lying and being between' those hills, called Lechay Hills, 
and those called Keekachtanemin Hills, which' cross the 
said river Schuylkill about thirty miles above the said 
Lechay Hills, and all land whatsoever lying within the 
said bounds; and between the branches of Delaware river, 
on the eastern side of the said land, and the branches 
or streams running into the river Susquehannah, on the 
western side of the said land, together with all mines, 
minerals, quarries, waters, rivers, creeks, woods, timber 
and trees, with all and every the appurtenances, etc. 

The consideration mentioned in the deed con- 
sisted of the following articles: 

20 brass kettles, 100 stroudwater matchcoats of two 
yards each, 100 duffels do., 100 blankets, 100 yards of half 
tick, 60 linen shirts, 20 hats, 6 made coats, 12 pair of 
shoes and buckles, 30 pair of stockings, 300 lbs. of gun 
powder, 600 lbs. of lead, 20 fine guns, 12 gun-iocks, 50 
tomahawks or hatchets, 50 planting hoes, 120 knives. 60 
pair of scissors, 100 tobacco tongs, 24 looking-glasses, 40 
tobacco boxes, 1000 flints, 5 lbs. of paint, 24 dozen of 
gartering, 6 dozen of ribbons. 12 dozen of rings, 200 awl 
blades, 100 lbs. of tobacco, 400 tobacco pipes, 20 gallons 
of rum and 50 pounds in money. 

The other deed is dated Aug. 22, 1749. It is 
from nine different tribes of Indians unto Thomas 
Penn and Richard Penn. The several tribes were 
represented by their chiefs, who appeared and exe- 
cuted the deed in their behalf. The consideration 


was £500 lawful money of Pennsylvania. The tract uting territory toward the erection of another coun- 

of land conveyed lay north of the Blue Mountain, ty. Many surprising developments had been made, 

and extended from the Delaware on the east to the not only in settlements and population, but more 

Susquehanna on the west. It included the whole especially in internal resources. The condition of 

of Schuylkill county. Conrad Weiser was the in- ^^^j^^ -^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^3 ^1 ^o that of any sec- 

terpreter for the Indians m this transfer. ^^^ 5^^^^_ ^^^j ^^^ discovered as early_as 

The lower section of he coun y ly'ng south- head-waters of the Schuylkill. Its 

ward of the .South Mountain (or Lechay Hill"), -l''^. 'iiu^t, "-"c uc^u w _ i „fo.^,.^:c.p 

had been released by the Indians in 1718, it having "eed had come to be felt. It quickened enterprise 

been included in previous purchases- of territory, m developing new means of transportation. Agn- 

REDUCTIONS OF TERRITORY '^^'^'' ^ad enriched the land wonderfully^ Numer- 

ous furnaces and forges were cained on success- 

NoRTHUMBERLAND CouNTY. — As nearly as it fuUy^ jjoj- only jj, the more populous parts south of 

was possible to do so, the provincial government ^^^ gj^^g Mountain but also north of it, even in the 

kept the settlers from going beyond the limits of ^■^■^. ^^ ^^^^ coal' regions. 

the purchases from the Indians. After the purchase t-, , ^- ^ ;,.„^,^„^,.v„:.r,fc KAi^nnrl i-hc 

of 1749 the settlers extended the settlements be- ^^^^ population and improvements beyond the 

V:r' P? \1 f ■ w-1 settlements De j^ ^ ^^49 1 ^^ Northumberland county 

yond the Blue Mountain. Withm the next score pi-uLuctacs ul j..^^, ^. , ^ -a- 

of years, numerous settlements were made in that was erected m 17/2 were comparatively trifling, 

territory, especially in the district which lies be- But withm this purchase they had grown to large 

tween the Blue Mountain and "Schneid Berg" proportions when the second county came to be 

(Sharp Mountain, named so from the sharpness of erected out of a part of its territory; for the popu- 

its apex). Many persons located beyond the pur- lotion numbered about six thousand and the sev- 

chase, in the vicinity of the great fork in the Sus- ^ral townships together contributed over eight 

quehanna (Shamokin, now Sunbury) ; and this in- hundred dollars m taxes The new county was 

duced the additional purchase of 1768. erected on March 11 1811, and called Schuylkill. 

Within the next four years, the Governor was The greater portion of the territory was taken from 
persuaded to feel the necessity of erecting another Berks county, and the other portion from North- 
county, even in that remote locality, notwithstand- f^n^P^o"- The portion from Berks had been erected 
ing a much larger population existed within the mto seven townships, as follows: 
limits of the purchase of 1749. Its distance (aver- Erected i'^^'l^'^'f 

aging seventy-five miles) from the county-seat, Brunswick 17GS 359 

Reading, was the principal cause of complaint, and Pine-Grove 17"1 251 

the prime reason to the Assembly in granting the l^j.^"*^ ^™i, jgoo jgg 

prayer of the petitioners. Northumberland was s^Q^e^ian ...... ...... ..... .....IS02. 108 

erected on March 21, 1773. It comprised about Mahantango IS02 141 

one-third of the whole State, including the north- Upper-Mahantango 1807 108 

western section. Over three-fifths of Berks county ~~ 
was cut to it. No townships had been formed in ' '" 
that section. Immediately after the erection of the Other Counties PROPOSED.^Between the years 
new county, townships were formed, and a county- 1824 and 1855, twenty applications were made be- 
seat was established and laid out at Shamokin, fore the Legislature to establish new counties out 
named Sunbury. Fort Augusta, at the fork of the of_ portions of Berks county, comprising town- 
river, was a conspicuous place during the French ships in the northern, eastern, southern and west- 
and Indian war. It was erected in 1756. ern sections, but fortunately they all were unsuc- 

ScHUYLKiLL CouNTY. — Forty years afterward, cessful, notwithstanding the great efforts expended 

Berks county was again reduced in area by contrib- in that behalf. 


AGRICULTURE farming implements were rude and simple in con- 

General Condition and Progress.— When the struction and continued so for many years. The 
first settlers entered this territory, they found it whole of the eighteenth century passed away with- 
entirely without cultivation or improvement of any out any improvement. The farmer labored on ear- 
kind. The land along the Schuylkill and its tribu- "^^tly and faithfully year after year, and decade 
taries was in a primitive state in every respect, but ^^er decade with the same muscular exertion, and 
in a good condition for farming purposes. Its lo- these rude implements required him to be at his 
cation was fine, its irrigation- superior, and al- place all the time if he wished to be in season. But 
together it was very inviting to them. Labor stood his devotion was equal to the task, for he was 
out prominently before them as the one thing nee- i-ip with the sun in the morning; and with the 
essary to cause it to become fruitful. Fortunately moon in season. He was never behind, for he 
for them, they possessed this personal quality in the could not be without great loss and inconvenience, 
highest degree; and with this quality they also His implements were satisfactory to him, because 
possessed other qualities equally important in tak- he gave them no thought beyond the assistance 
ing hold of an uncultivated country — economy, per- which they afforded. And sons followed in the. 
severance and patience. They were in every way footsteps of their fathers, by imitation; and half 
adapted to their situation. Their preparation was of the nineteenth century abo passed away with- 
of the best order; and driven from their native out any material advancement beyond the days of 
land by religious persecution, they must have re- 1700, of 1750, and of 1800. Labor-saving machin- 
joiced in finding such a pleasing situation, such ery had begun to be introduced within a score 
inviting conditions. of years before 1850 ; and this naturally led to an 

After the beginning had been made, can we won- improvement in farming implements. The mower 

der that immigrants came by the thousand? They came to be substituted for the scythe, the reaper 

knew their sufferings, their uncertain condition at for the sickle, and the drill for the hand. Im- 

home, and their sense of well-being induced them proved plows of various patterns were introduced, 

to leave. But in leaving the valleys and hills so And now we have tTie combined reaper and binder, 

dear to them, they came to possess and enjoy a a machine truly ingenious. 

country equally favored for beauty, for health and The same slowness, simplicity but earnest labor 
for profit; and it was more highly favored in res- followed the threshing of grain after it had been 
pect to a condition which was to them more import- ' harvested. The flail and the walking of horses 
ant than all the others combined — freedom. It is on the barn floor were continued for a hundred and 
surprising to find, in the course of time and govern- fifty years. Indeed, some of the poor, non-pro- 
ment, the development of a condition for mankind gressive farmers in districts distant from railroads 
so unfortunate, so objectionable, so discouraging; and prominent highways still carry on this labor- 
but it is equally surprising to find, in the same ious performance. But about 1840 the threshing 
course of time and government, though in a country inachine was introduced ; and also the horse-power 
far removed, over three thousand miles across a machine for running it with speed and success, 
dreaded sea, a condition exactly opposite — fortunate, Patent hay-rakes, hay-forks, corn-shellers, and im- 
acceptable and encouraging! plements and machines of various kinds, are also 

The condition of the settlers was encouraging, used in every section of our county. All these 

not only in respect to an acceptable country, but things were developed because of the ease with 

also in respect to their own constitution, physically, which iron could be manufactured into any shape, 

mentally and morally. They were strong and en- Accordingly, the foundry played an important part 

during in physical development, they were sensible in_ these improvements ; and at the bottom of all 

and practical in thought and feeling; and they were this progress we find iron, coal and steam, 

sound, hopeful and trustful in religious convictions. We no longer see from ten to thirty or forty 

These fitted them admirably for their vocation. persons engaged in haymaking and harvesting on 

The land was cultivated then as it is now, by our farms, as they were seen one hundred, indeed, 

manuring and enriching the soil, by turning the only thirty, years ago. A farmer and his own 

sod, by -sowing and planting seeds, and by rotat- family, with the aid of his horses and improved 

ing crops ; but the manner was infinitely more farming machinery, can carry on all the work from 

laborious. Every act was performed by muscular beginning to end successfully, 

exertion and endurance, with the assistance of During the last fifty years numerous manufac- 

horse-power. The plow, the harrow, the scythe, turing establishments have been erected in our 

the sickle and the rake were important aids then, country, and these have caused a great demand 

and by comparing the past with the present we for working people; and this derhand has been 

can readily appreciate the vast difference. Their supplied to a great degree from the farming dis- 


tricts. The manufacturer paid higher wages than 
the fanner and limited the time of daily labor to 
ten hours; and towns and cities (at which these 
establishments were almost entirely situated) af- 
forded the working-people more and better advan- 
tages and facilities in respect to schools and 
churches, pleasures and associations. These nat- 
urally inclined them to quit laboring on farms and 
enter establishments in populous places. Accord- 
ingly farm laborers began to grow scarce and farm- 
ers became alarmed; but fortunately for farming, 
whilst enterprise was drawing one way against its 
interest and welfare, genius was acting with equal 
force in the other for them, and the result has ac- 
tually come to be beneficial to the farmer, more 
especially in respect to making him more self-de- 

By the industrial statistics in the next portion 
of this chapter, it will appear that in 1806 there 
were upward of one hundred and fifty grist-mills, 
which were scattered throughout the county. Af- 
ter the several railroads in operation began to' make 
themselves felt in the industrial affairs of the county, 
these grist-mills came to be abandoned, and as they 
grew less in number the value of farms began to 
decrease, and this decrease continued until the value 
in many cases was one-half, even two-thirds, less 
than it had been. This was noticeable from 1875 to 
1900. The abandoned mills have not been rebuilt; 
and the farm values have not yet improved. This 
was a direct result of imported grain from the Wes- 
tern States at reduced rates, much having been said 
of the increased flour-producing character of this 
grain over the Eastern grain ; and also of Western 
flour. And this abandonment of the grist-mills and 
decrease of farm values led many thousand of peo- 
ple to move from farms and locate in towns and 
cities, in the county and out of it. The census and 
assessment returns show this plainly. Before 1835, 
without the aid of steam and railroads and stimu- 
lated industrial affairs, farming communities had 
increased and improved for fifty years ; but after 
1875, even with these extraordinary aids to the 
people, they have decreased and retrograded, and 
the major part of the population and wealth have 
come to concentrate in the county-seat. 

Agricultural Society. — In 1823, a State Agri- 
cultural Society was first suggested to the people 
of the State by an Act of Assembly, but nearly 
thirty years elapsed before a successful movement 
was made in that behalf. A public letter was ad- 
dressed to the farmers of the State, in May, 1850, 
which suggested a convention at Harrisburg, in 
January, 1851, for the purpose of forming a State 
Agricultural Society. Delegates from the several 
counties were in attendance and it resulted in a 
State Fair which was held in October, 1851. 

This movement having met with success, a pre- 
liminary meeting for organizing a society in the 
county was held at the "Keystone House" (now 
"Hotel Penn"), in Reading, on Dec. 20, 1851. It 
was attended by a number of prominent citizens 

of the county, who caused a public address to be 
issued ; and a formal organization was effected at 
the court-house on Jan. 13, 1852, 108 persons sub- 
scribing the constitution. 

The first exhibition was held on Aug. 17, 1852, 
at Reading. It was confined principally to grains, 
vegetables, fruits and flowers; and though small, 
it exceeded all expectations, having attracted a 
large number of visitors from Reading and all parts 
of the county. 

The first agricultural fair was held in October, 
1853 ; the exhibition of speed took place on a large 
lot on the northeast corner of Sixth and Walnut 
streets; of farming implements, stock, poultry, etc., 
on a lot on the southeast corner of Fifth and Elm 
streets; and of grain, fruits, flowers, fancy articles, 
etc., in the Academy building, on the northeast 
corner of Fourth and Court streets. It was a great 
success — the attendance having been estimated at 

In a report to the society on April 5, 1853, a 
recommendation was made that the public park 
and parade-ground be secured as a suitable locality 
for the erection of buildings, etc., to promote agri- 
cultural science. This recommendation was acted 
upon, and on May 13, 1854, the county commission- 
ers leased to the society the ground known as the 
"commons," for the purpose of holding its annual 
fairs, for the term of ninety-nine years. The third 
annual fair was held there in October, 1854; and 
every succeeding year the fairs were conducted on 
the "Fair Ground'" until 1887 excepting during the 
Civil war for three years (1862-3-4), when it was 
occupied by the United States government for the 
purposes of a military hospital and camp. In that 
year it was removed to the large inclosure at the 
end of North Eleventh street, and the annual ex- 
hibitions have since been held there. 

The annual "Fair ' is the principal object of the 
society. Monthly meetings are held for the dis- 
cussion of topics pertaining to agricultural and hor- 
ticultural progress. These have been held in the 
third story of the court-house for many years past. 
Formerly, thev were held at different places, prom- 
inent among them being the "Keystone Flouse" and 
"Keystone Hall." 

A similar society was formed at Kutztown in 
1870, which also gave annual exhibitions until 1903. 
Another "Fair Ground"' was established in 1905, 
on the north side of Kutztown, with a superior half- 
mile track. 

Farmers' Union.— In 1900, a number of farmers 
of the southern section of the county in the vicinity 
of Geigertown organized a "Farmers' Union" for 
educational and mutual benefit and erected a fine 
hall (32x45) costing $1,500, with cement base- 
ment and shedding. It has been carried on in a 
successful manner and its lectures on agricultural 
topics have been highly appreciated. ]\Iembership, 
100. Officers : E. M. Zerr. president ; H. G. Mc- 
^TO^\■an, treasurer ; H. C. Hohl, secretary : D. Oyen 
Brooke, corresponding secretar\-. 




Furnaces and Forges. — In each portion of the 
county there were iron industries at an early per- 
iod in its history, especially in the lower portion. 
They were scattered many miles from one another, 
extending from the southern boundary to the north- 
em, and from the eastern to the western. All were 
located along strong streams for water-power, and 
in the midst of thickly wooded territory for char- 
coal. The greater number were east of the Schuyl- 
kill. The nine following streams were occupied 
before the Revolution: Manatawny and its tribu- 
tary Ironstone, West-Branch of Perkiomen, Mose- 
lem, French, Hay, Allegheny, Tulpehocken and 
its tributary, Spring. 

Until that time there were the following indus- 
tries — the year indicating the time of erection: 


Cokbrookdale 1720 Hopewell 1759 

Mt. Pleasant 1738 Berkshire 1760 

Hereford 1740 Oley 1765 


Pool (2) 1717 Oley 1744 

Spring 1729 Charming 1749 

Mt. Pleasant 1738 Moselem 1750 

Pine 1740 Gibraltar 1770 

Hay Creek 1740 

From 1775 to 1800, the following were estab- 
lished in the county : 



Union 1780 

District 1780 

Mary Ann 1789 

Dale 1791 

Joanna 1792 

Reading 1794 

Greenwood 1796 

Sally Ann 1800 


Brobst's 1780 

Rockland 1783 

Dale 1791 

Burkhart's 1792 

District 1793 

Speedwell 1800 

All of these industries were operated successful- 
ly for many years and contributed a great deal to 
the material welfare of the county; but most of 
them were discontinued shortly after the Civil war. 
Three of them are still in active operation, though 
much enlarged: 

Hay Creek (Birdsboro) 
Reading (Robesonia) 


Among the more recent furnaces and forges in 
the county, there were the following, the date after 
the name indicating the year of erection : 


Sally Ann 1811 



Moselem 1823 

Mount Penn 1825 

Earl 1835 

Mount Laurel 1836 

Henry Clay 1844 

second stack 1854 

Monocacy 1852 

Leesport 1853 

Do-Well 1825 

Moyer's 1825 

Moselem 1825 

Sixpenny 1825 

North-Kill 1830 

Bloom 1830 

Maiden Creek . .' 1854 

Reading (Seyfert, 

MdManus & Co.)... 1854 

second stack 1873 

Temple 1867 

Keystone 1869 

second stack 1872 

Topton 1873 

East Penn (2 stacks). 1874 

Kutztown 1875 

Bechtelsville 1875 

Exeter 1836 

Mount Airy 1840 

Seidel's 1853 

Keystone 1854 

Reading 1857 

Douglass ville 1878 

Industri/\l Statistics. — In the year 1806, Berk'-- 
county was distinguished for its numerous manu- 
facturing establishments, its trade and enterprise. 
The following iron industries were then in opera- 

Tilt hammers 9 

Slitting-raill 1 

Other industries : 

Powder-mills 4 

Fulling-mills 14 

Hemp-mills 2 

Paper-mills 10 

Saw-mills 235 

Distilleries 212 

Furnaces 8 

Forges 20 

Grist-mills 155 

Tanneries 49 

Oil-mills 20 

Hat factories (.Read- 
ing) 40 

In 1830, there were: furnaces, 11; and forges, 
24; which employed 2,770 men. 

In 1840, there were: furnaces, 11; forges, 36; 
flour and grist-mills, 141; oil-mills, 15; sawmills, 
108; powder-mills, 3; stores, 119; paper-factories, 
5; potteries, 3; distilleries, 29; breweries, 6. 

In 1851, there were 41 iron works — more than 
in any other county in Pennsylvania ; and no other 
county in the United States contained more'. The 
estimated and reported capital then invested was 

In 1876, there were 27 furnaces, 4 forges, and 10 
mills, whose total production was 58,641 tons; and 
in 1884, there were 19 furnaces, 6 forges, and 9 
mills, whose total production was 135,947 tons. 










































Iron-masters. — The iron-masters of the county 
include many men noted for theii- enterprise, suc- 
cess, wealth and patriotism, all through the history 
of the county, from its earliest settlements till now. 
A great proportion of the material prosperity and 
enrichment of the county has been contributed by 
them. They have, to a great degree, influenced 
its social, political, and industrial welfare. In the 
settlement and development of its several sections, 
they have been pioneers. Though their great and 
influential industry does not antedate agriculture in 
the affairs of the county, it has, nevertheless, been 



a traveling companion; and, like agriculture, it has 
been transmitted from grandfather to son and 
grandson. Their names reveal the fact that the 
great majority of them have been Germans or of 
German origin. 

General Industries. — The industries previously 
mentioned were prominent in their several sections 
on account of the capital invested and the men em- 
ployed to carry them on successfully. But besides 
these there were many other industries in the sev- 
eral townships. Blacksmith shops and wheelwright 
shops were located and conducted in every commun- 
ity. They were necessary for the accommodation 
of the settlers. Only a few individuals worked 
together — mostly a master workman and his ap- 
prentice. Grist-mills for flour and feed were situ- 
ated along all the large streams. Cooper shops 
were also quite numerous. The Welsh were me- 
chanics who conducted their trades in small factories 
along the Wyomissing. Rope-makers were common 
in every section, for ropes and cords were largely 
used in the daily affairs of life. This industry was 
conducted for many years by individuals at their 
homes ; but improved machinery and steam caused 
its decline, and small ropewalks were compelled to 

Carpenters and builders were numerous. They 
were finished workmen, preparing the articles out of 
wood by hand. Some of the old buildings, still in 
a good state of preservation, attest the excellence 
of their workmanship. Doors, windows and frames 
of all kinds, used in building operations, were hand- 
made. This custom amongst them continued till 
the introduction of the planing-mill about 1835, 
and then it began to decline. The country sawmill, 
run by water-power, was active then in preparing 
lumber ; but great steam mills in the lumber regions 
have caused them to become less and less active. 
Great rafts of logs are no longer towed down the 
canals to Reading, especially the Union canal from 
the Susquehanna river, to afford emplo3'ment to 
'our sawmills. The railroads instead deliver finished 

Every community had a weaver, who conducted 
his business at his home. He wove carpets and 
coverlets (plain and fancy) and linen and cotton 
stuffs for domestic use. He did not carry a large 
stock on hand; he manufactured articles to order. 
So with other trades. Fulling-mills, paper-mills, 
oil-mills, and distilling-mills were conducted for 
cloths, paper, oil and whiskey, but they were limited 
in capacity. 

Memorial for National Foundry. — In 1845, 
a memorial was presented to Congress, setting forth 
reasons why Reading should be selected as a' site 
for one of the national foundries. It referred to 
the security of Reading in time of war, its central 
position with regard to points of defense and sup- 
ply of ordnance, its transportation facilities, its sup- 
ply of iron, coal and other materials, and its low 
wages; and it included an itemized statement of 15 

furnaces and 28 forges, with their respective dis- 
tances from Reading. 

Seven years before, upon the opening of the rail- 
road from Reading to Philadelphia, there had been 
a similar movement. 


The internal improvements of the county relate 
to the several prominent affairs which have been 
estaiblished and carried on for the general conven- 
ience, development and enrichment of the whole 
community. They comprise the following subjects: 
Schuylkill River, Bridges, Roads and Turnpikes, 
Stages, Canals, Railways, Post-Offices, Telegraph, 
and Telephone. 


In a natural aspect, the Schuylkill river has occu- 
pied an important position in the well-being of 
the county. We can only appreciate this by 
realizing the great adantages which it has af- 
forded us in leading away successfully to the Del- 
aware river the enormous quantities of water 
throughout the year, from the mountains and val- 
leys. And its meandering channel is worthy of con- 
sideration, inasmuch as the flowing waters are there- 
by detained in their onward course, to moisten the 
air and vegetation, and to proceed with only such 
speed as not to injure the adjoining country. 

Fishing and Navigation. — In a practical aspect, 
it has been valuable in various ways — two especially, 
fishing and navigation. In respect to fishing, it was 
a source of profit and subsistence to the early set- 
tlers who occupied the adjoining properties. They 
discovered this fact immediately after settling here ; 
and, to facilitate the catching of large quantities of 
fish with little labor and expense, they erected weirs, 
racks and dams in the river, into which the fish 
were driven by fishermen, who either waded afoot 
or rode on horseback through the water. And in 
respect to navigation, it was likewise a source of 
advantage in enabling them to carry conveniently 
by boats, flats and canoes, at little expense, great 
quantities of grain and goods of all kinds, to the 
market at Philadelphia. Canoes were of consider- 
able size so as to carry a large quantity of wheat. 
They were hewn out of the trunk of a tree. The 
growth of the trees in the wild, extended forest of 
that early day was very large. William Penn 
stated in a letter, written in 1683, that he had seen 
a canoe made from a poplar tree which carried four 
tons of brick. Penn had hardly landed here before 
he found that navigation in the'river was obstructed 
by fishing weirs and dams ; and believing them to be 
objectionable, he encouraged legislation against 
them. Various Acts were passed, but the "weirs 
and dams were not abandoned. 

There was no trouble along the Schuylkill above 
the mouth of the Manatawny creek in reference to 
weirs and dams, though fishing was carried on to 
a great extent, especially by citizens of Reading. 
There were two fishing-pools which were particu- 
larly famous for their' supplies of fish. "Levan's" 



and "Lotz's," the former at the foot of "Never- 
sink Hill," and the latter a short distance above. 
Fishing was continued successfully for seventy 
years in these pools, until the construction of the 
dams in the Schuylkill canal, which forced their 

abandonment. Fishing with nets was common. 

was a regular pursuit with some people. 

Navigation Encouraged. — The Schuylkill river 
forms the western boundary of Reading. In its 
natural state, before it was contracted on both sides 
by the construction of the Schuylkill canal along 
its eastern bank, and of the Union canal along its 
western, it was over six hundred feet wide. Its 
bed was capable of confining a large body of water. 
It was useful in the transportation of merchandise 
by boats to Philadelphia. Spring was generally 
selected as the time when the shipment of goods 
could be most conveniently and satisfactorily made, 
for then the water was higher than during the other 
seasons of the year. Heavy cargoes on flat-boats 
would float down the- river with ease, requiring only 
proper and careful steering. The steersmen were ex- 
pert in keeping the boats in the channel, and very sel- 
dom failed to reach their destination successfully. 
Besides the long paddle at the stern of the boat, for 
guiding purposes, there were polemen at the bow 
with long, stout poles, who directed the boat to 
the right or left as necessity required. Poling was 
not generally required to propel the boat with the 
current; this labor was practised in returning 
against the current. There were no tow-paths thai. 
The improvement of the river to facilitate navi- 
gation was a subject of consideration by the early 
inhabitants, both of the county and county-seat, for 
many. years. The matter was of such importance 
as to gain the attention of the Provincial Assembly 
in 1760 and secure appropriations for that purpose. 
The river, notwithstanding these early efforts, re- 
mained about the same as to navigation for many 
years. The only substantial improvement worthy 
of mention was effected sixty years afterward, by 
the construction of the Schuylkill canal; and dur- 
ing that time the inhabitants continued to transport 
their grain, merchandise and productions on boats 
and flats, as they had done before. 

The navigation of the river induced the organi- 
zation of the first Board of Trade at Reading. A 
number of prominent business men of the borough 

assembled on March 13, 1807, to consider this sub- 
ject, and then they formed a society under the name 
of "The Society for Promoting the Clearing of the 
River Schuylkill"; but nothing was accomplished 
Eighteen years afterward, the difficulty was so ved 
by the construction of a narrow channel for slack 
water, with numerous locks whereby to overcome 
grade and detain the water in certain levels to facili- 
tate navigation. 


Freshets. — Numerous freshets have swept down 
the river and its tributaries which inflicted great 
losses upon the adjoining property-holders. Those 
worthy of special mention are the following : 


1757 15 feet 

1786 20 feet, 7i inches 

1822 13 feet, 9i inches 

1839 17 feet, If inches 

1841 19 feet 

1850 25 feet 

1862 17 feet 

1869 23 feet 

1902* ..35 feet 

♦ Shortly before this great freshet, there was a very cold spell 
of weather, after a fall of rain and snow, which caused large quan- 
tities of ice to form on all the trees, and the weight of the ice 
broke off the tops and branches of thousands of trees throughout 
Berks county and the surrounding counties, the evidence being 
still visible in 1909. 


Long before the first settlements in this vi- 
cinity, there had been a ford across the river at 
Reading, and this was the only convenient ford for 
some distance above and helow. It was used for 
seventy years after the town had been laid out. The 
only step in advance of the first settlers was the 
introduction of a ferry-boat. 




Penn Street Bridge. — In 1795, a petition was 
presented to the court to order the grand jury to 
consider the advisability of causing the erection of a 
stone bridge over the river at the foot of Penn 
street. The grand jury recommended an appropria- 
tion of $33,000, but this sum was deemed insuffi- 
cient. In 1796, the petitioners tlien devised the plan 
of raising sufficient money by a "lottery," but it 
proved unsuccessful. In 1801, another application 
was made to the Quarter Sessions for a view, and 
an appropriation, the petitioners concluding with a 
prayer for a "wooden bridge," and estimating the 
probable expense af £6,000. The grand jury recom- 
mended an appropriation of $16,000, to be assessed 
at three yearly payments. The court approved of 
their action on Aug. 6th, and the county commis- 
sioners proceeded to cause its erection. The con- 
tract was awarded, and the contractor began opera- 
tions in earnest, but he failed at the piers. The 
county commissioners had expended $30,000, and it 
was estimated that $70,000 more would be required 
to complete the bridge, if built of stone. 

In 1805, a third unsuccessful effort was made, but 
for six years afterward this necessary improvement 
lay in idleness; then (Feb. 32, 1812) an Act was 
passed, authorizing the county commissioners to 
build a stone bridge and charge toll ; and providing 
that, when the principal invested in its construction 
was realized from the tolls, it should be declared 
free. Still the matter halted, and another Act be- 
came necessary, which was passed on Feb. 21, 1814, 
modifying the previous Act by giving the commis- 
sioners the power to build either a stone or wooden 
bridge. Then operations were resumed 'and the 
bridge was so far completed in December, 1815, as 
to be passable, and it was finished at last in 1818. 

It was 600 feet long, three spans of 200 feet each, 
covered bv a roof. The first passage over it was 
made by Coleman's stage-coach on Dec. 20, 1815. 
Many persons were present to witness the occur- 
rence and they demonstrated their joy 'by loud ap- 
plause. Such was the exertion, and so long was 
the period, to obtain the "Penn street bridge," the 
first public improvement of the town beyond the 
court-house and the prison ! 

The subject of a "Free Bridge" was agitated as 
early as 1821, just three years after the bridge had 
been completed, but this related more particularly 
to persons, and, to accomplish this purpose, a peti- 
tion was presented to the Legislature in February, 
1821. It continued to be agitated for over thirty 
years and the county bridges (Harrisburg, Lancas- 
ter and Poplar Neck) were not declared free till 
1883. This great step forward was obtained 
through the city councils of Reading, an earnest 
and successful application in this behalf having been 
made to court, upon the representation that the tolls 
received exceeded the cost of erecting and maintain- 
ing them, and the judges decided that the bridges 
must be declared free under the legislation which 
authorized their erection. The adjudication was 
made on March 28, 1883. 

In 1884, this bridge was demolished by the Penn- 
sylvania Schuylkill Valley Railroad Co., and this 
company erected in its stead a superior iron bridge 
at an expense exceeding $100,000, the county com- 
missioners appropriating $33,000 toward the cost. 
The new bridge became a necessity, owing to the 
railroad improvements along the river. 

Hamburg Bridge. — ^During the progress of the 
"Penn street bridge" at Reading, the subject of a 
bridge was discussed at Hamburg, and the spirit 
created thereby was sufficient to result in the pas- 
sage of an Act of Assembly on March 19, 1816, for 
its erection, but no practical results flowed from 
this first effort. Eleven years afterward (April 14, 
1827), an Act was passed appropriating $6,000 by 
the State for the erection of a bridge over the 
Schuylkill, near Hamburg, on the State road from 
Jonestown (Lebanon county) to Northampton 
county. The bridge was erected during the follow- 
ing year by the commissioners of the county, and 
confirmed by the court on Jan. 12, 1829. Toll was 
charged till December, 1883, when it was made a 
free bridge. 

Lancaster Bridge. — The county commissioners 
were authorized by an Act passed April 23, 1829, 
to erect a bridge over the river at Gerber's ferry, 
on the road from Reading to Lancaster. It was 
finished in 1831. Its length was 352 feet, in two 
equal spans. It has been known since as the "Lan- 
caster bridge." 

In 1839, a part of the bridge was swept away by 
the freshet ; in 1850 two spans were swept away ; 
and in 1869, the eastern half. In 1876 (July 9th) 
the bridge was destroyed by fire — the act of young 
incendiaries. Shortly before, there were loud com- 
plaints about its insecurity and darkness and its 
unpleasant condition on account of dust. The coun- 
ty commissioners caused a fine iron bridge to be 
erected in its stead, which was opened to travel on 
Jan. 2, 1877. It was the first large iron bridge- 
structure erected in the county. It was declared 
free of toll in 1883. 

Poplar Neck Bridge. — After the completion of 
the "Lancaster Bridge," the Legislature, in 1832, 
authorized the erection of a county toll-bridge 
across the river at "Poplar Neck," about three miles 
below Reading. And a covered wooden bridge was 
accordingly buih during 1832 and 1833. It was 
declared free in 1883. At this place a ferry had 
been conducted for many years, known as "Lewis's 

Other County Bridges.— Since the agitation and 
establishment of free bridges, the county authori- 
ties have caused the erection of other necessary 
bridges across the river as follows :—Stoudt's No. 

2, ; Cross Keys, 1891; Schuylkill avenue, 1892; 

Exeter, 1893; Bern Station, 1896. 

There are now altogether eighteen county bridg- 
es crossing the river; fourteen, the Tulpehocken 



creek; nine, the Manatawny creek; twelve, the 
Ontelaunee creek ; and sixty-four, the other streams 
in the different sections of the county; making a 
total of 117. 

The building of concrete bridges has latterly been 
encouraged by the county commissioners ; for, from 
1905 to 1909, they caused the erection of thirteen 
bridges, twelve of which were re-enforced concrete, 
costing together upward of $40,000. The Dauber- 
ville bridge, crossing the Schuylkill, built in 1908, 
is a particularly fine sample; four arches, each 75 
feet, costing upward of $30,000. 

Private Bridges. — The following private bridges 
were erected across the Schuylkill by individuals or 
stock companies, and toll was exacted until they 
were purchased by the county and made free : 

Windsor Haven (Shoemakersville) 1862 

Mohr's (Mohrsville) 1837 

Althouse's ( Leesport) 1 835 

Stoudt's Ferry (Tuckerton) ] 857 

Leize's I833 

Kissinger's (now Schuylkill Avenue) 1810 

Bell's (at Tulpehocken) 1833 

Birdsboro 1845 

Monocacy 187i 

Douglassville 1832 






























Poplar Neck 





Lancaster Avenue 



1876 (1831) 


Penn Street 



1884 (1815) 


Schuylkill Avenue 



1892 (1810) 







Stoudt's No. 1 




Stoudt's No. 2 



Cross Keys 




















Bern Station 















Wertz' Mill 
Van Reed's 
Blue Marsh 
Schaeffer's Ford 
Sunday's Mill 
Krick's Mill 
Charming Forge 











Beam Deck 


Stone Arch 

Concrete Arch 


































Pine Iron Works 
























Griesemer's Mill 













Stone Arch 






















Greena wait's 





Iron Pony 








Stone Arch 




Railroad Bridges. — Thirteen substantial bridges 
have been erected across the river by the several 
railroad companies operating in the county, viz. : 

Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, four — one 
near Tuckerton — high arch, built of stone; one, of 
iron, at Birdsboro ; and two, of iron, on "Belt Line," 
one above Reading and the other below. 

Lebanon Valley Railroad, one, within limits of 
Reading, built of iron. 

Berks County Railroad (now Schuylkill & Le- 
high), three — one at and two below Reading, built 
of wood. 

Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley Railroad, five — 
one near Hamburg ; one at Reading and two below ; 
and one at Douglassville ; all built of iron. 


Indian Paths.— There were paths through this 
section of country long before Reading was laid out. 
The "Schuylkill Ford" was a central point for the 
Indians. Nature would seem to have selected the 
site for the town rather than the Penns. 

Tulpehocken Road. — The earliest mention of a 
road in this vicinity is the road which was marked 
out in 1687, from the Delaware at Philadelphia to 
the Susquehanna, by way of this ford, and was 
known for many years as the "Tulpehocken road." 
In 1768, a road was regularly laid out from Read- 
ing to the Susquehanna, at "Fort Augusta," by way 
of Middletown (now Womelsdorf) and Rehrer's 
Tavern (now Rehrersburg) , over the Blue and 
Broad Mountains, in pursuance of a petition from 
a considerable number of inhabitants of the county. 
The report was presented to the executive council 
on Jan. 19, 1769. The road began "at the east end 
of Penn street, in the town of Reading, and extend- 
ed through the same to the banks of the river Schuyl- 



kill, west 346 perches; thence south 87 degrees, west 
33 perches across said river ; thence four courses 
westwardly with a total distance of 1,457 perches 
to Sinking Spring Town; thence by tifteen courses, 
westwardly, a total distance of 2,814 perches 
to Second street, in Middletown (now Womels- 
dorf) ; thence across the Tulpehocken creek, and by 
way of John Rice's tavern and Nicholas Kinser's, 
northwestwardly to Godfried Rehrer's tavern (now 
Rehrersburg) , and thence by way of Henry Derr's 
house to Fort Henry, and. over the Blue mountain, 
etc., in a northwestwardly course to Fort Augusta." 
Berks and Dmipliin Turnpike. — Fifty years after- 
ward, this road from Reading to Middletown, and 
thence westwardly through Dauphin county, be- 
came a turnpike, a company for this purpose hav- 
ing been incorporated in 1805, under the name of 
"Berks and Dauphin Turnpike Company." The 
turnpike, however, was not begun until in 1816, 
just after the Penn street bridge had become passa- 
ble. It was finished in 1817, and it was maintained 
successfully for nearly ninety years. In 1905, the 
company voluntarily released the toll charge for use 
of pike by removal of toll-gates, to a point two miles 
west of the bridge ; and it was freed to Werners- 
ville, eight miles, in 1906 by the assessment of dam- 


Maiden-creek Road. — A road was surveyed by 
Samuel Lightfoot in 1745, from Francis Parvin's 
mill, near the mouth of the Maiden creek, south- 
wardly to the ford, the present site of Reading, 
in almost a straight line about six miles in length, 
and confirmed in June of that ^ear. In 1753, it 
was regularly laid out from Reading northwardly, 
and extended to Easton by commissioners from 
Berks and Northampton counties who were ap- 
pointed by the executive council at Philadelphia. 

Centre Turnpike. — A turnpike was constructed 
on this road from Callowhill street in Reading, over 
the "'long hill" (at cemetery) to the mouth of the 
Maiden creek, and thence northwardly by way of 

Hamburg and Schuylkill Gap ; and northwestwardly 
over Broad Mountain, by way of a point now Ash- 
land, to Sunbury. A company for this purpose 
was incorporated in 1805, called "Centre Turnpike 
Company." The turnpike was completed shortly 
before 1812. It was operated successfully and tolls 
were exacted until 1885, when it was abandoned. 

Oley Road.— In September, 1727, a petition was 
presented to the court at Philadelphia for a road 
to extend from the "Lutheran Meeting-house" ar 
the Tulpehocken creek to the highroad at the 
"Quaker Meeting-house," near George Boone's mill, 
in Oley. Eight years afterward, the court appoint- 
ed Mordecai Lincoln, Marcus Hulings, James 
Thompson, Peter Robeson, Benjamin Boon and 
Thomas Potts to lay out this road from the high- 
road westwardly to the Schuylkill ford. They re- 
ported a road at June session, 1736, which began 
at the ford, and proceeded a little south of east, 
in almost a direct line, to a road called the "King's 
Highway." Its eastern terminus was at a point 
now Amityville. 

Perkiomen Turnpike. — The road just mentioned 
was the road to Philadelphia for many years, until 
a road from a point near the "Black Bear Inn," by 
way of Bishop's Mill, to a point near Molatton 
church, now at Douglassville, was substituted. In 
1810, a turnpike was authorized to be constructed 
on this latter road from Reading, by way of "White 
Horse Tavern" (Douglassville) and Pottsgroye. to 
Perkiomen Mills, at Perkiomen creek. In 1811, 
commissioners were named, and they immediately 
commenced its construction, completing it in four 
years at an average cost of $7,000 per mile. It was 
made free in 1902. 

In 1822 the State held subscriptions of stock in 
the three turnpike companies, as follows : Berks 
and Dauphin, $29,000 (individual subscription $63,- 
905) ; Centre, $80,000 (individual subscription 
$62,000) ; Perkiomen, $53,000 (individual subscrip- 
tion $133,000). Length reported: first, 34 miles; 
second, 75 miles; third, 28 3-4 miles. 

O'ley Turnpike. — The road from the "Old Phila- 
delphia Road," near Schwartzwald Church, to the 
King's Highway (Pleasantville to Amityville) was 
laid out and confirmed in 1755. The "Oley Turn- 
pike" is constructed on this road from Jackson- 
wald eastward. The company for this superior, 
well-kept turnpike was incorporated in 1862. The 
road extends from "Black Bear Inn" to Pleas- 
antville, ten miles,, and the total cost was $50,000. 

Schuylkill Road.— A road was ordered bv the 
court of Lancaster county in 1750 to be laid out 
from Chester county line, in Caernarvon township, 
in a northwestwardly direction to Reading. It was 
surveyed by George Boone, and reported in 1751. 
This is the road from W^arwick Furnace, bv way 
of Plow tavern and Green Tree tavern, through 
Union, Robeson and Cumru townships and along 
the western bank of the Schuylkill, to the Tulpe- 



hocken road opposite Reading. It was twelve and 
a half miles in length. 

Other Roads. — Neversink Road, from Reading 
southwardly to Flying Hill, in 1753. 

Alsace Church Road, from Reading northwardly 
through Alsace township, in 1753. 

Lancaster Road, from Reading southwestwardly 
through Cumru township, in 1762. 

Sunbury Road, frpm the fork in the Schuylkill 
above the Blue Mountain to the fork in the Sus- 
quehanna at Sunbury — fifty-five miles, in 1770. 

Bern Road, from Reading northwestwardly over 
the Schuylkill at a point now occupied by the 
Schuylkill avenue bridge, through Bern township, 
in 1772. 

Alsace Road, from Reading eastwardly through 
Alsace township into Oley, to a point in the "King's 
Highway" (supposed to be near Friedensburg, and 
now called the Friedensburg road) , in 1776. 

Plan of Roads to Reading. — The accompanying 
plan will indicate in a general way how the promi- 
nent roads extended from Reading during its earlier 
history, and these have continued to be the chief 
thoroughfares for travel till now. 

State Highways. — The substantial improvement 
of the public roads was a subject of discussion for 
many years, but it was not until 1905 that any 
special legislation was secured. The taxpayers of 
Berks county immediately began to show their ap- 
preciation of the State's liberality. Cumru town- 
ship was the first to take practical steps by ordering 
the improvement of that portion of the Lancaster 
road from the Schuylkill river to the Three-Mile- 
House in Shillington, commonly called the "Three- 
Mile-House-Road," and it was constructed under 
the supervision of the State Highway Commissioner 
by Adam R. Leader of Reading, as the contractor, 
during 1905-06-07, at a total cost of $18,326; of 
which the county paid one-sixth and the township 
one-sixth. This section of road had been used a 
great deal for driving purposes for many years and 
this marked improvement increased its use. Some 
time before 1905 it had been improved by the ex- 
penditure of a considerable sum of money (about 
$500) with the assent of the township supervisors, 
which had been collected mostly from the drivers of 
speedy horses at Reading. 

The next township to take up the matter success- 
fully was Washington and in 1908 the State Depart- 
ment looked after the construction of a new high- 
way from Barto to Bally and thence toward Shultz- 
ville and Shultz's grist-mill, upward of three miles. 
The total cost, including fine concrete bridge, was 
about $43,000, of which the county paid one-eighth 
and the township one-eighth (the reduced propor- 
tion having been caused by the amended road law 
of 1907). 

And the third township was Amity, for the im- 
provement of the road from Amityville, via Weaver- 
town, to the Monocacy creek, about two miles 
in length. It was constructed in 1908, including a 
superior concrete bridge. 


The first coach in New England began its trips 
in 1744. The first stage line between New York 
and Philadelphia (then the two most populous cities 
in the Colonies) was established in 1756. The trip 
was made in three days. When the Revolution be- 
gan, most of these public conveyances ceased to 
run, and they did not take the road till the return 
of peace. 

The first public conveyance at Reading was a 
two-horse coadh. It was instituted by Martin Haus- 
man in 1789, and traveled weekly between Read- 
ing and Philadelphia for the transportation of pas-, 
sengers and letters. The distance was about fifty- 
one miles, and the passage was made in two days. 
The fare was two dollars, and letter carriage three 
pence. During that year, he transferred the estab- 
lished business to Alexander Eisenbeis, who operat- 
ed it two years, and sold it to William Coleman. 
From that time onward, for nearly seventy years, 
without intermission, the Coleman family were 
prominent throughout eastern Pennsylvania for 
their connection with this great enterprise. 

Soon after Coleman had obtained possession of 
this stage line, he extended it westwardly, by way 
of Womelsdorf and Lebanon, to Harrisburg; and 
northwardly, by way of Hamburg, Orwigsburg, 
Sharp Mountain Gap and over the Broad Mountain, 
to Sunbury. In 1818, the stages ran twice a week 
from Philadelphia to Sunbury. They left Philadel- 
phia on Tuesdays and Saturdays at 3 a. m. ; ar- 
rived at Reading at 5 p. m., and lodged at Ham- 
burg on the same days ; and on the following morn- 
ings left at 3 a. m. and arrived at Sunbury on the 
succeeding days at 10 a. m. And they ran thrice 
a week from Philadelphia to Harrisburg — Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays; leaving Ph'iladelphia 
at 4 A. M., lodging at Reading, and arriving at Har- 
risburg the next evening. The same order was ob- 
served in returning. 

In 1820 William Coleman died. His widow car- 
ried on the stage lines for a year, when their sons 
John and Nicholas purchased and conducted them. 
In 1823, they ran weekly stages to the southwest 
to Lancaster, over a natural road, in length thirty- 
two miles; and. to the northeast to Easton, over 
a natural road, in length fifty miles. 

In 1825, Colder & Wilson ran the "mail stage" 
between Reading and Harrisburg three times a 
week. The passenger fare was' 50 cents to Womels- 
dorf ; $1 to Lebanon, and $2 to Harrisburg. 

In 1826, a combination was made between the 
Colemans, Jacob Peters, and Colder & Co., to run 
a daily line of stages between Philadelphia and 
Harrisburg via Reading. The stages left Philadel- 
phia daily except Monday at 4 a. m., dined at Read- 
ing, lodged at Lebanon, and proceeded to Harris- 
burg next morning. Returning, they left Harris- 
burg daily, except Tuesday, in the afternoon, lodged 
at Lebanon, took breakfast at Reading next morn- 
ing and arrived at Philadelphia at 8 p. m. Through 
fare, $6 ; to Reading, $3. 



From, the beginning till 1826, the stage-coach in 
use was called a "steamboat" — an uncovered wagon, 
capable of holding twenty passengers. Then a 
sharp competition arose between three lines; first, 
the "Old Line" (Coleman's), which conveyed the 
mails ; second, Reeside & Piatt's ; and third, Milti- 
more & Mintzer's. A new and improved stage- 
coach was introduced as a consequence, called the 
"Troy Coach." It held eleven passengers, with 
room for five or more on top. In 1830, the com- 
petition was full of life. The rates were reduced 
one-half. But the "Old Line" forced the others to 
withdraw. Its mail contracts were a great support 
and enabled it to bear the pressure. It had a hun- 
dred horses always on hand. 

Decline of Stages. — The stage business contin- 
ued active and profitable in the several directions 
from Reading till the introduction of the railways, 
when it was discontinued. The stage-coach could 
not compete with the railroad train, or horse-power 
with steam-power; and in this respect, as in others, 
the fittest and strongest survived. The discontin- 
uance on the several lines was as follows : From 
Philadelphia, 1838; from Pottsville, 1842; from 
Harrisburg, 1858 ; from Allentown, 1859 ; from Lan- 
caster, 1864. 

The following stage lines (all carrying merchan- 
dise and passengers, and several also mail) are still 
operated to and from Reading to accommodate the 
public : 

Boyertown line, via Yellow House, daily 17 miles 

Friedensburg line, via Stony Creek Mills, daily. ... 9 miles 
Pleasantville line, via Oley Tnrnpilce, tri-weekly. .14 miles 

Bernville line, via State Hill, daily 14 miles 

Terra Hill line, via Angelica, tri-weekly 16 miles 

Hummel's Store line, via Green Tree, daily 15 miles 

Strausstown and Womelsdorf line, daily 12 miles 

Strausstown and Hamburg line, daily 12 miles 

Millersburg and Myerstown, daily S miles 


Great internal improvements in this country were 
first projected in Pennsylvania, and the enterprise 
of her early citizens directed public attention to 
the establishment of canals and turnpikes for con- 
venient transportation. In 1690, William Penn 
suggested the idea of connecting the Susquehanna 
and Schuylkill rivers by means of a canal, but it 
was not acted upon. Seventy years afterward, this 
idea was again considered, and then a survey was 
made by David Rittenhouse and others. A course 
was marked out for a canal between these two 
rivers, but nearly seventy j^ears more elapsed be- 
fore the great scheme was realized and put into 
practical and successful operation. 

Union Canal. — In 1791, the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania passed an Act incorporating the 
Schuylkill and Susquehanna Navigation Company, 
for the purpose of connecting the two rivers by a 
canal, and facilitating traffic; and in 1792, another 
company was chartered, under the name of the Del- 
aware and Schuylkill Canal Company, for the pur- 
pose of extending a canal from the eastern termi- 

nus of the canal mentioned at Reading, along the 
Schuylkill to the Delaware river at Philadelphia. 
These canals were to be part of a great scheme 
conceived by an association of enterprising individ- 
uals in order to promote internal improvements, 
whereby Philadelphia and Pittsburg were to be 
connected by water communication. 

On April 2, 1811, an Act was passed to incor- 
porate "The Union Canal Company of Pennsyl- 
vania." The name was chosen because the new 
corporation was really a union of the old Schuyl- 
kill and Susquehanna and the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill Canal Companies. The preamble recited that 
those corporations had made strenuous efforts to 
carry out the objects of their charters, but failed. 
A new company was formed by the stockholders 
of the old corporations, but seventeen years passed 
before the canal was finished. The first canal- 
boat, which went west, left Philadelphia on March 
20, 1828, by way of the Schu3dkill canal to Read- 
ing, and thence by the Union canal to Middletown, 
arriving at the latter place on the 23d. The event 
was duly celebrated at jMiddletown. There were 
seventeen Union canal boats in service in July, that 
year, and over two hundred were in operation be- 
fore the end of the j'ear. 

The length of the canal was 79^ miles, with 91 
locks, 8 basins, 93 bridges, 16 dams, and 17 
aqueducts. From the summit (four miles east of 
Lebanon) to the mouth of Tulpehocken creek the 
distance was 37 miles. This section of the canal 
was 26 feet wide at bottom, and 36 feet at water 
surface; depth of water, 4 feet, and width of tow- 
ing path, 10 feet. 

The number of locks required to overcome the 
fall of 310 feet was 53. The locks were faced with 
dressed sandstone; chambers 8| feet wide and 75 
feet long ; and lifts varying from 5 to 8 feet. About 
1855, the locks were enlarged to correspond with 
the locks of the Pennsylvania canal, from the Swa- 
tara eastwardly to Reading. 

The success of this canal was dependent upon 
the construction of a similar canal along the Schuvl- 
kill, in order to encourage traffic from the Sus- 
quehanna to Philadelphia bv way of Reading. A 
company had been chartered in i815 for this pur- 
pose, which began the improvement desired, and 
finished it in 1825. 

In 1830, the canal was extended along the west- 
ern bank of the Schuylkill, three miles below Read- 
ing, to the Little Dam, having its outlet in the 
Big Dam, about a thousand feet farther down. But 
this portion was washed so badly by the freshet 
of 1850 that it was rendered useless, and connec- 
tion wasjnade with the Schuylkill canal at a lock 
near the Harrisburg bridge. At this point, about 
1S28, the company had constructed a dam called 
"Union Dam" (commonly known as "Lotz's 
Dam"), for the purpose of forming a connection 
with the Schuylkill canal; and this was the only 



connection till 1855, when the canal was extended 
to a point opposite "Jackson's Lock," at the foot 
of Sixth street, where connection was afterward 

In order to form an idea of the extent and growth 
of the business over this canal, soon after it was 
completed, the following statistics are presented: 

For the week ending May 27, 1831, 80 boats passed 

■ Reading going down, 45 loaded with lumber and coal, 
and the others with flour, whiskey, castings, etc. ; and 
60 passed going up, 17 loaded with merchandise. For the 
week ending June 14, 1835, 125 loaded boats passed down, 
and 112 loaded boats passed up. Some years after- 
ward, the tonnage and tolls were as follows: 

Tons Tolls 

1847 139,256 $91,356 

1848 153,222 95,953 

1§49 148,332 86,800 

The boats were diminutive, being only 18 tonb' 
capacity at the opening of the canal ; afterward, in 
1828, increased to 23 tons ; and afterward, the size 
was increased until 1845, when the capacity was 
€0 tons. 

Lottery Privileges. — The amount of money 

■ raised in the course of the prosecution of the 
canal enterprise, between the Schuylkill and Sus- 
quehanna rivers, was enormous, not so much from 
the actual cost of the improvements as in the waste- 
ful way in which the money was raised, and the 
amount taken from the community which did no 
good to the undertaking. The capital of the two 
companies was insufficient for the execution of 
the work, and the Legislature granted them power 
to raise money "by way of lottery." The whole 
amount specified in the grant was $400,000, of 
which the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Company 
was to have two-thirds, and the Delaware and 
Schuylkill Company one-third. This Act was passed 
April 17, 1795, and under it the companies exer- 
cised the privilege of issuing lottery tickets. Un- 
til 1810, the companies had realized only $60,000, 
a sum wholly insufficient for their purposes. They 
complained that their affairs "had fallen into dis- 
order and embarrassment; that they were covered 
with reproach and ridicule," and that the public 
confidence was impaired. This led to the union 
of the two corporations in 1811. In the Act, the 
lottery privileges were renewed; and, as the com- 
pany had not made much by their own management, 
they were empowered to sell or assign their lottery 
rights to any persons whom they might select. 
So the company leased out the lottery privileges and 
under this arrangement the lotteries became very 
successful. The managers took in large amounts 
of money, but the Canal Company did not have 
much added to their funds, and a report to the 
Legislature stated that the lottery managers made 
many millions, while the Union Canal Company 
got but $269,210. This caused great scandal. 

An Act was passed for the suppression of lot- 
teries in Pennsylvania after March 1, 1833, which 

declared that the lottery rights of the company 
were exhausted, and prohibited the sale of lottery 
tickets of any kind after Dec. 31st of that year. 
But, as a compensation for the privileges taken 
from the company, the Governor was authorized 
to subscribe for one thousand shares of stock on 
behalf of the State of Pennsylvania. 

The lotteries of the Union Canal Company were 
drawn at stated periods from the gallery of the 
stairs in the tower of the State-house, which led 
to the upper chambers, and the drawings were at- 
tended by hundreds of persons. 

The canal was supposed to be the only possible 
means of conveyance, except by the common road, 
long after all the companies connected with the 
navigation of the Schuylkill had been chartered. 
But the Columbia railroad, under the management 
of the State, began to be a rival of the 
Union canal in bringing produce and passen- 
gers from the Susquehanna as soon as it 
was finished. The movement for its establish- 
ment commenced in 1826, when a company 
was incorporated to build a railroad from Lancas- 
ter and Columbia to Philadelphia. The plan not 
proving successful, in 1828 the State authorized 
a survey and followed it up in after years by ap- 
propriations, under which the work was carried on. 
The road was finished to Lancaster in April, 1834, 
and opened through to Columbia in the summer of 
1835. Just as soon as this means of transportation 
was finished, the Union Canal Company lost a large 
share of its business and prospects. The railroad 
offered a shorter route and quicker method of com- 
munication between the Susquehanna and Delaware 
rivers. The opening of the Lebanon Valley rail- 
road from Reading to Harrisburg in 1857, through 
the same section of territory, proved the final and 
crushing blow to the Union Canal Company. From 
that time onward it began to decline more and 
more until it was finally abandoned, about 1890. 

Schuylkill Canal. — The Schuylkill Canal Nav- 
igation Company was incorporated on March 8, 
1815, for the purpose of transporting coal, lumber, 
merchandise, produce, etc., by a system of canals 
and slackwater navigation, by appropriating the 
water of the Schuylkill river from Mill creek, in 
Schuylkill county, to Philadelphia. The transporta- 
tion of articles was then carried on over the Centre 
turnpike to Reading, and the Perkiomen and Ger- 
mantown turnpikes to Philadelphia. Certain com- 
missioners were named in the Act, and they were 
directed to open subscription books at various places 
in May, 1815. The par value of a share of stock 
was fixed at fifty dollars, and twenty-five hundred 
shares were to be subscribed at Reading — one-fourth 
of the total shares. 

The first board of directors was elected at Nor- 
ristown on Oct. 5, 1815. It included two members 
from Berks county — Lewis Reese, of Reading, and 
John Wiley, of Maiden-creek. Samuel Baird, of 



Pottsgrove (now Pottstown), was also a member, 
but he soon afterward removed to Reading and 
practised law. 

The construction of the canal was begun in 1817, 
and completed in 1832, from John Potts's, at tlie 
mines, to within one-half a mile of Hamburg, be- 
low the Blue Mountain. The lower section, from 
the Schuylkill bridge at Philadelphia to Reading, 
had been finished. "Boats carried during 1821 over 
the completed portion of the canal, from the coal 
mines to the vicinity of Hamburg, large quantities 
of coal, which were deposited there and sold out 
by the ton to the country people from the neigh- 
borhood and for many miles distant. The unfin- 
ished oortion of the canal was reported to have 
been completed during the year 1822 ; and this was 
the first completed navigation in the country. 

The total length from Mount Carbon to Phil- 
adelphia was 105 miles (62 of canal and 43 of 
pools in river), with a fall of 588 feet; in- 
cluding 120 locks (81 above Reading and 39 be- 
low) ; 28 dams, 17 arched stone aqueducts, and a 
tunnel 450 feet long, cut through solid rock. The 
total cost was $1,800,000. 

In 1827-28, the canal was extended to Mill creek, 
making the total length 108.23 miles; and, by an 
enlargement in 1846, the number of locks was re- 
duced to 71, with a total fall of about 620 feet. 
The size of the locks was 18 by 110 feet; width 
of canal, 60 feet; depth of water, 6 feet. The 
capacity of boats waS 180 tons. 

The cost of transportation by land from Read- 
ing to Philadelphia was 40 cents a hundredweight ; 
by canal it was reduced to 12-| cents. The toll on 
coal from Mt. Carbon to Philadelphia in 1825 was 
6 cents a bushel or $1.68 a ton. 

Horses or mules were not used for towing boats 
previous to 1826. The boats were first towed 
through the canals by men at the end of long tow- 
lines. Two men drew- a boat after them by press- 
ing their shoulders or breasts against a stick fast- 
ened crosswise to the end of the tow-line. With 
such locomotion, a trip from Mount Carbon to 
Philadelphia and back generally required six 
weeks. At this time there were no tow-paths along 
the pools of the navigation ; hence the necessity 
for man-power. 

The following statistics show the great traffic 
over the canal during the first five years after its 
completion : 

Passed down Canal | 3S26 I 1827 | 1828 I 1820 I 1830 

Barrels of flour 

Tons of coal 

Tons of iron ore 

Tons of iron 

Tons of whiskey 

Total tons descending . . 
Total tons ascending . . . 
Total tolls received . . . . 

21,2451 31,4.361 66,8351 
16,787| 31,630| 47,2841 


















1 5,0231 1 7,799 
79,973f 89,984 













1 In tons. 

The traffic continued to increase from year to 
year. In 1842, it was over 500,000 tons, and the 

tolls over $400,000. Ample dividends were made; 
and shares, which cost originally $50, were sold 
as high as $175, and even $180. In 1851, the total 
tonnage was 842,097 tons, of which there were 
579,156 tons of coal; and the total toll was $285,- 
621. After 1861, the canal tonnage reached in some 
years nearly 1,400,000 tons of coal and 3_{)0,000 tons 
of merchandise and miscellaneous articles. The 
capacity of the canal was estimated at 1,800,000 tons 
descending, and at least 500,000 tons ascending. 

The boats were from 17 to 17^ feet wide, and 
100 to 101 and 102 feet long, with a maximum 
capacity of 190 tons. 

After the year 1858, the company oftered prem- 
iums for dispatch in transportation. Two boats 
competed energetically and proved that a trip from 
Port Carbon to New York and return could be made 
in seven days. This was regarded as an extraordi- 
nary performance. The interest taken in this con- 
test was so great that a boat came to be loaded at 
the canal landings in eighteen minutes from the 
time the boat reached the wharf till the trip was 
resumed. Finally, trouble was anticipated from 
this rivalry and the company put an end to it. The 
company continued to operate this great enterprise 
till 1870, when they leased it to the Philadelphia 
and Reading Railroad Company for a term of nine 
hundred and ninety-nine years. 

Packets. — In 1835, John and Nicholas Coleman 
introduced the system of running packets through 
the canal from Reading to Philadelphia. Trips were 
made three times a week. The fare was $2.50, and 
a trip was made in a day. The packets had no 
berths for sleeping purposes, but a large dining- 
room. Cooking was done aboard, and meals were 

These packets were well patronized, and contin- 
ued in successful operation till about 1832, when 
the increasing traffic on the canal forced them to 
be withdrawn. Theretofore boats, loaded and emp- 
ty, would turn out or lay over for an approaching 
packet, which was given the right of way. 

The first steamboat on the canal came from Phil- 
adelphia to Reading on Dec. 5, 1826. Twenty years 
afterward, a line of Steam Packets was begun be- 
tween Reading and Philadelphia. The first packet 
arrived on Sept. 28, 1846. It was built of iron, with 
two Ericson propellers, 85 feet long, and 13-} feet 
wide. They departed from Reading every day, ex- 
cept Sunday, at 2 p. m., and arrived at Philadelphia 
the next morning. And they departed from Phila- 
delphia and arrived at Reading on the same time. 
The fare was $1 a trip. But this enterprise did not 
continue long in operation. 


The first railway in Pennsylvania was built in 
1837 from Mauch Chunk to Summit Hill, in length 
nine miles. It was constructed to complete the 
transportation of coal from Mine Hill to Philadel- 



phia. From Mauch Chunk to Philadelphia a canal 
had been constructed shortly before by the Lehigh 
Coal and Navigation Company. But the canal could 
not be extended to Mine Hill ; so the company was 
compelled to build a railway to take the place of 
ordinary rdads. Soon afterward, The Little Schuyl- 
kill Railroad Company was incorporated, and it con- 
structed the railroad from Tamaqua to Port Clinton. 

P. & R. R. — In 1833, a railroad was projected 
from Port Clinton via Reading to Philadelphia. 
The Little Schuylkill Railroad Company was auth- 
orized to extend its railroad to Reading, and to 
construct one from Reading , to Philadelphia. A 
company was chartered on April 4, 1833, under the 
name of the "Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 
Company." Twenty-seven commissioners were ap- 
pointed, including George de B. Keim, Matthias S. 
Richards, Isaac Hiester and James Everhart, of 
Reading. Immediate steps were taken to construct 
this road. A considerable portion was finished dur- 
ing 1835. By December, 1837, one track of the 
road was completed from Reading to Pottstown. 
An excursion party, comprising one hundred citi- 
zens of Reading, made a trip on the 6th of Decem- 
ber in five freig-ht cars, temporarily fitted up with 
seats and drawn by five horses. It started from the 
depot at 9 A. M., and arrived at Pottstown in two 
and three quarters hours, including all stops. In 
returning, it left at 3 P. M. and arrived at Reading 
at 5 p. M. The first regular train from Reading to 
Pottstown ran on May 1, 1838 ; to Norristown, on 
July, 16, 1838 ; and to Philadelphia in December, 
1839. The fare was: First-class, $2.50; second- 
class, $2. 

The Little Schuylkill Railroad Company being 
unable to construct the road from Port Clinton to 
Reading, the charter of the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railroad Co. was therefore extended to cover the 
construction and operation of a railroad from Read- 
ing to Pottsville; and notwithstanding the financial 
difficulties which prevailed about 1838, the project 
was completed within four years afterward. The 
first train ran over the whole line from Philadelphia 
to Pottsville, ninety-three miles, on Jan. 1, 1842, and 
the road was opened for general travel on the 10th. 
The second track wis laid in 1843, and opened for 
travel in January, 1844. The distance from Read- 
ing to Philadelphia was traveled in two hours; to 
Pottsville in one hour and twenty minutes. 

In the establishment of this great enterprise, the 
construction of two long tunnels is worthy of men- 
tion — ^one near Phoenixville, in length 1,931 feet, at 
a cost of $150,000 ; the other near Port Clinton, in 
length 1,606 feet, at a cost of $125,782. The latter 
extends through the Blue Mountain, and the depth 
from the surface at the top of the mountain is 119 
feet. A third tunnel was constructed at Manayunk, 
in length 940 feet, costing $75,000. The Phoenix- 
ville and Manayunk tunnels were enlarged in 1859. 

A superior', large stone bridge across the Schuylkill, 
above Tuckerton, is also noteworthy. 

The introduction of this railway immediately 
stimulated enterprise at Reading, and caused energy 
and capital to be directed toward manufacturing. 
The increasing tide of affairs induced people and 
capital to concentrate here more and more every 
succeeding year; and buildings multiplied rapidly 
to answer the demands of the increasing population. 
The company established its workshops here when 
the railway was completed, and these have grown 
here in capacity with the ever-increasing traffic of 
the road. The first large shop occupied the half 
block on the west side of Seventh street between 
Franklin and Chestnut streets, where it continued 
for over sixty years. Its extensive and costly shops 
are now situated along the northern extremity of 
Sixth street. Each succeeding decade found the 
company with more extended shops of all kinds for 
the manufacture of engines and cars, affording in 
the mieantime constant employment for an ever-in- 
creasing number of workmen. The total annual in- 
come to the people of Reading from this single 
source during the past seventy years counts into 
millions of dollars, all of which contributed directly 
toward the substantial growth of this community, 
in its buildings, stores, factories, churches and 

The passenger station (or "depot" as it was 
generally called) was located at the northwest cor- 
ner of Seventh and Chestnut streets, and continued 
there till 1874, when it was removed to the "junc- 
tion" of the Lebanon Valley and East Pennsylvania 
railroads, nearly a mile to the north, called "Main 
Station," where a fine large building had been erec- 
ted. This was done to accommodate the large pas- 
senger traffic. It is surmounted with a large and 
elevated clock-tower. Extensive covered platforms 
are constructed over the three roads, nearly a half- 
mile in length; eastern, 1,038 feet; northwestern, 
709 feet ; southwestern, 692 feet ; the first being 47 
feet wide, and the others 42. The passenger trains 
to Philadelphia and Pottsville pass through the first ; 
those to Harrisburg and to Allentown through the 
second ; and those to Columbia, Slatington, and Wil- 
mington, through the third. It was begun in 1871, 
and completed in 1874, when the lower station was 
abandoned. In 1884 the company re-established the 
station at Franklin street. 

The stations in the county are the following: 
Douglassville, Monocacy, Birdsboro, Exeter, Frank- 
lin Street, Reading, Tuckerton, Leesport, Mohrs- 
ville, Shoemakersville, Bern, Hamburg. The length 
of the railway from the southern extremity of the. 
county to the northern is forty miles. 

The, train service for passengers, coal and freight 
over the Philadelphia & Reading railroad and 
its several branches, is very extensive, as will ap- 
pear by the following statistics for July, 1908, at 
Reading : 



Passenger trains 94 first ground was broken at a spot, now the highest 

Coal and freight— point of the cut, a short distance north of Temple 

Main Line 90 Station, on June 11, 1857; and it was prosecuted 

Lebanon Valley 65 vv^jth energy for two years. The last spike was 

East Penn . 48 jj-iven on April 20, 1859, and the completion was 

wiStt fNorTheVn-:;^ signalized by a demonstration at Temple on 

Sdniylkill & Lehigh 4 May 11th. On that day, trains began to run be- 

, , , J A -1 -I tween Reading- and Allentown Junction, a distance 
Lebanon V.^LLEY.-An Act was passed April 1 ^^ thirty-six miles. It was leased to the Philadel- 
1836, mcorporatmg the Lebanon Valley Railroad ^ia & Reading Railroad Co. in May, 1869, by 
Company," for a railroad from Reading to Harris- ^^^-^^ -^ ^^^ ^J^ operated since, 
burg. It required an actual subscription of four -phe length of the railroad in the county is twenty- 
thousand shares of stock before the charter should t^^ee miles, with the following stations : Temple, 
become operative. This number could not be ob- Blandon, Fleetwood, Lyons, Bowers, Topton, 
tained by private subscriptions, and the project was Mertztown, Shamrock. 

allowed to slumber for seventeen years. In 1853, Reading & Columbia.— Whilst the Lebanon 
the idea was conceived that Lebanon and Reading, Valley and East Penn railroads were being con- 
as municipal organizations, should encourage the en- structed, the subject of extending a railroad from 
terprise by a large subscription of the stock, the Sinking Spring (a station on the former) to Col- 
former, two thousand shares, and the latter, six umbia was discussed with earnestness. In this be- 
thousand. half an Act was passed on May 19, 1857, incorporat- 
A supplementary Act was accordingly passed on ing the "Reading & Columbia Railroad Company," 
April 5, 1853, with a provision that the subject of and naming fifteen commissioners. The first pro- 
a subscription be submitted to the taxables of the ject was to extend the road from a point in Read- 
respective places. The city councils of Reading ing; but in 1861 an Act was passed authorizing a 
discussed this subject on May 11, 1853, and ordered connection to be made with the former railroad at 
an election to be held on June 15th following. This any point between Reading and Sinking Spring, 
election was to decide for or against a subscription Numerous meetings were held at Ephrata, Lancas- 
of four thousand shares, amounting to $200^000. ter, Columbia and Reading, and reports pertaining 
The result of the election was 1,658 for subscription, to the business which the territory would afford 
and 682 against. The election having terminated were made to encourage the construction of the 
favorably, certain taxables applied to the Supreme road ; and these eventually terminated in its suc- 
court for an injunction, but it was refused. The cessful completion in March, 1864, from Sinking 
subscription by the city councils was made, and Spring to Columbia, a distance of forty miles.' The 
in payment thereof city bonds were issued amount- first passenger train ran in May, 1864. The length 
ing to $200,000. During the completion of the road of the railroad in the county is five miles, with two 
an Act was passed. May 5, 1857, to authorize the stations, Fntztown and Vinemont. 
consolidation of the Lebanon Valley Railroad Com- Wilmington & Northern.— A railroad was also 
pany with the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad encouraged through the southern section of Berks 
Company, upon first obtaining consent of the stock- county, by inhabitants of Robeson, Union and Caer- 
holders. The city councils approved of the consoli- "^'■^°" *°^"s'"P%,^"^ *ey obtained an Act on 
dation. especiallv upon having been assured by the ^P"' ^^' jSe^k The road was to extend from a 
Philadelphia &' Reading Railroad Company that P°"^t on the Philadelphia & Reading railroad, at 
the city bonds would be returned and that its °^ "^ar Birdsboro, by the most available route, to 
company would assume the subscription of four any railroad built in Chester county The incorpor- 
thousand shares. The road was completed, the con- ^""^ '^°dy was named Berks and Chester Railroad 
solidation effected, and the city bonds were returned. Company ; and the company was authorized to con- 
Trains began to run to Lebanon in June, 1857; -^^''^.f/^^f JTrr l^ "°! exceedmg nine miles 
and to Harrisburg in January, 1858. ' Length of ll^'^'St. ^Ih Zt\ T ^^^^^^ T^ ^'^''^^ 
this railroad in th% countv, sixteen miles; wfth the f If^'lr^^ '^ WffT.f"' '""^ Pennsylvania State 
following stations: Sinking Spring, Wernersville, ^'"mm nnir L f ^ consohda ion with this 
■n , • -i^r 1 1 i: ^ Company under the name of the Wilming-ton & 

"i'^TvV^rn^^i . i..r A. Reading Railroad Company. The name wis sub 
East PENN.-On March 9, 1856, an Act was sequently changed to Wilmington & Northern Rail- 
pa.ssed incorporating the Reading and Lehigh ,^^^ Companv. The road was opened for travel 
Railroad Company for a railroad froni the June- ^s follows: From Wilmington to CoatesviUe, 
ion of the Phi adelphia & Reading and the Lebanon thtrtv-three miles, in December, 1869 • to Birdsboro 
\ a ley railroads at Reading, to the Lehigh Valley sixty-three miles, in June, 1870; and to Readino-' 
railroad at Allentown. The title of the company seventy-two miles, in Februarv 1874 It was con- 
was changed to "East Pennsylvania Railroad Com- structed to a point in Poplar Neck ' and the road 
pany," by Act passed April 21, 1857. The construe- from that point was extended through Reading by 
tion of the roadway began in June following. The the Berks County Railroad Company 



The passenger station of the company at Read- 
ing was for a' time at the southwest corner of Sec- 
ond and Cherry streets. In 1882 the company effec- 
ted an arrangement to run its trains to and from 
the station of the Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road Company; and in 1903 the road was leased to 
the latter company. 

The following stations are in the county: Birds- 
boro. White Bear, Geigertown, Joanna. The pas- 
senger station at Birdsboro is a handsome structure. 
Length in county, twenty miles. 

West Reading. — The • manufacturers situated 
along the Schuylkill canal secured an Act on March 
20, 1860, to construct a railroad from the Lebanon 
Valley railroad at Fourth street to a point on Canal 
street near the gas works, and to organize a com- 
pany under the name of West Reading Railroad 
Company. The road was constructed, in length 
nearly two miles, and opened for traffic in 1863. 
This company operated it for ten years, and then 
transferred it to the Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road Co., by which company it has been used since, 
as a branch road in delivering and receiving freight. 

COLEBROOKDALE. — In March, 1865, a railroad was 
constructed from the Philadelphia & Reading rail- 
road at Pottstown to Boyertown and a company 
was incorporated under the name of "Colebropkdale 
Railroad Company." The road was constructed to 
Barto, a distance of nearly thirteen miles, and 
opened to travel in November, 1869. 

The stations in the county are Manatawny, Iron- 
stone, Colebrookdale, Boyertown, Bechtelsville, 
Barto. It was leased to the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Railroad Company on Jan. 1, 1870, for twenty 
years, which lease was renewed. 

KuTZTOWN Branch. — In 1854 a company was 
incorporated under the name of the Allentown Rail- 
'road Company, to construct a railroad from Allen- 
town to the Philadelphia & Reading railroad at any 
point between Reading and Port Clinton; and if 
this railroad should not be extended by way of 
Kutztown, a branch should be constructed to that 
place. -Subsequently a section of the road was con- 
structed from Topton to Kutztown, in length four 
and a half miles, and opened for travel in January, 
1870. It has been operated since by the Philadel- 
phia & Reading Railroad Company under a lease. 

Schuylkill & Lehigh. — In March, 1871, a com- 
pany was incorporated for the purpose of construct- 
ing a railroad from a point on the Wilmington & 
Northern railroad, at or near Birdsboro, through 
Reading, to connect with any railroad or railroads 
in the county of Lehigh; commissioners were ap- 
pointed and a company was created by the name of 
"Berks County Railroad Company," and it was con- 
structed from the "Cut" in "Poplar Neck," through 
Reading, by way of the Maiden creek, to Slating- 
ton, where connection was made with the Lehigh 
Valley railroad, a total length of forty-five miles. 
The road was opened for travel in July, 1874. 
Shortly afterward, the road was sold and a reor- 
ganization effected under the name of "Berks & 

Lehigh Railroad Company" ; and subsequently this 
name was changed to "Schuylkill & Lehigh Rail- 
road Company." The road is carried on by the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company under 
a lease. The length of the road in the county is 
twenty-four miles, and the stations are Maiden- 
creek, Evansville, Moselem, Virginville, Lenharts- 
ville, Kempton. 

Belt Line. — For a number of years the increas- 
ing traffic on the main line of the Philadelphia & 
Reading railroad rendered its passage through 
Reading more and more difficult to handle, and 
finally, in 1900, the management determined to re- 
lieve the great congestion which extended from the 
"Walnut street Cut" northward several miles, by 
constructing a "Belt Line" around Reading; which 
started at a point called the "Junction," in Muhlen- 
berg township, about a mile north of the main sta- 
tion at Reading, thence crossing the river and pass- 
ing through Bern, Spring and Cumru townships, 
and ending in the main line about two miles south 
of Reading. It was opened for traffic in 1902. 

Signal Service. — From the beginning of the 
service on the P. & R. railroad the company main- 
tained along the main line a number of "signal 
towers" for the purpose of notifying the trainmen 
as to the situation and movement of the trains ; then 
the "Hall block system" was introduced, as a more 
reliable system, and it has proved very useful and 

Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley. — The 
Phoenixville, Pottstown & Reading Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated on Sept. 30, 1882, for oper- 
ating a railroad from Phoenixville to Reading, by 
way of Pottstown; and on the same day, the Phil- 
adelphia, Norristown & Phoenixville Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated for operating a railroad from 
Philadelphia to Phoenixville. On May 1, 1883, 
these two companies were consolidated, under the 
name of Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley Railroad 
Company, and a month afterward a lease was effec- 
ted with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The 
latter company then constructed the railroad from 
Philadelphia to Reading, by way of Norristown and 
Phoenixville, during 1883 and 1884, opening it to 
Reading on Nov. ■ 15, 1884. In the course of its 
construction the company erected four substantial 
bridges across the Schuylkill within the county — 
Douglas sville, Poplar Neck, Little Dam, and Read- 
ing — and three handsome passenger stations : Doug- 
lassville, Birdsboro, Reading. 

The length of this railroad from Reading to the 
Montgomery county line is fourteen miles. 

The Penn street bridge stood in the way of im- 
provements by this company at the foot of Penn 
street, and, in pursuance of a proposition by this 
company to substitute a superior iron bridge in its 
place, at a cost of $100,000, provided the county of 
Berks contributed $33,000, the old wooden bridge 
was removed and the present handsome iron bridge 
was erected during the years 1884 and 1885. 



The Reading & Pottsville Railroad Company was 
incorporated afterward for operating a railroad 
from Reading to Pottsville, by way of Hamburg 
and Port Clinton, and this was constructed during 
1884 and 1885, as a continuation of the railroad 
from Philadelphia to the coal regions. It was op- 
ened to Hamburg on Dec. 7, 1885, and in 1886 to 
Pottsville. On Dec. 1, 1885, this road was also 
leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The 
company erected a fine station at Hamburg. The 
length of the railroad northward from Reading to 
the Schuylkill county line is twenty miles ; and the 
total length in the county is thirty-four miles. A 
fifth bridge was constructed obliquely across the 
Schuylkill river at Hamburg. 

Electric Railways. — Street railways began to 
be laid down in Reading in 1874, but a number of 
years elapsed before they were operated success- 
fully. The first extensions of the system were made 
into the surrounding country districts as follows: 
To the Black Bear Inn and Stony Creek in 1890 ; 
and an extension was made from a point near the 
latter place to Boyertown in 1902, by way of Jack- 
sonwald, Oley Line, Friedensburg and Shanesville; 
and an extension from Black Bear Inn to Birds- 
boro in 1904 by way of Seyfert and Gibraltar. 

To Shillington and Mohnsville (now Mohnton) 
in 1890; and an extension to Adamstown was con- 
structed in 1894. 

To Womelsdorf, on the bed of the Berks and 
Dauphin turnpike, in 1894. 

To Temple in 1902 ; which was extended to Kutz- 
town in 1904. A line had been extended from Al- 
lentown to Kutztown in 1898 and operated to that 
point. When the connection was made in 1904, 
through travel was effected from Reading to Allen- 
town; and this route then began to be utilized for 
cheap Sunday excursions to New York in the sum- 
mer season. 

These suburban lines opened travel to all points 
surrounding Reading, excepting to Hamburg to the 
north, and to Bernville, Rehrersburg and Millers- 
burg to the northwest. The former point is reached 
conveniently by two steam railways, but the latter 
can still only be reached by stage lines or by pri- 
vate conveyance. 

The extension of these lines from Reading has 
encouraged building operations and the develop- 
ment of suburban towns to a remarkable degree, 
more especially since 1900. This is apparent at 
Hyde Park to the north; at Wyomissing to the 
west ; at Oakbrook and Shillington to the southwest ; 
and at Mt. Penn and Esterly to the southeast. 

Additional lines are in contemplation: from 
Womelsdorf to Myerstown, westward ; from Temple 
to Hamburg, northward; and from Lyons to Top- 
ton and Emaus, northward. 

A line was completed in 1908 from Pottstown 
to Boyertown via Ringing Rocks Park and Gil- 


The postal department of the public service is 
classed with the internal improvements of the coun- 
ty. The first attempt to systematize and regulate 
postal communication in the American Colonies was 
made by the British government in 1660; and this 
subject received the attention of William Penn 
shortly after his arrival in Pennsylvania, he having, 
in July, 1683, issued an order for the establishment 
of a post-office at Philadelphia. The postal facili- 
ties in that early period were only such as were af- 
forded by personal accommodation among the col- 
onists. In 1692, the rate of postage to and from 
Philadelphia, within a radius of eighty miles, was 

The office of Postmaster-General for America 
was created by Parliament in 1704. In 1737, Benja- 
min Franklin was appointed postmaster at Phila- 
delphia, and in 1753, deputy postmaster-general. 
The delivery of letters by the penny post began in 
1753 ; and also the practice of advertising unclaimed 
letters which remained in the office at Philadelphia. 
In 1774 Franklin became obnoxious to the British 
government, and he was therefore dismissed. This 
caused private arrangements to be made for carry- 
ing letters, and in 1775, the Colonies established 
their own postal department, and on July 26th 
Franklin was unanimously chosen postmaster-gen- 
eral. This was an important action in connec- 
tion with the movement for independence. In 1792, 
rates of postage were established, which remained 
unchanged for over fifty years. 

Reading Office Established. — The first post- 
office in the county was established at Reading on 
March 20, 1793. The department had been in prac- 
tical existence for nearly twenty years. The popu- 
lation here was large and business transactions were 
numerous, but correspondence was limited. Letters 
had been carried for several years previously by a 
stage line to Philadelphia and to Harrisburg, at the 
rate of threepence postage ; and about the year 1800 
they began to be carried to Sunbury once a week 
on horseback, and to Lancaster and Easton once a 
week in a private two-horse carriage. After the 
stage-coach had become a fixed mode of transpor- 
tation for people and light articles of merchandise, 
at regular intervals, postal matter began to be car- 
ried by it from place to place. 

The mails were carried by stages till the intro- 
duction of the railways ; then passenger trains were 

Stamps. — No postage stamps were issued by the 
national government till August, 1847, when two 
denominations were issued — -five-cent and ten-cent. 
The idea of using postage stamps was first sug- 
gested in 1841. Previously, postage had been col- 
lected entirely in money ; and in all cases, pre-pay- 
ment was optional. The two denominations men- 
tioned continued in use four years; then new de- 
nominations for one cent and three cents appeared, 
and shortly afterward others for five, ten, twelve. 



twenty-four, thirty and ninety cents. In 1861 this 
series was called in by the postmaster-general, and 
a new series issued. On July 1, 1863, the first two- 
cent stamp appeared; which was to accommodate 
local postage. In 1869 a new series was issued, of 
the denominations of one, two, three, five, six, ten, 
fifteen, thirty and ninety cents; and a year after- 
ward, the following designs were adopted for these 
stamps : One-cent, Franklin ; two-cent, Jackson ; 
three-cent, Washington; five-cent, Jackson; six- 
cent, Lincoln; ten-cent, Jefferson; fifteen-cent, 
Webster; thirty-cent, Hamilton; ninety-cent. Perry. 
Designs of persons on stamps in honor of distin- 
■guished representative men of our country had been 
in use from their first introduction, particularly of 
Franklin and Washington. 

Post-Offices of County. — The following post- 
offices have been established in the county. They 
are arranged in the order of their priority. 

JJo. Name Established 

1. Reading March 20, 1793 

2. Hamburg July 1, 1798 

3. Kutztown July 1, 1805 

4. Morgantown Jan. 1, 1806 

5. Womelsdorf July 1, 1807 

6. Rehrersburg May 27, 1818 

7. Longswamp April 18, 1822 

8. Blandon Nov. 2, 1825 

9. Klinesville Dec. 16, 1825 

10. Bethel ; Dec. 21, 1827 

11. Brower Jan. 7,1828 

12. Dale Jan. 35, 1828 

13. Colebrookdale Feb. 4, 1828 

14. Boyertown Feb. 14, 1828 

15. Oley March 14, 1828 

16. Brumfield March 27, 1828 

17. Geiger's Mill March 27, 1828 

18. New Jerusalem May 36, 1828 

19. Douglassville March 3, 1829 

:20. Grimville Jan. 14, 1830 

Zl. Shartlesville Feb. 9, 1830 

22. Hereford March 6, 1830 

■23. Joanna Furnace Dec. 29, 1830 

24. Sinking Spring June 25, 1831 

25. Stouchsburg March 23, 1833 

■26. Bernville Aug. 16, 1832 

27. Shoemakersville Jan. 14, 1833 

28. Pikeville March 12, 1834 

■29. Pricetown Feb. 6, 1835 

30. Lobachsville April 10,/ 1835 

31. Baumstown Dec. 21, 1835 

32. Mohrsville May 10, 1836 

33. Gibraltar June 16, 1836 

34. Tuckerton ". .Jan. 26, 1838 

35. Earlville Aug. 2, 1838 

36. MoUto-wn Aug. 30, 1839 

37. Virginville Aug. 30, 1839 

'38. Lo^wer Bern June 13, 1841 

39. Albany Dec. 33, 1845 

40. Moselem Springs Jan. 14, 1846 

41. Stonersville Jan. 18, 1847 

42. Monterey May 19, 1847 

43. Strausstown Nov. 18, 1847 

44. Robesonia Furnace Feb. 28, 1849 

45. Crosskill Mills Oct. 16, 1849 

46. Siesholtzville Nov. 8, 1849 

47. Tulpehocken March 19, 1850 

-48. Qayton June 21, 1850 

49. Birdsboro Jan. 6, 1851 

50. Leesport Jan. 21, 1851 

51. Manata-wny March 19, 1851 

53. Spangsville Sept. 19, 1851 

■53. Fleetwood ■. Feb. 16, 1853 

54. Leinbach's Feb. 16, 1852 

55. Beckersville Feb. 18, 1853 

56. Host April 32, 1852 

57. Bechtelsvilk May 7,1852 

58. Greshville Feb. 10, 1853 

59. Dryville May 3, 1853 

60. Wernersville ' May 3, 1853 

61. Fredericksvilile Aug. 20, 1853 

62. Landis' Store Aug. 30, 1853 

63. Maxatawny Nov. 5, 1853 

64. Mount Aetna Oct. 3, 1854 

65. Lenhartsville Dec. 11, 1854 

66. Gouglersvilk July 16, 1855 

67. Monocacy Jan. 39, 1856 

68. Knauer's March 3, 1856 

69. Moselem July 8, 1856 

70. South Evansville July 8, 1856 

71. Windsor Castle July 18, 1856 

73. Wintersville July 10, 1857 

73. Temple , July 30,1857 

74. Mohn's Store* Nov. 6, 1857 

75. Mertztown Dec. 8, 1857 

76. Cumru March 6„ 1858 

77. Kirbyville Oct. 31, 185|9 

78. Bower's Station June 35, 1860 

79. Lyons Station Oct. 25, 1860 

80. Topton Aug. 29, 1861 

81. Exeter Dec. 25, 1861 

83. Maiden Creek April 18, 1862 

83. Eagle Point ' Aug. 14, 1862 

84. Fritztown Nov. 12, 1862 

85. Alsace Feb. 12, 1863 

86. Upper Bern Aug. 28, 1863 

87. Hill Church May 27, 1864 

88. North Heidelberg > June 22, 1864 

89. Lower Heidelberg July 1,1864 

90. Krick's Mill Sept. 11, 1865 

91. Hiester's Mill Dec. 2,1865 

93. Yellow House May 9, 1866 

93. Mountain Sept. 19, 1866 

94. Shanesville May 3, 1867 

95. Centreport June 11, 1868 

96. Stony Run Jan. 11, 1869 

97. Scarlet Mill Aug. 4, 1869 

98. Hummel's Store Sept. 29, 1869 

99. Griesemersville June 29, 1870 

lOto. Lime-Kiln ■ June 29, 1870 

101. Jacksonwald Nov. 11, 1870 

102. Pine Iron Works Feb. 24, 1871 

103. Little Oley April 21, 1871 

104. Monocacy Station May 13, 1872 

105. West Leesport Sept. 30, 1872 

106. Huff's Church March 2, 1874 

107. Trexler Nov. 9, 1874 

108. East Berkley March 12, 1875 

109. Bern May 23, 1878 

110. Cacoosing June 6, 1878 

111. Stony Creek Mills May 20, 1879 

112. Meckville Dec. 17, 1879 

113. Berks Dec. 23, 1879 

114. Vinemont April 19, 1880 

115. Garfield June 25, 1880 

116. Kempton May 17, 1881 

117. Barto March 16, 1882 

118. Angelica May 22, 1882 

119. Eckville Sept. 8, 1882 

120. New Berlinville Feb. 23, 1883 

121. Bally Aug. 7, 1883 

132. Schweyers April 14, 1884 

133. Shamrock Station May 14, 1884 

134. Schubert r June 6, 1884 

•Charged to Mohnton Aug. 0, 1906. 



125. Shillington July 14, 1884 

126. Lorah Dec. 5, 1884 

127. Athol Jan. 6,1885 

128. Walter's Park March 3, 1885 

129. Krumville July 7, 1885 

130. Calcium July 7, 1885 

131. Robesonia Jan. 15, 1886 

132. Schofer Feb. 26, 1886 

133. Obold April 20, 1886 

134. Eshbach May 3,1886 

135. Dreibelbis June 10, 1886 

136. Scull Hill Aug. 30, 1887 

137. Dengler's* Nov. 19, 1887 

138. Hancock March 3, 1888 

139. . Strause Aug. 28, 1900 

140. Greenawalt March 20, 1903 

Rural Free Delivery.' — The following 58 rural 
free delivery routes were established in Berks coun- 
ty from 1900 until Dec. 1, 1908, the first having 
been established at Hamburg in the extreme north- 
ern part of the county, Sept. 1, 1900, and their ar- 
rangement being set forth in the order of priority: 

Office Routes Established 

Hamburg 2 Sept. 1, 1900 

Reading 1 Oct. 1, 1901 

Douglassville 4 Feb. 2, 1903 

Fleetwood 1 July 1, 1903 

Bechtelsville 2 July 1, 1903 

Shoemakersville 1 July 1, 1903 

Hamburg 2 Sept. 1, 1903 

Boyertown 1 Oct. 15, 1903 

Kutztown 1 April 1, 1904 

Robesonia 2 April 1, 1904 

Birdsboro 2 May 2, 1904 

Sinking Spring 3 Sept. 1, 1904 

Reading 1 Oct. 15, 1904 

Geiger's Mills 1 Nov. 1, 1904 

Blandon : 1 Nov. 15, 1904 

Fleetwood 1 Nov. 15, 1904 

Leesport 1 Nov. 15, 1904 

Shoemakersville 1 Nov. 15, 1904 

Temple 1 Nov. 15, 1904 

Mertztov^Jn 1 Dec. 1, 1904 

Boyertown 1 Jan. 2, 1905 

Stouchsburg 1 Jan. 16, 1905 

Wernersville 2 Jan. 15, 1905 

Kutztown I Feb. 1, 1905 

Barto 2 Feb. 15, 1905 

JMertztoWn 1 Feb. 15, 1905 

West Leesport 1 Feb. 15, 1905 

Oley 3 April 15, 1905 

Bernville 1 i\Iay 1, 1905 

Kempton 3 May 1, 1905 

JMohnsville 1 May 15, 1905 

Oley 1 j\Iay 15, 1905 

Geiger's Mills 1 May 23, 1905 

Mohrsville 1 Aug. 1, 1905 

Bernville 1 Oct. 16, 1905 

Mohnsville 1 Nov. 1, 1905 

Virginville 1 Nov. 15, 1905 

Bethel 1 Dec. 1, 1905 

Stony Creek Mills 1 Nov. 1, 1906 

Lenhartsville 1 April 16, 1907 

The following fifty offices have been discontinued 
since 1900 as a direct result of introducing the rural 
free deliver}' : 

Office Date 

Alleghenyville Oct. 31, 1905 

Alliance Oct. 13, 1905 

* Changed to Mount Penn, December 11, 1903. 

Angelica May 31^ 

Basket May 31 

Baumstown April 30, 

Beckersville Oct. 31; 

Brewer Jan. 31, 

Brumfieldville Aug. 15, 

Cacoosing Oct. 31 

Cross-kill Mills June 15, 

Dale Dec. 14, 

Dreibelbis Nov. 30, 

Eagle Point March 31, 

East Berkley April 30, 

Eshbach Feb. 28 

Freeman June 15 

Gablesville Aug. 15 

Garfield Jan. 31 

Gouglersville Jan. 14, 

Greenawalt April 29, 

Greshvilk Aug. 15, 

Grill Jan. 31, 

Harlem Nov. 14, 

Huffs Church .' Oct. 31, 

KirbyviUe June 30, 

Knauer's Oct. 31 

Leinbach's Jan. 31, 

Lesher Jan. 15, 

Liscum Feb. 15 

Lobachsville June 30, 

Lorah Jan. 31, 

Lower Heidelberg Jan. 31, 

Moselem Dec. 14, 

Moselem Springs . May 31 

North Heidelberg Jan. 31, 

Oakbrook Oct. 31 

Obold Oct. 15 

Passmore March 31, 

Pikeville June 30, 

Pricetown June 30, 

Schubert Nov. 3o! 

Schweyers Nov. 30, 

Scull Hill Oct. 14 

South Evansville Jan. 31 

Stonetown April 1 

Strausstown April 30, 

Tuckerton June 15 

Upper Bern Sept. 29 

Windsor Castle May 31 

Winters ville Jan. 14 





_ The mail formerly addressed to the following discon- 
tinued post-offices, is sent as follows : 

Alsace mail to Oley 

Angelica mail to Mohnton 

Baumstown mail to Birdsboro 

Beckersville mail to Geiger's Mills 

Brower mail to Douglassville 

Brumfieldville mail to Douglassville 

Cacoosing mail to Sinking Spring 

Colebrookdale mail to Pottstown 

Crosskill Mills mail to Myerstown 

Cumru mail to ShilHngton 

Dale mail to Barto 

Eagle Point mail to Kutztown 

East Berkley mail to Blandon 

Eckville mail to Albany 

Exeter mail to Lorane 

Garfield mail to Bernville 

Gouglersville mail to Reinholds 

Greshville mail to Boyertown 

Heidelberg Lower mail to Wernersville 

Heidelberg North mail to Robesonia 

Hiester's Mill mail to Robesonia 

Kirbvville mail to Fleetwood 



Knauer's mail to Mohnton 

Leinbach's mail to Reading R. F. D. No. 2 

Lobachsville mail to Oley 

Longswamp mail to Mertztown 

Lo'rah mail to Sinking Spring 

Lower Bern mail to Robesonia 

Obold mail to Robesonia 

Pikeville mail to Oley 

Pricetown mail to Fleetwood 

Schweyers mail to Mertztown 

Siesholtzville mail to Alburtis 

South Evansville mail to West Leesport 

Stonetown mail to Birdsboro 

Strause mail to West Leesport 

Tuckerton mail to Reading R. F. D. No. 2 

Upper Bern mail to Hamburg 

Windsor Castle mail to Hamburg 

Wintersville mail to Richland 


The following offices were in Berks county in January, 
1909. The figures after post-offices denote number of rural 
free delivery routes running from that office. 




Barto — 2 

Bechtelsville — 2 




Bemville — 2 

Bethel— 1 

Birdsboro — 2 

Blandon — 1 

Bowers Station 







Douglas sville — i 




Fleetwood — 2 



Geiger's Mills— 3 




Hamburg — t 



Hill Church 


Hummel's Store 



Kempton — 2 


Krick's Mill 



Landis Store 

Leesport — 1 



Little Oley 


Lyons Station 





Mertztown — 2 

Mohnton — 2 

Mohrsville — 1 



Monocacy Station 




Mount Aetna 


Mountain Sunset 

Mount Penn 

New Berlinville 

New Jerusalem 

Oley— 4 

Pine Iron Works 


Reading — 2 


Robesonia — 2 


Scarletts Mill 



Shamrock Station 




Shoemakersville — 2 

Sinking Spring — 3 



Stony Creek Mills— 1 

Stony Run 

Stouchsburg — 1 


Temple — 1 




Virginville — 1 

Walter's Park 

Wernersville — 2 

West Leesport — 1 

West Reading 



Yellow House 


In 1844, the telegraph was successfully intro- 
duced for the transmission of messages by elec- 
tricity. The first message was sent through a wire 
elevated on poles between Washington and- Balti- 
more, May 37, 1844. Congress had (in March 
previously) appropriated $30,000 to Prof. Morse 
for experiments with his instrument, to demonstrate 
the practicability of his invention. 

P. R. & P. T. Co. — A company was incorporated 
under the name of Philadelphia, Reading & Potts- 
ville Telegraph Company, by an Act passed March 
15, 1847, for the purpose of making, using and 
maintaining telegraph lines between Philadelphia, 
Reading and Pottsville, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed to effect its organization. This company was 
organized in April, and the telegraph line was suc- 
cessfully established shortly afterward. Communi- 
cation was completed between Philadelphia and 
Reading on May 10, 1847 ; and the first message for- 
warded to Reading related to the Mexican war. 
The line has been maintained successfully ever 

Upon the construction and operation of the sev- 
eral railroads running from Reading, telegraph 
lines were extended to Harrisburg, Allentown, Col- 
umbia, Lancaster, Slatington, and Wilmington. 

Western Union. — The American Telegraph 
Company introduced a line of telegraph here in 
1863; and, in 1865, the Western Union Telegraph 
Company. These two then formed a union; and 
the lines have been operated since under the latter 
name. In 1879, this company and the Philadelphia, 
Reading & Pottsville Telegraph Company effected 
an arrangement for co-operation; since then they 
have conducted their lines together. 

Lehigh. — The Lehigh Telegraph Company was 
organized at Allentown, and opened an office at 
Reading in September, 1880. It 'formed a connec- 
tion with the principal cities in the United States 
through the American Union Telegraph Company, 
but this connection was continued only for a year 
and a half, when it was changed to the "Mutual 
Union" for an equal period, and it was operated 
under this name till January, 1884, when its lines^ 
etc., were transferred to the Bankers' & Merchants' 
Telegraph Company. This company has been op- 
erating the lines under the name of the United 
Lines Telegraph Company, by which it is known 
throughout the country. At Reading it is known 
as the "Postal." 


Pennsylvania. — The telephone was introduced 
at Reading by Henry W. Spang, in October, 1879. 
He organized a system of communication in the 
city and carried it on successfully until November, 
1880, when he formed a stock company for main- 
taining lines and exchanges in Berks, Montgomery, 
Schuylkill and Lebanon counties, under the name 



of East Pennsylvania Telephone Company. This 
company then extended the system, making con- 
nection with Pottstown, Pottsville, and Lebanon; 
set up an increased number of instruments, and 
operated it successfully until Jan 1, 1883, when the 
entire business, including wires and instruments, 
was transferred to the Pennsylvania Telephone 
Company, a similar organization, which had ex- 
tended its lines to Lebanon from Harrisburg. The 
latter company has since conducted the business 
very successfully. The extent of its system in the 
county until March, 1909, is shown in the following 
particulars : 

Miles of wire in county, 7,720 (of which 6,200 are in 
Reading) . 

Instruments in county, 3,776 (of which 3,332 are in 

Operators, 45 ; employees, 115. 

Estimated daily calls, 35,000. 

Consolidated. — The Consolidated Telephone 
Companies of Pennsylvania was organized under 
the laws of Pennsylvania in August, 1901, and by 
June, 1902, the plant was established in Berks coun- 
ty with a "central exchange" at Reading. In Feb- 
ruary, 1909, lines radiated from the exchange for 
a distance of forty miles from Reading, touching 
all the small towns and villages in the county; and 
the toll system had connections covering a radius 
of several hundred miles to all points in Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, Maryland and West Virginia, 
and also to many points in New York and Ohio. 
The subscribers in Berks county numbered 3,200. 

In the system at Reading, there were then 1,161 
miles of wire; underground in multiple duct con- 
duits, more especially in the central parts ot the 
city, 34 miles. 


The National Transit Company constructed a 
pipe line, for the purpose of conveying petro- 
leum, in the fall of 1897 from Millway, in Lancaster 
county, through the lower end of Berks county 
by way of Maple-Grove school-house, White-Bear 
Station, Douglassville Station, and Maxatawny Sta- 
tion, to a place called Centre Bridge on the east- 
bank of the Delaware river in Bucks county, fifteen 
miles north of Trenton. The line was constructed 
from the oil fields of northern Pennsylvania, which 
connected with lines conveying oil from West Vir- 

In the fall of 1908 a similar line was constructed 
by A. C. Bedford across the central section of 
Berks county from the pumping station near Myers- 
town to a pumping station located at Barto, near 
the railroad station, private persons purchasing the 
right of way presumably in behalf of the Standard 
Oil Company. The capacity of this line is about 
20,000 gallons a day. It is a continuation of the 
line from the oil fields in Illinois, which enters Penn- 
sylvania near Negley, in Ohio, and passes a point 
south of Altoona and Duncannon to Myerstown, 
and from Barto by way of Quakertown to Centre 
Bridge ; from which point it is pumped by way of 
other pipe lines to the seaboard, where it is refined. 



The spirit of religion was manifested by the first 
inhabitants from the very beginning of their set- 
tlements in this section of Pennsylvania. They did 
not erect churches immediately because they were 
obliged to look after the erection of homes for them- 
selves and barns for their stock and products, and 
to get the soil in proper condition for .cultivation. 
Naturally, this required some years and until they 
secured churches of their own, they traveled long 
distances toward Philadelphia for the purpose 
of attending worship. Funerals were necessarily 
condiicted in their homes, and burials were made 
in small lots of ground set apart in the far corner 
of an adjoining field. 

By studying the tim« of the erection of the 
churches in the several sections of the county, it 
is apparent that the subject of religion occupied a 
great deal of public attention, and that the feeling 
was general. Members of the Lutheran denomina- 
tion erected the first church in the county, a small 
church in the southerly end. of Amity township 
near the Schuylkill river, about 1703, having been 
Swedes; and members of the Friends' Society es- 
tablished the next church, locating it in the ex- 
treme upper end of the township, about 1735. 

During the next twenty-five years, thirty-five 
additional churches were established by different de- 
nominations. So that by the time the county was 
erected, in 1753, there were altogether thirty-eight 
churches within its borders, south of the Blue 
Mountain. There was also one beyond the moun- 
tain (the "Red Church"), settlers having ventured 
into that region of territory. Their distribution 
in the several sections was as follows : 


The territory lying between" the South Mountain 
and North (or Blue) Mountain ranges was not 
yet released by the Indians. Nevertheless, the set- 
tlers in' the Tulpehocken section, being Lutherans 
from the Palatinate, established a church along the 
Tulpehocken creek at the western end of the main 
thoroughfare. This was also about 1735. Accord- 
ingly, three churches were established in this part 
of the Province until 1735. 
























































S 1 8 








This table reveals the fact that the religious in- 
fluence in this large area of territory, about thirty 
miles square, was mostly directed by the Lutheran 
and Reformed denominations ; and this was so in 
all the sections in about the same proportions ex- 
cepting the Schuylkill section, where th*-e was no 
Lutheran nor Reformed congregation at all until 
1765. This controlling influence has been continued ' 
throughout the county from that time until now, 
not only in the country districts but also in the city 
of Reading and the boroughs. 

In the next twenty-five years, until the Revolu- 
tion broke out in 1775, fifteen additional churches 
were established as follows : 

East of the Schuylkill river, 3 Lutheran, 4 Re- 
formed, 4 Union, and 1 Episcopal (at Reading) ; 
and west of the river, 1 Lutheran and 3 Union. 

The Molatton Lutheran Church in Amity had 
become Episcopal in 1765. 

At that time, there were in the county 53 
churches. i 


Lutheran. — Immediately after Penn had arrived 
m Pennsylvania, a number of Germans immigrated 
to the province and among them there were Luth- 
erans. The tide of their immigration began in ear- 
nest in 1710. Then about three thousand immi- 
grants, chiefly Lutherans, settled in New York, hav- 
ing been encouraged to do so by Queen Anne, after 
leaving the Palatinate on account of religious intol- 
erance, and arriving in England. In 1713, one hun- 
dred and fifty families settled in Schoharie, New 
York, some of which ten years afterward came to 
Tulpehocken, Pennsylvania. In 1737, a large num- 
ber of them came into Pennsylvania from various 



parts of Germany, chiefly from the Palatinate; and 
it is beheved that many of these settled in this sec- 
tion of territory, along the Manatawny and Tulpe- 
hocken creeks. 

The Lutheran religion existed in the county, both 
with the Swedes and Germans to the east of the 
Schuylkill and also with the Germans to the west. 
Many of the Germans were adherents of the Re- 
formed religion. The churches built by these de- 
nominations were mostly ''union" churches. In 
nearly every instance the members of the two de- 
nominations united in bearing the cost jointly, — 
having appointed separate committees to co-operate 
in conducting the building operations. And the 
church services alternated every two Sundays. 

The harmony between these denominations in 
such a peculiar and jealous matter as religion dis- 
played the singular excellence and liberality of the 
Germans. These people were alike in general af- 
fairs, dress, speech, labor, mantiers and customs ; 
and a difference in their religious notions did not 
develop any antagonism between them. Indeed, the 
one denomination frequently visited the church 
services of the other denomination. 

The earliest Lutheran ministers who preached in 
this territory before the Revolution were Gerhart 
Henckel, Van Dueren, Casper Stoever, Cas- 
per Leutbecker, J. Philip Meurer, Gottlob Buett- 
ner, Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg, John Nicholas 
Kurtz, Tobias Wagner, Valentine Kraft, Peter 
Mishler, Emanuel Schuize and Frederick A. C. 

Rev. Plenry Melchoir Muhlenberg is generally 
regarded as the father of the Lutheran Church in 
America in respect to making it an organized re- 
ligious body. He was stationed at the Trappe in 
1743, whence he visited different Lutheran organi- 
zations as far north as the Blue Mountain, and as 
far west as the Tulpehocken settlement. During 
his ministerial journeys he made the acquaintance 
of Conrad Weiser and shortly afterward, 1743, 
married his daughter, Maria. 

Reformed.- — As mentioned in the previous sec- 
tion, persons attached to the Reformed faith were 
also amongst the early settlers, but they were known 
as "German Calvinists," or "Dutch Reformed." 
Their first churches were in Oley, in Greenwich, 
and in Heidelberg. In meeting-houses, however, 
they were mostly connected with the Lutherans. 
The early Reformed ministers in Pennsylvania 
were assisted by the church in Holland. In 1741, a 
number of German Bibles (1,300) were sent here 
for their use. In 1746, Rev. Michael Schlatter, the 
great Reformed missionary from Switzerland, ar- 
rived, and he preached in Oley and Tulpehocken. 

The active ministers of the Reformed congrega- 
tions in the several sections of the county before 
ISOO were the following: 

Michael Schlatter 
WiUiam H. Stoy 
John Waldschmid 
Thomas H. Leinbach 
John C. Guldin 
John Zuilch 
John J. Zufall 
Andrew J. Loretz 

Daniel Wagner 
F. J. Berger 
John W. Boos 
J. Conrad Bucher 
L. F. Herman 
Chas. G. Herman 
Philip Pauli 

Those in the county about 1840 were : 

J. Conrad Bucher 

Thos. H. Leinbach 

Chas. G. Herman 

L. C. Herman 

A. L. Herman 

J. Sassaman -Herman 

William Hendel 

Augustus Pauli 
William Pauli 
Isaac Miesse 
David Bossier 
David Hassinger 
Philip Moyer 
Chas. Schiiltz ' 

Samuel Guldin 
John Pliilip Boehm 
Geo. Mich'l Weiss 
John Peter Miller 

John Henry Helffrich 
J. Wm. Hendel.Sr. 
William Otterbein 
Philip J. Michael 

Friends. — The Friends were the third sect of 
people who settled in the county. They erected a 
meeting-house in 173.5 near the Monocacy creek, 
along the western line of the Swedes' settlement, 
then known as Amity township. Within the next 
score of years, they erected two more meeting- 
houses, one in Maiden-creek townsihip and the 
other in Robeson township. They built a fourth 
at Reading, supposed to have been in 1751, three 
years after the town had been laid out and just as 
the building improvements began to be active. They 
were most active about that time when the county 
was erected and for fifty years afterward. They 
then exerted the most political influence in the 
county through the recognition of the proprietaries 
of the government, who were also Friends. And 
their religious influence was large and wide in the 
several localities mentioned. But they remained 
where they first settled. They did not extend be- 
yond Oley and Exeter along the 2\Ianatawny and 
Monocacy creeks, j\Iaiden-creek and Richmond 
along the Ontelaunee, and Robeson along the Hay 
and Allegheny creeks. And yet their families were 
numerous and their population was considerable. In 
this time it was estimated that they numbered about 
two thousand. Their moral principles were superior 
and their habits and customs admirable. Simple, 
unostentatious, earnest and clever, with good edu- 
cation and large means, they occupied a position 
which was eminently respectable, and this they 
maintained for many years after they had lost con- 
trol of political power. 

Baptist. — The first Baptist church in Pennsyl- 
vania was established in IGSS at Pennypack (now 
called Lower Dublin). In 1738, a number of Bap- 
tists removed from Chester and Philadelphia coun- 
ties and settled near the banks of the Tulpehocken 
creek, founding the Tulpehocken Baptist church, 
and Thom'as Jones was ordained the pastor. The 
congregation had two meeting-houses. The first 
was built in 1740 on a lot of three acres, the gift 
of Hugh Morris, Evan Lloyd and Evan Price, in 
the township of Cumru, on the Wyomissing creek, 
about two miles from its outlet in the Schuylkill. 
The building was only 26 by 16 feet. 

Another building of the same size, about three 
miles west from the first, was built the same year 



on a lot of one acre, the gift of Thomas Bartholo- 
mew and Hannaniah Pugh. This was at a point 
on the "Old Tulpehocken Road," now "Sinking 
Spring." The building is still standing but con- 
verted into a dwelling. It is built of brick, octa- 
gonal in shape. A graveyard lies at the rear, with 
a number of graves marked by headstones, now il- 

The church (with Mr. Jones as pastor) reported 
annually until 1774, when its name disappears 
from: the records of the Baptist Association, the 
pastor about that time having removed to Chester 
county. From that time until now, no church or- 
ganization of this denomination has been in the 
county outside of Reading. 

DuNKAED. — A religious denomination known as 
the "Dunkards" existed at an early day in the 
county. It was also called "The Brethren" and 
sometimes "German Baptists." Certain persons of 
this denomination emigrated from Germany in 1719. 
In 1734, they held a large general convention in this 
district. Another convention was held in Oley in 
1742, which was attended by "four priests of the 
congregation at Ephrata." 

A meeting-house of this denomination was erectr 
en in Ruscombmanor (at Pricetown), and an- 
other in Bethel (north of Millersburg) , before 1752. 
The Dunkards were numerous in Oley from 1730 
to 1745. 

Another congregation was formed in the north- 
western section of the county, and comprised set- 
tlers in Bethel and Tulpehocken townships. They 
erected a church in the former township, along a 
branch of the Little Swatara creek, about the year 

There was also a third congregation in Bern 
and Upper Tulpehocken townships, along the 
Northkill, several miles above the confluence of this 
stream with the Tulpehocken. A church was erect- 
ed in 1748. In 1750 Elder George Klein came from 
New Jersey and settled amongst the members. 
Through his energy the congregation flourished for 
twenty years. Then settlements in the western part 
of the State influenced most of the members to move 
away. This left the congregation without sufficient 
support, and it naturally ceased to exist. 

Moravian. — The Moravians were among the 
early settlers of the county. This peculiar sect was 
represented here by Count Zinzendorf, *who came 
to Pennsylvania in 1741. In 1742, he conducted 
a synod in Oley; and afterward visited the inhabi- 
tants of Tulpehocken. Shortly after this visit, a con- 
gregation of Moravians was organized in Bethel 
township. Between 1742 and 1750 two churches 
were erected in Heidelberg, and one in Oley. 

In September, 1742, Count Zinzendorf visited 
Shamokin, accompanied by Conrad Weiser, and 
they co-operated with the Moravians for several 
years. Tobias Beckel and George Beckel, brothers, 
from Turkheim, in Rhenish-Bavaria, immigrated to 
Pennsylvania in the fall of 1736 and settled in this 
part of the province, the former in Heidelberg 

township, south of Tulpehocken creek, and the lat- 
ter in Bern township, along the Schuylkill river. 
They organized small congregations and preached 
to them. Several years afterward, George Beckel 
removed to the northern portion of Heidelberg and 
there carried on his ministrations in a church which 
was erected on land donated by his brother. 

Andrew Aschenbach was one of the pioneers of 
the Moravians in this vicinity. He settled in Oley 
in 1740, and preached for two years with great suc- 
cess. Zinzendorf was deeply interested in this con- 
gregation and devoted much time to its affairs. 
Some years afterward disagreements arose between 
Aschenbach and the members, and these continued 
until the Moravians lost all their influence; and by 
1765 the church was abandoned. 

Amish. — The Amish denomination is a branch 
of the Mennonites. The first bishop in this vicinity 
(comprising Berks, Chester and Lancaster counties) 
was Jacob Mast, who settled here in 1750, when 
a boy about twelve years old, and began to exhort 
and preach about 1765. He continued in active and 
faithful service for many years. The second bishop 
was Peter Plank, who moved from Oley and settled 
in Caernarvon. And the third was John P Mast, 
who officiated as a faithful and devoted minister for 
nearly fifty years. His father, Daniel Mast, had 
been a minister from 1830 till 1883. 

At one time there were three other congregations 
in the county — one in Cumru, one in Maiden-creek 
and the third in Bern township (called Northkill). 

Roman Catholic. — The early settlers of the 
county until 1740, were entirely Protestants. Then 
the Roman Catholics appeared. Their number was 
very small compared with the number of the other 
denominations. The Protestants having been driven' 
here by religious persecution, caused by the Roman 
Catholic religion, and feeling the terrors of this per- 
secution, it was natural for them to discourage this 
religion from obtaining a fogthold in their midst; 
which accounts for the strength of the one class 
and the weakness of the other. In 1741 the Roman 
Catholics had a congregation and meeting-house in 
the extreme eastern part of the county (now in- 
cluded in Washington township) and a congrega- 
tion in Maxatawny. 

Some years afterward, it would seem that their 
number had grown so as to awaken public concern. 
The matter was forced upon the attention of the 
justices of the county, who (being Protestants) im- 
bibed the feeling of insecurity entertained by the 
surrounding communities. The excitement incident 
to the "French and Indian war" was suiHcient to 
arouse their jealousy and suspicion, and it was be- 
lieved that the Roman Catholics manifested sym- 
pathy for the French in their cruel warfare against 
the Colonies. The justices of the county therefore 
addressed a letter on the subject to the Governor 
of the province on July 23, 1755, but nothing was 

In 1757, the Roman Catholics of the province 
were enumerated with a total of 1,365; in Berks 



county 205, in two congregations. Under Rev. 
Theo. Schneider, 62 men and 55 women; under 
Rev. Ferdinand Farmer, 46 men and 42 women 
(among whom there were eight Irish people). 

At Reading, they had an association soon after 
the town was laid out ; and this association was 
maintained, notwithstanding the smallness of their 
number and the opposition of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed people. About 1760, they succeeded in es- 
tablishing a small log church at Reading. 

Protestant — Three churches of this 
denomination came to figure prominently in the re- 
ligious history of the county. The first was the 
St. Thomas near Morgantown, in Caernarvon 
township, which was established on ground devised 
by Thomas Morgan about 1740. It was removed 
in 1792 to the town, where a lot was set apart by 
Jacob Morgan for that purpose. Several vears be- 
fore, the congregation had secured the first regular 
rector. Rev. Levi Bull. A substantial building was 
erected in its stead in 1824. 

The second church was the St. Gabriel's, which 
was established at Molatton (now Douglassville) 
in Amity township in 1765, and Rev. Alexander 
Murray was the rector. A larger building was 
erected in its stead in 1801, which is still standing. 
And a third was erected near by in 1880-84. 

And the third church was the St. Mary's (after- 
ward Christ's) at Reading. The congregation was 
organized by Rev. Alexander Alurray about 1763, 
and the services were held in the same dwelling- 
house which had been secured for holding the ses- 
sions of the county courts. No church was erected 
until 1825. 

EvANGELIC.^L. — The only other religious denom- 
ination which established itself in the county outside 
of Reading to any considerable extent was the 
Evangelical Association, but not until nearly one 
hundred years after the county had been erected. 
The first congregation was organized bv Rev. 
Joseph M. Saylor at Reading in 1844. Within the 
next ten years, others were organized in dififerent 
parts of the county, and the Association persevered 
until it came to possess churches in most of the dis- 
tricts. But the buildings were small, especially out- 
side of Reading, and the membership was limited. 
Their Christian zeal was strong and their purpose 
very determined and commendable. 

This sect was started by Jacob Albright in IROO, 
after he had preached several years, and the first 
tangible results of his religious work were made to 
appear in the eastern part of Berks county, near the 
Colebrookdale Iron Works. In that vicinity, he had 
preached in the homes of Samuel Lieser, Joseph 
Buckwalter and Abraham Buckwalter, and the sec- 
ond class of the organized body had come to be 
formed out of the members of the families of the 
three persons named, with Mr. Lieser as the class- 
leader. In a similar manner, the work was extended 
throughout the State. But though the real work 
was started in the country, the churches of the As- 

sociation were not erected there first, for the first 
one in the county was not established until 1844, at 

About 1870 a spirit of opposition began to mani- 
fest itself in relation to church government and this 
increased until 1890, when the Association separ- 
ated into two great parties with about 60,000 ad- 
herents on each side, called respectively the Dubsites 
and Esherites. After litigating for four years, the 
Esherites were sustained by the courts in this State 
and others, and they therefore retained all the 
churches and the name Evangelical Association. 
The Dubsites adopted the name United EvangeHcal 
and immediately began the erection of churches for 
themselves. In 1905, the Evangelical Association 
had 5 churches in Reading and 15 in the townships, 
and the United Evangelical, 4 in Reading, 8 in the 
boroughs, and 11 in the townships ; and both together 
43. Active work in some of the churches in the 
country districts has been suspended, either par- 
tially or entirely. 

Othek Denominations. — Other denominations 
than those mentioned were not organized in the 
county until after 1825. Their names and the time 
of organization will be found in the several districts 
where established, more especially at Reading. It 
is surprising that only the Evangelicals should gain 
any foothold worth mentioning outside of Reading. 

Pastors Long in Service. — Some of the pastors 
have served their congregations for many years in 
succession, until 1909, indicating their fidelity and 
devotion to a remarkable degree. Those most not- 
able in this respect at Reading are the following: 

Christian S. Hainan, United Evangelical 54 years 

John J. Kuendig, Lutheran 50 years 

T. Calvin Leinbach, Reformed 49 years 

Benjamin Bausman, Reformed 46 years 

George Bornemann, Roman Catholic 44 years 

Samuel A. Leinbach. Reformed 42 years 

John J. Cressman, Lutheran 41 years 

Daniel D. Trexler, Lutheran 41 "years 

Zenas H. Gable, Lutheran 41 years 

Franklin K. Huntzinger, Lutheran 40 years 

Richard S. Appel, Reformed 3S years 

Ferdinand F. Buermeyer, Lutheran DS years 

Jeremiah K. Fehr, Evangelical 3S years 

Edward T. Horn, Lutheran 37 years 

William P. Orrick, Protestant Episcopal 36 years 

S\lvanus C. Breyfogel, Evangelical 36 years 

William H. Weidner, Evangelical 36 years 

I. J. Reitz, United Evangelical 35 years 

JMahlon H. l^Iishler, Reformed 33 vears 

Isaac S. Stahr, Reformed 32 Vears 

A. jNI. Sampal, United Evangelical .......32 vears 

William H. Myers, Lutheran 31 years 

Levi D. Stambaugh, Reformed .30 vears 

William J. Kerschner, Reformed " . ! ^28 vears 

George S. Seaman, Lutheran 27 Vears 

Franklin K. Bernd, Lutheran ,26 years 

George W. Gerhard, Reformed ......26 vears 

Lutheran and Reformed Churches. The 

Lutheran and Reformed churches have been 
grouped together. At Reading, they have been tab- 
ulated separately, but in the boroughs and town- 
ships they have been run together, and they can be 
distinguished by the letters placed after them, re- 



spectively; L. standing for Lutheran, R. for Re- 
formed, and U. for Union. They number altogeth- 
er, including chapels, 134: Lutheran, 37, Re- 
formed, 26, and Union, 71. 

By comparing the tables it will be observed that 
the distribution of these churches in the several sec- 
tions is alike to a remarkable degree; and this fact 
is particularly noteworthy when we consider that 
the distribution covers an area of nine hundred 
square miles. They have evidently been carrying 
on a friendly rivalry, or rather co-operation, for 
nearly two hundred years, which is truly commend- 
able. And they have covered this large area so 
thoroughly that the other denominations secured 
only a limited foothold in several of the districts 
outside of Reading. 


The following religious denominations were in 
Berks county in 1&09, and the statement exhibits 
the number of the respective churches and the mem- 
bership as nearly as could be ascertained. Other 
information relating to them will be found in the 
chapter on Reading, on the Boroughs, and on the 
Townships, under the topic of religion. 

Denomination Number Members 

Lutheran 92 29,154 

Reformed 86 23,931 

Protestant Episcopal 7 1,213 

Roman Catholic 5 7,600 

Presbyterian 3 835 

Methodist Episcopal 11 2,389 

Baptist 7 451 

Evangelical 18 1,461 

United Evangelical '. 23 3,430 

United Brethren 5 1,107 

German Baptist Brethren 3 

Mennonite 4 296 

Schwenkfelder 1 

Church of God 1 

The following statement embraces the churches 
situated in the several sections of Berks county. 
The churches at Reading and the boroughs will be 
found in the chapters relating to these divisions of 
the county. 

The figures which appear after the names of the 
churches in the following tabulated statements in- 
dicate- the time of institution or erection, and of 
rebuilding or improvement. The name of the pas- 
tor serving in 1909 has been placed after the re- 
spective churches. 

Lutheran and Reformed Churches in 
Manatawny (S. E.) Section 
(L. indicating Lutheran; R., Reformed; and U., Union, 
both using the church, alternately) 

Zion's (Spies's) (U.), 1784-1810-'87. .M. L. Herbein (R.), 356 

E. S'. Brownmiller (L.), 400 

Salem (Shalter's) (U.) 1860 (vacant) (L), 

M. L. Herbein (R.), 136 
Alsace, Lower: 

Bethany Chapel (U.), 1896 W. O. Laub, (L.), 238 

Amity : 

St. Paul's (Amityirille) (U.), 1753-'95-1873 

Geo. W. Roth (R.), 247 

A. W. Lindenmuth (L.), 425 
Weavertown Chapel (U.), 1879 
Monocacy Chapel (U.), 1896 


Glendale Chapel (U.), 1893 

Schwartzwald (U.), 1747-1810-'70. . .Joseph R, Brown (R.), 631 

W. O. Laub (L.), 435 
Baumstown Chapel (U.) 
Lorane Chapel (U. ) 
St Lawrence Chapel (U.) 
Stonersville Chapel (U.) 
Hereford : 

Huff's (U.), 1814-'81 0. R. Frantz (R.), 277 

William F. Bond (L.), 695 
Herefordville Chapel (U.) 1890 
Muhlenberg : 

Alsace (North Reading), 1740-'96-1850-1908 

Charles E. Kistler (L.), 800 

(Reformed also there from 1796 to 1908) 

Grace (R.), 1908 Elam J. Snyder, 808 

Hinnershitz (U.), 1850-'82 Geo. W. Gerhard (R.), 336 

G. S. Seaman (L.), 368 

Oley (R.), 1735-1822-'80 Isaac S'. Stahr, 396 

(Lutheran also there from 1735 to 1812) 

Christ's (L.). 1821-'78-'85 E. S. Brownmiller, 270 

Friedens (U.), Friedensburg, 1830-'86. .Isaac S. Stahr (R.), 300 

A. W. Lindenmuth (L.), 340 

St. John's (L.), Pleasantville, 1879 (vacant) 

Oley Line Chapel (U.), l'897 

St. Joseph's (Hill) (U.), 1747-'86-1853... .M. H. Mishler (R.), 360 

H. W. Warmkessel (L.), 768 
(Lutheran also from 1747 to 1786) 

St. Paul's (U.), Lobachsville, 1834-'77 (vacant) (R.), 

H. W. Warmkessel (L.), 177 
Rockland : 

Christ (Dryville) (L.), 1735-'64-'97-1879 J. O. Henry, 400 

New Jerusalem (U.), 1S40 Isaac S. Stahr (R.), 90 

William F. Bond (L.), 349 - 

St. John's (U.), 1840-1902 Isaac S. Stahr (R.), 76 

A. W. Lindenmuth (L.), 55 
Lutheran and Reformed Churches in 
Ontelaunee (Nv E.) Section 
Albany : 

Jerusalem (Red) (U.), 1742-1812 A. O. Robert (L.), 220 

(Lutheran until 1812) 

New Bethel (Eck) (U.), 1750-1854 O. S. Scheirer (L.), 170 

Frieden's (White) (U.), WessnersviUe, 1770-1840 

O. S. Scheirer (L.), 240 

J. S. Bartholomew (R.) 
Greenwich : 

New Jerusalem (Dunkel's) (U.), 1744-'90-1869 

J. S. Bartholomew (R.), 200 

O. S. Scheirer (L.), 210 
(Refonmed until 1790) 

Bethel Zions (U.), 1761-1803-'81 R. S. Appel (R), 

O. S. Scheirer (L.), 325 
(Lutheran also until 1844) 
Longswamp : 

Longswamp (U.), 1748-'90-1852. .Wm. L. Meckstroth (R.), 335 

Wm. F. Bond (L.), 435 
(Reformed until 1837) 
St. Paul's (U.), Mertztown, 1837. .M. H. Brensinger (R.), 85 

F. K. Bernd (L.), 321 
Maiden-creek : 

Elandon (U.), 1860 M. H. Brensinger (R.), 168 

J. O. Henry (L.), 366 
Maxntawny : 

Trinity (Bower's) (L.), 1859-1901 W. F. Bond, 132 

DeLong's (Bower's) (R.), 1759-1871-1901. .G. B. Smith 

(Lutherans used it from 1859 to 1900) 
Zion's (Siegfried's) (U.), 1828-'90 F. K. Bernd (L.), 286 

G. B. Smith (R.) 
St. Paul's (Lyon's) (L.), 1868 ' J. M. Ditzler 

Lyon's Chapel (U.) 
Ontelaunee : 

St. John's (Gernant's) (U.), 1794-1868. .D. E. Schaeffer (R.),; 297 

G. S. Seaman (L.), 361 
Trinity (Leesport) (U.), 1867-'76-'81. . .D. E. Schaeffer (R.), 239 

G. S. Seaman (L.), 157 
Perry : 

Zion's (Ziegel's) (U.), 1761-1804-'60 

J. S. Bartholomew (R.), 350 

H. C. Kline (L.). 340 

St. Luke's (U.), Shoemakersville, 1853-1901 

D. E. Schaeffer (R.), 136 

D. G. Gerberich (L.), 145 
St. Timothy's (U.), Mohrsville, 1864. D. E. Schaeffer (R.), 24 

J. M. Ditzler (L.) 
Richmond : 

Zion's (Moselem) (L.), 1734-'61-1894 R. B. Linch, 195 

St. Peter's (R.), 1762-1809 E. H. Leinbach, 122 

St. Peter's (Becker's ), (U.), 1866-'91. . .R. S. Appel (R), 130 
^■==* F. K. Bernd (L.). 194 

St. Paul's Chapel (U.) 

St. Paul's (U.), 1756-'63-1832-'92..J. S. Bartholomew (R.), 50 

H. C. Kline (L.), 113 
(Lutheran until 1832) 



Lutheran and Reformed Churches in 


Bern : 

Bern (U.), 1740-'62-1837 M. L. Herbein (R.), S6-1 

E. S. Brown-miller (L.), 3"60 
(Reformed until 1837) 

Epier's (U.), 1734-'8S-1851 George W. Gerhard (R.), 337 

G. S. Seaman (L.), ISO 
(Reformed until 1825) 
Bern, Upper: 

Frieden's (U.), Shartlesville, 1871-1905. .R. S. Appel (R.), 83 

D. D. Trexler (L.), 185 

Salem (R.), Millersburg, lS10-'5S-'92. . . C. A. Butz (R.), 310 

D. D. Trexler (L.), 125 
(Lutheran by permission since 1850) 

Belleman's (U.). 1746-1813-'46 M. H. Mishler (R.), 350 

D. G. Gerberich (L), 380 

St. Daniel's (Corner) (L.), 1750-1814 0. E. Pflueger, 777 

Robesonia (R.), 1906 E. S. Leinbach, 240 

Heidelberg, Lower: 

Hain's (R.), 1736-'66-187S W. J. Kerschner, 607 

Trinity (Wernersville) (L.), 1897 J. W. Lazarus, 91 

Wernersville Chapel (R.), 1901 
Heidelberg, North: 

North Heidelberg (U.), 1744>1S46 E. S. Leinbach (R.), 135 

(vacant) (L.) 
(Originally Moravian until 1S35) 
Jefferson : 

Christ (U.), Little Tulpehocken, 1733-1809 

E. S. Leinbach (R.), 50 

(vacant) (L.) 

St. Paul's (U.), SchaefEerstown, 1875-'S4 

L. D. Stambaugh (R.), 45 

„ . (vacant) (L.), 75 

Marion : 

Zion's (L.), 172S-'45-1837-'95 E. S. Brownmiller, 75 

Christ (L.), 1743-'86-1886-'8S (vacant), 325 

St. Peter's Chapel (U.), 1849 
Til den : 

St. Michael's (U.), 1769-1810-'75 S'. A. Leinbach (R.), 375 

_ , , , D. G. Gerberich (L.), 670 

Tulpehocken : 

Host (U.), 1738-1885 E. S. Leinbach (R.), 450 

O. E. Pflueger (L.), 243 
(Reformed until 1858) 

Rehrersburg (L.), 1757-1808-'82 (vacant), 375 

St. John's (U.), 1847-'97 L. D. Stambaugh (R.), 135 

D. D. Trexler (L.), 90 

St. John's (U.), Mt. Aetna L. D. Stambaugh (R.), 170 

O. E. Pflueger (L.) 
Tulpehocken Upper: 

Zion's (U), 1734-1819-1905 E. S. Leinbach (R.), 250 

O. E. Pflueger (L.), 441 
St. Paul's (L.), 1861 (vacant) 

Lutheran and Reformed Churches in 
Schuylkill (S. W.) Section 

Brecknock : 

Allegheny (U.), 1765.1800-'78 J. V. George (R.), 301 

Z. H. Gable (L.), 350 
Citmru : 

Yocom's (U.), 183S-'54 W. J. Kershner (R.), 81 

W. O. Laub (L.), 350 

Wyomissing (R.), 1850-'86 J. V. George, 219 

Gouglersville (L.), 1894 Z. H. Gable, 300 

Redeemer (Oakbrook) (L.), 1903 F. F. Buermyer, 21 

Robeson : 

Plow (U.), 1764-1811-'09 J. V. George (R.), 54 

Z. H. Gable (L.), 350 
(Lutheran until ifell) 

St. John's (U.), Gibraltar T. V. George (R.), SO 

"Z. H. Gable (L.), 320 
Frieden's (Wicklein) (Ind.), 1866... J. V. George (R.), 

St. John's (S. Spring) (R.), 1794-1812-'85 . .W. J. Kerschner, 295 
(Lutheran also from 1812 to 1897) 

Kissinger's (U.), 1851-'91 R. S. Appel (R.), 105 

E. S. Brownmiller (L.), 95 

St. John's (S. Spring) (L.), 1897 J. W. Lazarus, 328 

Union : 

St. James (Geigertown) (L.), 1850-'96 Z. H. Gable, 75 



Orthodox . . 

Hicksite . . . 






Protestant Episcopal 

Amity : 

St. Gabriel's, 1765-1800-'84 Wm. R. HoUoway, 41 


St. Thomas, 1740-1834 (vacant), 29 

Roman Catholic 
Bally, 1743-1837 Charles Sauer, 1,000 

Robesonia Chapel, 1869 

Methodist Episcopal 

Caernarvon : 

Morgantown, 1832-'78 W. C. Arathor, 306 

Harmony, 1871 1. S. Seitz 


Forest, 1773-1858 1. S. Seitz 

Monocacy, 1873 A. I. Collom, 20 


Caernarvon : 

Rock, 1844 (vacant), 15 


Millmont, 1893 J. A. Maxwell 


Brecknock " 
Allegheny and Gehman. These two churches are 
connected with Bowmansville, in Lancaster county, 
under Bishop Benj.amin Weaver. 


■D u /-vu miD lonn (Andrew Mack 90 

Bally-Old, 1743-1899 j j^j,^ ^^^^ 

New, 1851-'97 A. S. Shelly, 206 



1824-'83 0. S. Kriebel 


Zion's, 1872 G. Burrell, 6 

Salem, 1883 G. Burrell, 26 


Centreville, 1852 N. Simon, 3 


Jerusalem, 1862 N. Simon, 11 


New Berlinville, 1S50 

Longswanip : 

Shamrock, 1870 


Blandon, 1875 N. Simon, 33 

Ontclauncc : 

Leesport, 1901 N. Simon, 33 




Shoemakersville, 1857 N. Simon, 18 


St. Paul's, 1852 

United Evangelical 

Robesonia, 1895 S. Buntz 


Bethesda Thomas Knecht 


Friedensburg, 1881-'89-'95 John T. Layton ) 197 

Pleasantville, 1869-'95 John T. Layton 3 

Richmond : 

Virginville, 1883-'95 H. J. Kline 


Pricetown, 1857-'95 John T. Layton 



Spring: I 

Mohn's Hill, 184o-'95 C. S. Mengel, 30 


Clayton, 1899 Thomas Knecht 

German Baptist Brethren 
Mohrsville (continuation of North-kill Church), 

1748 (vacant), 43 

Ruscombmanor : 
Pricetown (continuation of Oley Church), 1740-'80- 
1807 ■ (vacant) 

United Brethren 


Perry : 

Salem, 1876 


Sinking Spring, 1867 


Loose's, 1870 


Trinity, 1848-'85 

The thirty-third annual convention of the Berks 
County Sunday School Association was held in the 
First Presbyterian Church at Reading on April 33, 
1909, and the attendance was very large. The 
county has been divided into eighteen districts and 
all of them were represented. Thirteen religious 
denominations were represented. 

The association was organized in 1875 with J. H. 
Sternbergh as the first president and Lewis Crater 
as the secretary. In 1881 Samuel J. Weiler was 
elected secretary, and he has served continuously 
until the present in a most efficient manner, without 
compensation. He prepared the following valuable 
statement, which shows the Sunday-schools of the 
respective denominations, the superintendents, and 
the membership. Charles H. Leinbach, superin- 
tendent of St. Andrew's Reformed Sunday-school, 
served as president for the year 1908-09, and was 
re-elected to serve for the year 1909-10. 

jst District — Birdsbora^ Union 
Name Supt. Members 

Birdsboro M. E., Birdsboro G. F. Handwork 268 

Monocacy M. E., Monocacy Caleb H. Bland 89 

Trinity Evan., Birdsboro Ed. McChalacker 382 

Calvary U. E., Birdsboro Anna Willard 138 

Grace U. B., Birdsboro.; S. C. Millard 146 

St. Mark's Lutheran, Birdsboro. .. -Charles Rhoads 224 

St. Paul's Reformed, Birdsboro Jacob De- Turk 113 

St. Michael's Episcooal, Birdsboro .. Harry Kissinger 141 

Kulptown Union, Union Tames Blood 80 

Cedar Hill Union, Union Harry Hoiiman 60 

St. Paul's M. E., Geigertown L. M. High 122 

St. James' Lutneran, Oeigertown . . . E. M. Zerr 63 

2d District — Jioheson, Caernarvon 
Name Supt. Members 

St. John's Union, Gibraltar H. K. Winings 234 

Robeson Union, Plowville M. J. Eshleman 145 

Harmony M. E., Joanna J. W. Jacobs £5 

Mt. Shiloh Evan., nr. Morgantown. Aaron Trait 79 

Morgantown M. E., Morgantown. .George H. Muhlenberg... 91 

Gibraltar Union, Gibraltar Samuel W. Kerst 178 

Seyfert Holiness Chris., Seyf ert. . . . A. J. Smith 81 

Zion's Union, Robeson W. Piersol 118 

3d District — LenhartsviUe, Greenwich, Albany 
Name Supt. Members 

Bethel Zions Union, Grimville. . ... .A. A. Fister 117 

Clover Mill Union, Stony Run.... Fred Feinour P9 

Dunkel's Church Union, Virginville C. S. Merkel ' 116 

•The word Union after the name of the Sunday-school indicates 
Lutheran and Reformed combined. 

E<<kville Union, Albany Reuben Bolich 33 

Frieden's Union, Stony Run James -A. Schroeder 161 

Kempcton Union, Kemptcn Tames Leibold 60 

New Bethel Union, Kempton James Si Focht 75 

LenhartsviUe Union, LenhartsviUe. A. B. Greenawalt 370 

New Jerusalem Union, Stony Run. .Calvin Krause 106 

Salem Evangelical, Albany James E. Snyder 60 

St. Paul's Union, Virginville Milton L. Leiby 94 

4th District — Boyertawn, Bechtelsville, Colebrookdale, Douglass, 
I Washington 

Name Supt. Members 

Good Shepherd Reformed, Boyer- 

town Daniel D. I.eidy 436 

St. John's Lutheran, Boyertown. .Thos. R. Houck ,. . . 645 

Ebenezer M. E.^ Boyertown W. W. Wrenn 74 

Trinity U. E., Boyertown E. E. Stauffer 109 

I-lereford New Mennonite, Here- 
ford Dr. O. M. Burkey 178 

Brethren, Boyertown F. Ritter 85 

Zion's Evangelical, New Berlin- 

ville H. B. Stauffer 40 

Trinity Union, Bechtelsville Alfred Brumbach 292 

Union, Pine Iron Works Mrs. P. Kurtz IDS 

Bethany U. E-, Clayton Wm. Clemmer 90 

Union, Gabelsville Jesse R. Bechtel 114 

Union, Greshville J. Weiler 118 


5th District — 'West Reading, Wyomissing, Spring, Lower Heidelberg 

Name Supt Members 

First Reformed, Wernersville Leomard M. Ruth 255 

Trinity Lutheran. Wernersville. .. .T. C. Bricker 95 

Green Terrace Un., Wernersville .. John A. Werner 89 

Oak Hill Union, Lower Heidelberg. Solomon A. Brossman ... 153 

Kissinger's Union, Spring Tp Henry G. Kissinger 82 

Marsh Union. Lorah A. L. Bickel 77 

Olive Leaf Union, Fritztown E. R. Eckenroth 139 

S't. John's Ref., Sinking Spring. . .E. H. Zechman 310 

Salem U. B., Sinking Spring H. M. Cake 115 

St. John's Luth., Sinking Spring. .Henry H. Yost 136 

St. James Ref., West Reading. . .Milton Gring 431 

Vinemont Union, Spring Tp Henry Johnson 94 

Evans Union, Spring Tp A. I. Noll 69 

Bethany Lutheran, West Reading. .W. O. Laub 265 

TkK a.^ n -. ^^ TT 17 ^J.^1 >™ TT:11 ^ 

Memorial U. E., Mohn's Hill. 


6th District — Hamburg, Tilden, Windsor, Upper Bern 
Name Supt. Members ■ 

Bethany M. E., Hamburg H. R. Shollenberger 159 

St. John's Lutheran, Hamburg H. C. Kline 363 

Salem U. E., Hamburg William B. Miller 68 

First Reformed, Hamburg Irvin A. Diener 303 

St. Paul's Union, Windsor Tp. ...Isaac Krick 105 

Liberty Cross Roads Union. Tilden. C. F. S. Ketner 77 

St. Mchael's Union, Tilden F. H. Naftzinger, O. F. 

Berger 295 

Bern Union, Tilden , .P. E. Naftzinger 74 

West Hamburg Union, Tilden Alfred M. H. DeLo'ng ... 105 

Zion's Union, Windsor A. F. Baver 195 

Shartlesville Union, Shartlesvill^. .James F. Naftzinger .... 223 

Salem U. B., Tilden _. .V. K. Fisher 96 

Bern Union, Upper Bern .H. M. Heckman 76 

7m District — Topton, District, Longswamp, Hereford 
Name Supt. Members 

Grace U. E., Topton Edgar Rohrbach 118 

St. Peter's Union, Topton F. J. Fisher 215 

Longswamp Union, Longswamp ... Roy E. Maybry 121 

Pilgert's IJnion, Longswamp 69 

Bush's Union, Longswamp ..Augustus R. Frey 64 

St. Paul's Union, Mertztown Charles B. Miller 134 

Hancock Union, Longswamp Charles B. Miller 140 

Sterner's Union, District ,- -Peter K. Sterner 64 

Landisviille Union. District '..Elmer H- Bechtel 49 

Huff's Church Union, Hereford. .. .Jacob Gries 1 170 

Chapel Union, Hereford Fred W- Huber 169 

Schlossburg Union, Longswamp- -- -Lizzie M- Findly 93 

8th District — Mt. Penn, Lower Alsace, Exeter, Amity, Earl 
Name Supt Members 

St. Lawrence Union, Esterly W. D. Brumbach .' 232 

Bethany Union, Stonv -Creek Mills -R- T- Calm IflO 

Baumstown Union, Baumstown. . . .C. L- Shantz 138 

Snyderville Union, Limekiln ...... Chas- Knaab 99 

Trinity Reformed. Mt Penn J. R. Dickenson 106 

Locust Dale U. E., Locust Dale... I. M. Kehler ... 

Union Unio'n, Monocacy I. R. Kline 

Lorane Union, Lorane J- E- Troxell .. 

Fairview Union, Baumstown .Howard Happle 

Douglassville Un-. Douglassville- . .C. H. Hine .... 

Jacksonwald Union, Jacksonwald. .C- R- Bortz 

Amity ville Union, Athol C- R. Geiger - . . 

Weavertown Un., Brumfieldsville. . .H. Y. Harbold - - 
Stonersville Union, Stonersville- .. .Charles Kline -. 

Allsorts Union, Neversink H. S. Ludwig .. 

St. Gabriel's Episc, Douglassville. .S. McElwee . . . . 
Faith Lutheran, Mt. Penn George Hartline 






0h District — Alsace, Oley, Pike 
Name Supt. Members 

Oley Union, Spangsville John P. Fisher 143 

St. Joseph's Union, Hill Church... D. M. Diener 110 

Frieden's Lutheran, Oley J. P. Schell 190 

Frieden's Reformed, Oley J. B. Leinbach 238 

Zion U. E., Oley I. M. Bertolet 99 

Spies's Union, Alsace Tp Charles B. Moyer 220 

St. Paul's Union, Lobachsville L. F. Rohrbach 116 

Bethany U. E., Manatawny ...Charles L. S'cherer S3 

loth District — Centreport, Centre, West Leesport, Bern 
Name Supt. Members 

Bern Church Union, Bern Tp Tared L. Snyder 350 

White Oak Union, Bern Tp Jared L. Snyder ?9 

Meeting House Evang., Bern Tp. ..John Schaurer 55 

Epler's Church Union, Bern Tp. ...F. B. Ammarell 147 

Belleman's Union, Centre Tp A. D. Bagenstose 131 

Bethany U. E., West Leesport Saimuel Bell 62 


Jith District — Fleetwood, Ruscombmanor, Maiden-Creek, Richmond 

Name Supt. Members 

S't. John's Union, Pricetown Mrs. u. Web. Brown.... 92 

Mennonite Brethren, Blandon Oscar B. Adam 59 

St. Paul's Union, Fleetwood C. H. Adam 242 

U. E., Fleetwood D. F. Kelchner 175 

Bliandon Union, Blandon Jacob Shuman 1S7 

Kirbyville Union, Kirbyville Irvin Hoch 55 

Center Union, Moselem Springs. .. .Howard Rahn 110 

Schlemmsville Union, Molltown. . .B. Adam 97 

Walnuttown U-n., near Fleetwood. Matthias Montz S9 

St. Stephen's U. E., Virginville. . .William Shappel 90 

Sailem U. E., Pricetown Mrs. Catharine Moyer ... 49 

12th District — Mohnion, Cumru, Brecknock 
Name Supt. Members 

Eshleman's Union, Cumru Charles Griffith 123 

Wyomissing Luth., Gouglersville .... Sadie Price 156 

Allegheny Union, Knauer's 171 

Wyomissing Un., Gouglersville. ... Frank Eckenroth 193 

Millmont Baptist, Millmont ,.. Harry Stetler 82 

Oakbrook Lutheran. Oakbrook SO 

Grace Lutheran, Shillington '..J. S. Nagle 100 

Salem Evangelical. Mohnton John Werner 220 

Emanuel Reformed, Shillington W. A. Miller 274 

Zion's U. E., Mohnton George H. Leininger .... t30 

St. John's Lutheran, Mohnton C. B. Kindt 220 

Yocum's Union, Grill W. W. Andrews 158 

Angelica Union, Cumru H. O. Frey 140 

Gebhart's Union, Cumru Henrv Seyfert 132 

Five Mile House Union, Cumru... J. White 112 

St. Luke's U. E., Shillington C. E. Coller 180 

iSth District — Heading, Muhlenberg 
Name Supt. Members 

St. Mark's Reformed, Greenwich 

and Rjtter D. V. R. Ludwig 1,675 

First Reformed, Washington and 

Reed Selos R. Barnett 1,384 

St. Stephen's Reformed, Ninth 

and Greenwich W. D. DeLong 1,266 

St. Andrew's Reformed, Spruce 

and Miller C. H. Leinbach 1,135 

Zion's Reformed, Washington and 

Cedar Andrew S. Long 916 

St. Paul's Reformed, Sixth above 

Washington ..Rev. C. E. Creitz ''56 

St. John's Reformed, Ninth and 

Chestnut ■ William A. Levan 704 

Calvary Reformed, Centre Ave. 

a'nd Oley A. V. Casselman 642 

St. Thomas' Reformed, Eleventh 

and Windsor E. F. Hendricks 610 

Second Reformed, Sixth below 

Cherry John H. Bridenbaugh . . . 494 

Faith Reformed, Bingaman bet. 

Fourth and Fifth Dr. D. S. Grim 476 

Alsace Grace Reformed, Kutztown 

Road George McKently 339 

Olivet Refoirmed, Cantre Ave. 

and Exeter William Leinbach 180 

Temple Reformed, Temple, Pa. Joseph A. Wise 114 

St. Luke's Lutheran, N. Ninth 

near GreCn Benj. Gruber 

Trinity Lutheran, Sixtih and 

Washington A. Raymond Bard .. 

Grace Lutheran, Eleventh and 

Cherry J- C. Holloway 784 

St. Tnhn's Lutn., Church and , _ , , ,„„ 

Walnut A. Bendel 709 

Hope Luth., Front and Green- ,.„„,,, „., 

' ^^j^,j, Jacob T. Drumheller .... ool 

^'' Elm"'"'^''.' .^"I'lV.' .™.'^ .'"^ ■ C. W. Haug 552 

St. Tames Lutli., Fifth and rr^.v,!, nj"; 

Chestnut Samuel K. linabb 546 

St. Mark's Luth., Tenth and 

Windsor Henry E. H.lbert 489 

Alsace Lutheran, Kutztown Road D. D. Becker 349 

St. Paul's Luth., Sixteenth and 

Perkiomen P. H. Lash 325 

St. John's Mission Luth., Chap- 
el Terrace aoove Cotton A. Bendel 106 

St. Peter's Luth., No. 931 Doug- 
lass A. A. Koser 60 

Peace Lutheran, Riverside ^-^^ 

Covenant, M. E., Ninth and Elm H. J. Printz 584 

St. Peter's M. E., Fifth and 

Pine F. F. Boas 483 

Windsor St., M. E., Front and 

Windsor W. H. Morris 482 

Holy Cross, M. E., N. Fifth nr. 

Buttonwood Walter S. Davis 

People's M. E., S. Fourth above 

Franklin A. W. Heim 

Bethel A. M. E., N. Tenth nr. 

Washington T. J. Long 86 

People's Primitive M. E., No. 

1325 N. Tenth Bert LeSuer 138 

East End M. E., No. 1338 N. 

Tenth F. C. S. Snyder 70 


First U. E., Eighth and Court W. H. Hendel 971 

S't. Paul's U. E., Moss and 

Greenwich William W. Fetter 758 

Grace U. E., Sixth and Elm S. N. Walley 407 

Trinity U. E., S. Eleventh near 

Spruce ••H. J. Heck, 

Bethany U. E., Second, and Doug- 


Salem Evangelical, Eighth near 

Court .f William H. Miller, Jr. .. 540 

Immanuel Evan., S. Sixth and 

Kerper Harry Eisenberg 420 

Ebenezer Evan., Ninth near But- 

tonwood Walter C. Hoffman 397 

Christ Evan., Eleventh snd Rob- 
eson R. B. Davis 376 

St. Matthew's Evan., Eighteenth 

and Cotton George Boyer 218 

Salem U. B., Tenth and Spring... F. G. Leiboild 61S 

Zion's U. B., Ninth below Penn. .William J. Levan 479' 

Memorial U. B., Buttonwood and 

McKnight William E. Taylor 401 

Otterbein U. B., Eighth and Elm G. Walter Behney 272- 

First Baptist, Fifth and Chestnut.. H. G. Kurtz 56S 

Berean Baptist, N. Ninth above 

Douglass R. A. Raixkin 236 

Schyl. Av. Baptist, Schyl Av. nr. . . 

Greenwich David H. Wyle 139 

Zion Baptist, No. 231 Poplar Mrs. E. D. Harris 67 

Shiloh Baptist, No. 126 N. Tenth.. Mrs. Mary Clippent 28 

German Baptist, between Green- 
wich and Oley Tim Wiess 97 

St. Barnabas Epis., Sixth and 

Bingaman Ira W. Stratton 251 

Christ Episcopal, Fifth and Court. . Thomas P. Merritt 197 

St. Mary's Epis., Front and 

Windsor XL P. Walter 194 

St. Luke's Epis., Robeson and 

Mulberry William B. Burk 136 

First Presbyterian, Fifth nr. 

Franklin H. J. Hayden 348 

Olivet Pres., Eighth and Wash- 
ington J. R. Mortimer 38S 

Washington St. Pres., Mulberry 

and Washington Geo, T, Hawkins 130 

First Christian, Chris., Chestnut 

above Fourth Morris S. Glass 


Church of Our Father, Univ., 

Franklin above Fourth Samuel F. Guss 114 

Mennonite Breth., Men., Tenth 
near Oley 



Friendship Mission, Reformed 

Evan., Cotton above Tenth. . .Jacob H. Kutz 173 

Calvary Mission, Followers of 

Christ, Washington nr Second. .Herbert Green 112 

People's Mission, Followers of 

Christ, Little Gordon Pastor 106 

Mifflin St., Followers of Christ, 

No. 219 Mifflin Mrs. Rishell 36 

Neversink, Interdenom., No. 728 

Bingaman A. H. Reist 

Temple, Interdenom., Temple, Pa. ..A. H. Reist 

.Adventists, Windsor and Hamp- 





Scientists, Christian Science, No. 

429 Walnut Lillian D. Wilson 

Hinnershitz Union, Reformed 

and Luth., Tuckerton William Fisher 

Union, Mbhrsville James H. Wagner . . 

lion's Union, Windsor Cas- 
tle A. F. Baver 

Gernant's Union, Leesport Charles L. Kershner 

Ebenezer Evangelical, Shoe- . . 

.makersville Mrs. Amanda Yoh . . 

30,199 Perry Union, Virginville Wilson P. Adam 

Evangelical, Leesport , . . Frank W. Adam . . . . 






I4th District — Sethel, TulpehocketK Upper Tulpehocken 
Name Supt. Members 

Host Union, Tulpehocken O. F. Oxenreider, W. W. Derr 162 

Zion's Union, Strausstown C. A. Unger 191 

St John's Reformed, Mt. 

Aetna C. P. Klopp 115 

U. B., Mt. Aetna John D. Klopp TO 

Lutheran, Mt. Aetna John A. Gruber 61 

Union, Rehrersburg E. G. Moyer 105 

Lutheran, Rehrersburg W. J. Kurr 67 

Union, Wintersville Ralph Weber 55 

Moll's Union, Upper Tulpe- 
hocken L. C. Freeman 52 

German Baptist. Crosskill Mills. Ira Gibble 58 

Ziegler's Baptist, Rehrersburg. Henry C. Ziegler 72 

Merkey's Baptist, Bethel Samuel Sherman 66 

Bethel Union, Bethel P. C. Clemme'ns 118 

Keener's Union, Tulpehock- 
en F. J. Paulus, 50 

Schubert's Union, Bethel James R. Roth 46 

Merkey's Union, Bethel John Porter 45 



iSth District — Bernville, Jefferson, Penn 
Name Supt 

Mt Pleasant Ujiion, Mt 

FUeasant James O. Kreider ... 

Berger's Union, Scull Hill M. J. Potteiger 

Jefferson Union, Jefferson Tp. . Daniel Reigel 

St. Paul's Union, Jefferson Tp. .James M. Baltheiscr . 

Groff's Union, Jefferson Tp. . . Percival Groff 

St. Thomas' Union, Bern- 
ville Si P. Wilhelra 

Frieden's Lutheran, Bernville" J. Paul Burket 

Cross Keys Union, Krick's 

Mills B. J. Anderson 




I '93 






l6th District — Kutstoum, Maxatawny, Rockland 
Name Supt Members 

St. John's Reformed, Kutz- 

town Clem. J. Stichler 333 

St . Paul's Lutheran, Lyons J. A. Stierwalt 140 

Christ's Reformed, Bowers J. J. DeLong 101 

Zion's Union, Maxatawny Joel Heffner, George C. Her- 
mann 250 

St Paul's Reformed, Kutz- 

towTi .Francis Sharidan 153 

Trinity Luth., Kutztown Quinton D. Hermann 274 

Union Union, Lyons S. M. Hoch 100 

St. John's Lutheran, Kutz- 
town Samuel Heffner 224 

Grace U. E., Kutztown Thomas S. Levan 92 

Christ's Lutheran, Dryville ....Amos F. Breidegam 137 

New Jerusalem Reformed, 

Rockland A. A. DeLong 109 

Bethel Union, Rockland William A. Schwoyer 104 

Ruppert's Union, Rockland ....A. F. Ruppert V6 

Dryville Union, Rockland A. S. Aungstadt CO 


17th District — Womelsdorf, Heidelberg, Marion, North Heidelberg 
Name Supt. Members 

Robesonia Reformed, Robe- 

sonia J. L. J. Stoudt 174 

U. E., Robesonia Jacob B. Putt 45 

U. E., Womelsdorf '..A. Bauch 68 

Stouchsburg Union, Stouchs- 

burg P. W. Gerhart 154 

Bethany O. Home Ref., Wom- 
elsdorf Wilson T. Moore 152 

St. Daniel's Lutheran, Robe- 
sonia H. W. Shuler 137 

Good Samaritan Union. Wom- 
elsdorf C. R. Leinbach 260 

Tannery Union, Heidelberg ...Dr. F. F. Massey 08 

Hill Union, North Heidel- 
berg Thos. J. Zerbe 99 

Zion's Lutheran, , Stouchsburg. . E. H. Kline 132 

Long's Lutheran, Stouchsburg .A. J. Long 90 

-Moyer's Union, Marion Tp Edwin Miller 90 

l8th District — Leesport, Ferry, Ontelaunee 
Name Supt 

Salem U. B., Shoemakers- 

ville H. S. Madeira 

Trinity Union, Leesport ...... .C. E. Spayd 

Union,' Shoemakersville W- K. Smith 




.... 323 



t4-« tfi 




















































' 1,406 









































































Sunday Mails. — During the winter of 1829-30, 
a great excitement prevailed throughout the coun- 
try respecting the transportation of mails on Sun- 
days. Attempts had been made by petitions of cer- 
tain religious societies to the Congress of the prev- 
ious year, to induce legislation on the subject, but 
the general remonstrance was so earnest that the 
committee of reference reported adversely, inti- 
mating that Congress ought not, and could not, 
legally exercise the power of legislation on ques- 
tions involving religious observance and the rights 
of conscience; and these attempts were, renewed 
before the Congress then sitting, causing the de- 
velopment of great feeling everywhere 'on the sub- 

A large meeting of citizens of the county was 
held in the court-house at Reading on Jan. 23, 1830, 
for the purpose of uttering a protest against inter- 
ference on the one hand or legislation on the other, 
and a committee of distinguished citizens was ap- 
pointed to draft appropriate resolutions. It was 
composed of David F. Gordon, Esq., George M. 
Keim, Esq., George Fox, Isaac Ritter and Dr. Wil- 
liam J. C. Baum. The attempts to induce legisla- 
tion prohibiting the transportation of mail on Sun- 
day were disapproved, because it was believed that 
such attempts were incipient steps toward the at- 
tainment of an object fatal to religious freedom — 
the union of civil and ecclesiastical authority in the 
same individuals. 

Appropriate petitions were circulated, subscribed 
by many persons, and these were forwarded to 



Congress ; and this expression of public sentiment 
caused the religious movement to cease its agitation 
and finally pass away. The transportation of mail 
on Sunday was not prohibited, but continued as a 
work of necessity. 


Early Encouragement. — The first settlers ap- 
preciated the importance of education, and encour- 
aged it as a means of promoting the general welfare. 
They erected churches wherever they had effected 
a considerable settlement, and in them they caused 
their children to be taught the common branches of 
education, such as spelling, reading, writing and 
arithmetic. This teaching was influenced to a great 
degree by the religious spirit that prevailed amongst 
them; indeed, religious principles were considered 
a vital part of their education. 

During the first settlements and until the passage 
of the common school law of 1834, the education 
that prevailed throughout the length and breadth 
of the county was almost entirely German. The 
prevalence of German education was a natural con- 
sequence from the great predominance of German 
settlers over all other nationalities. In Exeter, Oley, 
Maiden-creek, Robeson, and Reading districts, the 
Friends were rather numerous, and they established 
English schools at an early period, which they con- 
tinued for many years. 

The first German settlers had brought along teach- 
ers and ministers, who were so recognized before 
emigration. If there were no minister, the teacher 
officiated in both capacities. Some teachers even 
practised their trades, such as tailoring or shoemak- 
ing, whilst teaching. 

A notion has obtained that education was not car- 
ried on to any considerable extent in the county at 
an early day, and till the adoption of the common 
school system, but this is wrong. A good idea can 
be obtained from the following extract from a let- 
ter, dated Reading, April 9, 1763, addressed by Rev. 
Alexander Murray to the secretary of the Venerable 
Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, stationed in England : 

The county for miles around this town is thick peopled,' 
but what few else than Germans and Quakers, the former 
being computed twelve to one of all other nations together, 
and seem to be abundantly well provided in teachers of 
one denomination or another, and as long as they are so 
blindly attached to their native tongue, as they are at 
present, an English minister can be of no great service 
to them. For this they might be at no loss for English 
school-masters, yet they choose to send their children 
rather to German schools, which they have everywhere in 
■great plenty. 

The Moravians, during their settlement in Oley, 
erected two dwellings on land donated to them by 
John de Turck. The first was occupied early in 
1745 ; and the second in 1748, for school purposes. 
In the latter there was a flourishing boarding-school 
for several years ; into which were incorporated the 
Moravian schools of Germantown and Frederick 

On July 31, 1750, a beginning was made to dis- 
solve the Moravian school in Frederick township, 
by transferring pupils to other schools, and in the 
last week of August, 1750, sixteen were transferred 
to Oley. 

First Teachers. — The following persons were 

teachers before 1753: 

George Stiefel, John Nicholas Kurtz, and Casper Leut- 
becker in Tulpehocken. 

Frederick Hoelwig in Longswamp. 
John Valentine Krafft in Richmond. 
Theodore Schneider in Hereford. 
George Youngman in Oley. 

In 1743, the following provision was made in 
Richmond township toward the encouragement of 
teaching : 

That it is our most earnest desire that the teacher, as 
well as the preacher, sball be fairly compensated so that 
he can live with his family as an honest man, without 
being obliged to engage in any business foreign to his 
profession. To this end the teacher and the preacher 
shall have the land and the house on it free, as long as 
they officially serve the congregation. 

Pay schools were maintained in every district, the 
pupils paying several cents a day, according to the 
number of branches taught; and this custom pre- 
vailed from the beginning until long after the sys- 
tem of 1834 had been introduced. 

Parochial schools were carried on and encouraged 
in connection with churches in the several sections 
of the county, being always situated near by. The 
preachers, elders and deacons were expected to see 
that the teacher maintained good order and that 
each pupil received proper attention. The teacher 
had to possess a good character, and ability to sing 
and teach singing as well as to teach the common 

Charity Schools. — A charitable society was es- 
tablished early for the instruction of poor Germans 
and their descendants in Pennsylvania. Previous to 
1751, certain Reformed ministers who had settled 
among the immigrants found them in distress. They 
entreated the churches of Holland to commiserate 
their unhappy fellow-Christians, and contributions 
were sent to these remote parts. In 1751, Holland 
and West Friesland granted two thousand guilders 
per annum for five years toward instructing the 
Germans and their children in Pennsylvania. Great 
encouragement was given to this scheme by per- 
sons of the first rank in Great Britain, King George 
III. having contributed £1,000 toward this object, 
and the Princess Dowager of Wales £100; and 
the proprietaries engaged to give a considerable 
sum every year to promote the undertaking. The 
society then adopted certain resolutions "for the 
management of the scheme, and proposed a plan 
for establishing schools. The Governor of the 
Province recognized the utility of the scheme and 
appomted a board of trustees for its proper direc- 
tion. Conrad Weiser was one of the members of 
this board, and Rev. Michael Schlatter was appoint- 
ed general supervisor. Petitions from Reading and 
Tulpehocken were addressed to the board in the 





early part of 1755 to secure the benefit of these 
contributions so as to establish some of the schools, 
and Schlatter accordingly organized a school at each 
of the places named. 

But the charity schools proved an. utter failure, 
and Schlatter was personally the chief sufferer. 
His official position as superintendent rendered him 
the main object of popular hatred, though for a 
time the Lutheran and Reformed ministers had sus- 
tained him. The German people lost confidence in 
this undertaking through the denunciations of Chris- 
topher Sauer, who asserted in his German news- 
paper (published at Germantown) that these schools 
were intended to prepare the way for establishing 
the Church of England in this part of the province, 
and in this way it was believed Schlatter's influ- 
ence was entirely destroyed. 

Common Schools. — Various and repeated legis- 
lative attempts were made toward general educa- 
tion throughout the State, and they gradually devel- 
oped a public sentiment in its behalf until finally 
there was established the compulsory system, pro- 
vided by the Act of 1849, which was improved by 
the Act of 1854. 

The Constitution of 1776 had provided that "a 
school or schools shall be established in each county 
by the Legislature for the convenient instruction 
of youth, with such salaries to the masters paid by 
the public as may enable them to instruct youth at 
low prices"; and that of 1790: "The Legislature 
shall, as soon as conveniently may be, provide by 
law for the establishment of schools throughout the 
State in such manner that the poor may be taught 
gratis." This provision continued in the fundamen- 
tal law of the State unchanged until the new Con- 
stitution of 1873, when it was modified as follows : 
"The General Assembly shall provide for the main- 
tenance and support of a thorough and efficient sys- 
tem of public schools wherein all the children of 
this Commonwealth above the age of six years may 
be educated, and shall appropriate at least one mil- 
lion dollars each year for that purpose." 

A great weakness in its early history was the 
incompetency of teachers. Educated men and wom- 
en of experience in teaching could not be obtained 
because duty to themselves and to their families 
obliged them to labor in vocations which afforded 
better remuneration; and a pronounced opposition, 
on account of burdensome and unjust taxation to 
support the system, discouraged those 'who felt in- 
clined to teach. But a greater weakness than in- 
competent teachers existed. It was the distinctive 
feature of the public schools and of the children 
attending them, for they were called "pauper 
schools," and "pauper scholars," and this made them 
odious to the very class that was to be principally 

In 1833, when the State contained about eight 
hundred thousand children, less than twenty-five 
thousand attended the common schools — just one 
in thirty-one, or about three per cent, notwithstand- 
ing the offer of education at the public expense. 
But in 1883, the State contained about two million 
children ; and the number attending common schools 
was over nine hundred and fifty thousand, nearly 
one-half, an increase of sixteen-fold in fifty years. 

The general system, provided by the act of 1834, 
is attributable to a society which was organized at 
Philadelphia in 1827. The express object of this 
society was general education throughout the State,, 
and its efforts, after laboring in this behalf for seven 
years against bitter opposition, culminated in the 
passage of the act mentioned. In 1835 a great ef- 
fort was made to repeal this act, but it failed. The 
credit of preserving the system at that time is given 
' to Governor George Wolf and Hon. Thaddeus 

System Accepted by Districts. — The following 
statement shows the year when the several districts 
of the county accepted the common school system: 

Reading 1834 

Caernarvon 1834 

Robeson ! 1836 

Union 1836 

Womelsdorf 1836 

Ruscombmanor 1837 

Colebrookdale 1838 

Hamburg 1838 

Kutztown 1838 

Marion 1839 

Hereford 1845 

Alsace 1849 

Exeter 1849 

Heidelberg 1849 

Maiden-creek 1849 

Amity 1850 

Bern 1850 

Brecknock 1850 

Cumru 1850 

Douglass 1850 

Heidelberg, Lower. . . . 1850 
Heidelberg, North .... 1850 
Oley 1850 

Rockland . . ' 1850 

Spring 1850 

Tulpehocken 1850 

Washington 1850 

Windsor 1850 

Bern, Upper 1851 

Bernville 1851 

Centre 1851 

Earl 1851 

Greenwich 1851 

Longswamp 1851 

Muhlenberg 1851 

Ontelaunee 1851 

Penn 1851 

Perry 1851 

Pike 1851 

Maxatawny 1852 

Bethel 1854 

Richmond 1854 

Albany 1855 

Jefferson 1855 

Tulpehocken, Upper ..1855 

All the districts had accepted the system of 1834 
before the' compulsory provision had gone into ef- 
fect, excepting District township, which held out 
until 1867, refusing in the meantime to accept the 
State appropriation. The districts subsequently es- 
tablished, accepted the system at the time of their 

Pleasantville was established as a separate district 
out of Oley township in 1857. 
_ Altogether the districts in the county number 

In 1854, the schools numbered 363, and the schol- 
ars 10,116 ; in 1884, the schools, 599, and the schol- 
ars, 26,848 ; and in 1908, the schools, 855, and the 
scholars, 28,340. 







Tax and Rate 
Per Cent 



































« ti 







(30 = 




> - 







ffl U 5 











Albany 12 

Alsace G 

Alsace, Lower 4 

Amity 10 

Bechtelsville S 

Bern 12 

Bernville 2 

Bern, Upper 6 

Bethel 15 

Birdsboro 11 

Boyertown 9 

Brecknock 6 

Caernarvon 7 

Centre 9 

Centreport 1 

Colebrookdale 9 

Cumru .■ . . 26 

District 4 

Douglass S 

Earl (i 

Exeter 15 

Fleetwood 5 

Greenwich 11 

Hamburg 12 

Heidelberg 10 

Heidelberg, North,... 5 

Heidelberg, Lower.... 21 

Hereford 8 

Jefferson 7 

Kutztown 4 

Lenhartsville 1 

Longswamp 16 

Maiden-creek 11 

Marion 7 

Maxatawny 15 

Mohnton 7 

Mount Penn 3 

Muhlenberg 13 

Oley 13 

Ontelaunee 9 

Penn S 

Perry 12 

Pike 6 

Pleasantville, Ind 1 

Reading 331 

Richmond 14 

Robeson 17 

Rockland S 


.Spring 10 


Topton 3 

Tulpehocken 14 

Tulpehocken, Upper. . . S 


Washi'ngton 9 

West Leesport 3 

West Reading 7 

Windsor 5 


Wyomissing 3 


































































































































































































































8,34 304 














































































































































4,311. 4S 




2. OS 




















2. OS 


2, 196.11 















S'hillington included still with Cumru, not having been erected. 


4.06 $419,790.28 

Note; State appropriation to districts of county. $139,630.84; of which $64,155.80 to Reading 

Total estimated value of school projierty in county, $i. 180,100. and in State, $90, 303,311 

Total receipts in county for school |)urposes, $738,178; teachers' wages, $375,034; total expenditures 




Lecture on Weiser. — Extracts taken from the 
compiler's lecture on the "Life of Conrad Weiser," 
delivered in different parts of the county during 
1891, 1892 and 1893, by way of describing the 
direction and influence of the educational system 
of the State on the people of Berks county : 

The general education of the people of Berks county 
has been going on continuously from the time of the 
first settlements until now. Starting at a time when a 
considerable population was settled in all sections of the 
county, say in 1752 when it was erected as a political 
organization in the State, and extending over a period 
embracing a century, the education of the people through 
the instrumentality of schools was confined to the rudi- 
ments, that is, the ordinary accomplishments which en- 
abled them to carry on industrial and social affairs in 
a successful manner. It was rather of a practical nature, 
and therefore more inclined to the useful than the orna- 
mental. A common education consisted of a general abil- 
ity to read, write and cipher, and to talk in the English 
language reasonably well, and this was regarded as suffi- 
cient for the ordinary demands of life. 

In 1752, schools were scattered in all the sections of 
the county. There were several in a township, and the 
scholars farthest distant were about five miles off. There 
was no taxation for school purposes. Each scholar paid 
two or more cents a day, according to studies, and the 
teacher earned about a dollar a day. The buildings were 
ordinary structures, built mostly of stone or log. The 
money expended was made to reach as far as possible. 
The education obtained was necessarily of a simple nature, 
so as to be easily acquired. Everything connected with 
it was expressive of economy. This idea stood out very 
prominently, and it had a good effect upon the manners 
and habits of the people. The perceptive faculties were 
more active than the imaginative. Labor was king, not 
education. Labor was regarded as the foundation of ev- 
erything, and education only as a means for facilitating 
its intelligent direction. Everybody labored — men and boys 
at farming and industrial pursuits, women and girls in 
household affairs. It was labor that produced and im- 
proved, and economy that multiplied results. Hence the 
county grew- rapidly. There was little or no waste. No- 
tions and practices of this kind prevailed in a general 
way until about 1854. 

Then a uniform system of education was established 
by the State government and this has prevailed since. 
It has been encouraged by increasing annual appropria- 
tions for school purposes. The enormous amount for the 
year 1893 ($6,000,000) shows the people's extraordinary 
spirit of liberality towards general education. In the in- 
terior districts, the school buildings have not advanced 
much beyond the buildings of 1854, but those of the cities, 
even of some of the towns, show a remarkable growth in 
size and appearance. By comparison of general results, 
it will be found that the system of 1854 has inclined in this 
time more towards the ornamental than the useful. The 
scholars are led to devote too much time and energy to 
information that they do not use, and are not expected 
to use in the ordinary associations of life; also to matters 
and things that are too much disposed to develop the 
imaginative faculties rather than the perceptive. 

In this way the love of labor has come to lose its hold 
upon a large proportion of the people, and consequently 
labor is no longer king. The spirit of education has grown 
so much that it is of more consequence than the spirit 
of labor. Through it the school children are getting to 
be more and more inclined to settle in employments that 
are designed to produce or serve things for ornament 
rather than use, and they are running more towards 
clerking, soliciting, negotiating and kindred employments 
which require earnest action of the mind rather than of 
the body far beyond the natural and equitable demands 
of society. And the sustenance of this increasing number 
with their numerous magnified wants is obtained at the 

expense of the physical exertions of a large proportion 
of the people. This has been stimulated to such a degree 
that it has become burdensome in a very appreciable man- 

A growing inequality in various ways is more and more 
apparent, especially in respect to property, money and 
income, and the influences which they exert; and as this 
inequality grows on the one hand, extravagance manifests 
itself on the other, indeed, to such an extent that it is 
commonly regarded as necessary to social existence. A 
prominent desire, flowing from this inequality, is to profit 
by the labor of others without mental or -physical exer- 
tions; and though this is admittedly a great disadvantage 
against the industrious element of any community it is 
justified and encouraged without the slightest compunc- 
tion. A desire growing entirely too common is to , fill 
an office, exercise municipal power and dispose of public 
funds, all of which lead the mind and conscience away 
from .a just conception of industry and from the real 
value of money. And another injurious desire, not only 
in Berks county but elsewhere, is the migration of many 
industrious people from country districts to populous 
places where equality, comfort and contentment are not 
half of what they formerly enjoyed. Decrease of popula- 
tion in townships and increase of it in the cities is a bad 
indication for the general welfare. Evidently some evil 
influence is at work that produces such a result in social 

This general tendency must be changed. It must be 
guided into the channel that was occupied naturally be- 
fore 1854. Labor m,ust be restored to its position as the 
recognized king. The practical must be studied and en- 
couraged in preference to the ornamental ; and the devel- 
opment of the perceptive faculties must receive a larger 
share of consideration than the imaginative. Each one 
of us should be so taught as to .obtain a proper idea of 
industry and to feel the absolute necessity of contributing 
his share of useful labor in the production of things of 
real, not speculative value. And industrial affairs should 
be so conducted, or rather they should be permitted to 
so regulate themselves without legislation or other inter- 
ference, that the small communities shall have equal op- 
portunities with populous cities in the race of progress. 
The question may well be asked : Can this be accomp- 
lished? If so, how is it to be done? 

I would answer through our schools by teaching branch- 
es of knowledge that can be utilized by the scholars when 
they come to act for themselves and that will fit them 
for the stations which they may be expected to occupy; 
through a proper conception of the importance of labor 
and of local rights, and a uniform desire to co-operate in 
the several affairs of life ; and also through lecturing on the 
character of men and women who have been useful, just 
and honorable to the communities in which they lived. 
In this behalf I have selected Conrad Weiser as a proper 
subject for our consideration. By studying his career 
we shall find for our guidance the useful things of life 
rather than the ornamental. The former constitute the 
basis of general association and incline us to co-operate 
with one another in individual and social affairs ; but the 
latter create a spirit of rivalry and incline us to strike 
out for ourselves regardless of consequences to others. 

Ornamental education has been to us for some years 
a proud and presumptuous mistress, but we have come 
td find at last that she has misdirected our efforts and 
generosity and misled many of us away from the sta- 
tions for which we were adapted by nature and associa- 
tion. Through her a great , many persons have drifted 
into unproductiveness, idleness, or restlessness to such 
a degree that it behooves us to stop and see if we cannot 
find what steps must be taken to restore useful industry 
and produce general contentment. Investigation and re- 
flection will lead us to conclude that labor must be sub- 
stituted as master in the place of education as mistress. 
In this way only can we come to adopt and hold on to 
the useful and practical, and to transmit our individuality 
to future generations. 



Educational Purpose of \'\^eisee Lecture. — An 
introduction to the compiler's lecture, explanatory 
of his purpose, was published and distributed with 
the lecture under the auspices of the Reading Board 
of Trade in 1893, and the forcibleness and truthful- 
ness of his remarks at that time, sixteen years ago, 
will be appreciated by studying the condition of edu- 
cational, political and industrial affairs at the pres- 
ent time, in the year 1909. The introduction was as 
follows : 

The tendency of the times for some years has been 
against the uniform development of the districts that con- 
stitute larger divisions of territory, as counties and States. 
Like the draining waters of creeks and rivers into the 
ocean without artificial impediments — as in the primeval 
period when mechanical power was not demanded — in- 
dustries, wealth, and population have been drifting,' or 
rather drained, toward great centers, such as Boston. New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. 
Louis and San Francisco. It is even to be noticed in 
inJand counties like Berks, Lebanon and Lehigh, for the 
county-seats are growing so rapidly that they are com- 
ing to have the major part of assessed property and popu- 
lation, notwithstanding the area of territory occupied is 
comparatively limited. Political and social influences are 
thereby developed in channels leading to personal distinc- 
tion rather than general welfare. In this way too much 
power is permitted to settle gradually but surely in 
certain persons, and their individual judgment is taken 
as public opinion. This is against the substantial inter- 
ests and prosperity of the people taken as an organized 

General education and government have been carried on 
for many years by a prescribed system for the general 
advantage of all the inhabitants. The manifest design 
of this legislation was to build up the parts which con- 
stitute the whole, on the theory that if the several parts 
be recognized for intelligence and self government the 
whole must necessarily be distinguished in these respects. 
But with all our State and local appropriations for the 
purposes of education and government, many parts are 
found to be deteriorating, while only few are improving. 
This is particularly noticeable in respect to property, pop- 
ulation and social influence ; and in respect to individual- 
ity, co-operation, confidence and reliability, the average 
development is not what we have a right to expect in 
return for the taxes levied and expenditures made. Elect- 
ors contribute their share of the taxes to enable the several 
parts or districts to be successfully maintained and devel- 
oped, but the substantial and uniform local benefits for 
which the taxes are assented to without complaint are not 

Steam and electricity have latterly become so important 
in the development of industry for the superfluities of 
life, and capital and speculation have concentrated so 
largely in metropolitan places, from which they exert 
a most extraordinary influence over the manners, cus- 
toms and desires of society, reaching out hundreds if 
not thousands of miles, that little hope can be entertained 
of effecting a change by the discussion of local rights 
in the interior parts of Pennsylvania ailong the moun- 
tains, I mean such a change as would give to labor a due 
proportion of its products in the districts where it is 
carried on. 

The waters rise not in the mountains simply to flow 
on to the sea without advantage to the people as they 
pass, nor are men and women intended to establish do- 
mestic relations in the interior parts of the country sim- 
ply to permit their offspring to be drawn away to swell 
the population of great cities, nor are they expected to 
work and practice rigid economy simply to give the real 
benefits to financiers and speculators far removed from 
the seat of industry ; but they are designed to serve a 
more direct purpose in the affairs of mankind. The nat- 

ural results would be more advantageous to the locality 
if they were not commonly and persistently drawn away 
by selfish manipulations. A true conception of local rights 
would greatly modify these manipulations in such a man- 
ner as to encourage plans and schemes of distribution that 
would produce a imiform appreciation and development of 
the general rights, privileges and conveniences of the people. 
Circumstances, sometimes accidental, but mostly the result 
of deliberation, may enable a man or body of men to take 
an unfair advantage over others, whether as neighbors 
of the same locality, or as fellow citizens of adjoining or 
distant localities, but in the short span of a life-time this 
advantage will be found to result eventually in a disad- 
vantage of some kind, either of a personal or general 

Our education being intended for social elevation, and 
our government for political equality, the former should 
incline us to be just and fraternal, and the latter in all 
its departments to be impartial, whatsoever the situation 
of the several localities. But my historical researches, 
with a collection of statistics, have brought me to see 
an opposite social and political tendency; and believing 
it to be injurious to the general welfare, I was led to 
study the career of Conrad Weisee, a most zealous advo- 
cate of local rights, and to present the result of my re- 
flections to the people in the form of a lecture, with the 
hope that thereby public attention would be directed to 
the rights and demands of the respective parts of Berks 
county, and that this tendency might be changed in the 
interest of practical not theoretical political equality, of 
general not individual industrial power, and of real not 
imaginary social progress. 

Teachers' In.stitutes. — An institute, composed 
of many of the school teachers of the county, was 
first held in March, 1851, in the Court-House at 
Reading, for the purpose of encouraging the general 
work of education by a discussion of improved 
methods of teaching, an organization having been 
effected in January preceding. The meeting was 
largely attended, and it was very successful. In- 
stitutes were held for several years in succession 
and then discontinued. 

In 1867, the State Legislature passed an Act of 
Assembly requiring the county superintendent of 
common schools "to call upon and invite the teach- 
ers of the common schools and other institutions of 
learning in his county to assemble together and or- 
ganize themselves into a teachers' institute, to be de- 
voted to the improvement of teachers in the science 
and art of education, and to continue in session for 
at least five days." In conformity with the provisions 
of this law, the county superintendent, Prof. John 
S. Ermentrout, held a county institute in 1868, at 
Reading. It was largely attended by teachers from 
all sections of the county, and great interest was 
manifested. Since that time, annual institutes have 
been held with increasing attendance and success. 

In 1869, when Prof. D. B. Brunner became 
county superintendent, he maugurated the system 
of local institutes, and during that year he held 
eight institutes in different sections of the county 
which proved very successful. This enabled the 
teachers in remote districts to attend an institute 
and become familiar with its proceedings, and also 
to take a part in its discussions, an opportunity 
being afforded and an inclination to do so being 
encouraged. This latter feature was particularly 



appreciable, for in a local institute the teachers were 
thoroughly acquainted with one another, and, not 
being so numerous, they were enabled to partici- 
pate practically in its discussions. Each succeed- 
ing year till now has shown an ever-increasing in- 
terest in them. 

The Pennsylvania State Educational Association 
was first organized in 1856. Three of its conven- 
tions were held at Reading; in 1863, in 1878, and 
in 1905. 

Pay Schools. — ^Various pay schools were con- 
ducted in the county, out of the limits of Reading, 
before the establishment of the compulsory system 
and afterward for many years, more especially in 
Union and Oley townships, and at Boyertown, 
Kutztown and Womelsdorf. But they have all 
been discontinued excepting the Keystone State 
Normal School which is described in connection , 
with Kutztown. 


There was no newspaper published in the county 
before 1789. News was communicated by persons 
to one another mostly at inns and stores, of which 
the number was large in proportion to the popula- 
tion, more especially at Reading. The latest acci- 
dent, death, transaction or crookedness of any kind 
was communicated from one to the other, or to 
small groups of persons ; and so it was carried 
from building to building and from place to place, 
not in the English language (for English was little 
spoken then by those who assembled at inns) but 
German, which was used almost entirely through- 
out the county in the daily affairs of life, both secu- 
lar and religious. 

During this early period, the Pennsylvania 
Gazette, published at Philadelphia, had a lim- 
ited circulation in Reading and in the county. 
It was an interesting messenger to the peo- 
ple; and its weekly arrival must have been an 
event of more than ordinary importance. A copy 
was doubtless busy in passing amongst persons 
who could read English — not for the personal mat- 
ters which it contained, but for foreign affairs, 
market reports, letters published, etc. Christopher 
Sauer's Journal, a newspaper printed in German, 
and published at Germantown, had a more extended 
circulation in this vicinity, and it exercised a large 
influence over the residents. 

Forty years in the history of Reading elapsed 
before the newspaper became a local institution. 
The entire period of its local life as a town, with all 
its many important events, passed away without 
having it introduced. This would seem to be a long 
while for such a factor to obtain a foothold in a 
community otherwise energetic and progressive; 
but this delay is capable of explanation. The peo- 
ple were interested in home rather than in foreign 
affairs, and strove to give them successful develop- 
ment. Local matters required no printed publica- 
tion, for, the town being small and the population 
limited, they were easily communicated. But as 
the town g-rew into a borough, and especially as the 

borough grew into a city, with its territory en- 
larged, the inhabitants more widely scattered and 
the population largely increased, the natural way 
became more and more incapable, of satisfying the 
inquisitiveness of the people and an artificial way 
had to be introduced — and this was supplied by the 

After the lapse of a century, general progress 
came to be so wonderful, the people so numerous 
and scattered, and their relations so intermingled, 
that, just as the natural way had to yield to the 
artificial, so did the old and slow process of print- 
ing on a hand-press, with its limited capacity, have 
to make way for the new and spirited process, by 
a steam-press, with its unlimited capacity. In the 
beginning, the newspaper was weak in every res- 
pect, small in size, limited in circulation, uncertain 
in financial support, and wanting in mental vigor 
and originality; but afterward it became strong, 
rich, energetic and inventive. 

The newspapers of the county comprise two 
classes, weekly and daily. Some of them were 
printed in the German language, but most of them 
in the English. The following statement shows 
the names of the several newspapers instituted 
at Reading and in the county; also the names of 
the founders, the time when instituted, and the dur- 
ation of the publication. Though published almost 
entirely at Reading, they have been placed in this 
chapter on account of their general 'circulation 
throughout the county and elsewhere. 

Name Founder 

Neue Unpartheyische } Johnson, Barton } 
Readinger Zeiiung ) & Jungmann ) 

. 1789-1793 

Weekly Advertiser Gottlob Jungmann 1796-1816 

Reading Herald ^^J"^^ -^j. .1796-1796 

Readinger Adler* ^Grge'cert" -<lf .1796-1909 

Welt Bothe Henry B. Sage ISlOi 

Berks and Schuylkill** 

Journal George Getz 1816-1909 

Readinger Post Sof^. . .Charles A. Bruckman. . .1816-1826 

Chronicle of the Times. %^,,f^''^^l }• ■ • • 1822-1836 

Jackson Democrat Charles J. Jack 1826-1826 

Readinger Democrat. . . . ^.^^rmud'Sger" } • " " ■ ^'^'-^'^' 

Berks County Press .... Samuel Myers 1835-1865 

Jefferson Democrat Robert W. Albright 1838-1848 

Liberate Beobachter Arnold Puwelle 1839-1865 

Reading Gazette and Jacob Knabb and) ^„.. ,„„. 

Democrat J. Lawrence Getz j 1840-1878 

Alt Berks William B. Schoener. . .1840-1845 

Sonne von Alt Berks.. .ChaLtles W. Guenther. . .1845-1848 
Reading Herald Abraham S. Whitman . .1846-1850 

People's Advocate foselh^^'fi^rret^"'^ f " -1850-1852 

Berks County Democrat ^nXew M.'sXde^"'^ } 1858-1858 

James MillhoUand and). 
School Album Albert R. Durham j^ 

*.Ritter family connected with publication since 1802 
**Owned by publishers of Reading Times since 186 





JVeekly Leader 

Rcformirtcr Hausfreund 
fanner von Berks 

Die Biene 

Pie Deutsche Eiche . . . . 

Rcpuhlikaner von Berks 

.Spirit of Berks 

.Reading Weekly Eagle. 

Reading Weekly Herald 
.Reading Weekly News.. 

Reformed Church Rec'd 

Reading Democrat 

JLahor Advocate... 
■ Union Sentinel.... 

J. Robley Dunglison 1860-1861 

Daniel Miller 1867-1904 

William Rosenthal* 1864-1909 

William Rosenthal* 1867-1909 

William Rosenthal* 1869-1909 

Daniel Miller 2^6^-1899 

Daniel S. Francis 1876-1881 

Jesse G. Hawley 1878-1909 

John B. Dampman 1881-1896 

William S. Ritter 1881-1909 

B. Bailsman 1888-1905 

W. Oscar Miller 1894-1899 

Harry F. De Gour 1900-1909 

Federated Trades 

Council 1901-1909 

Name Founder Year 

, Litteratur Blati August Bendel 1883-1900 

Illustrirte Jugcndbliitter. August Bendel 1884-1909 

Pennsylvania Philatelist Clifford N. Kissinger. . .1891-1903 

Greater Reading Walter S. Hamaker. .. .1897-1898 

'Greater Armrica Walter S. Hamaker 1898-1903 

..Preacher's Assistant. . . .Frank J. Boyer 1889-1909 

Mengel & Mengel have issued a Real Estate Reg- 
ister monthly since January, 1895, relating to the 
■ conditions of real estate at Reading and vicinity. 


Name Founder 

Neutralist William Harmony 



Geist der Zeit Hawrecht & Wink 1841-1863 

Der Hirt J. S. Herman 1854-18.56 

. Kutstozvn Journal Isaac F. Christ 1870-1909 

National Educator Isaac F. Christ 1872 

American Patriot Isaac F. Christ 1874-1909 

Name Founder Year 

Hamburg ^./'-//^..^ - .J^^^i J^^l'fl^ ^^^^ ....1841-190., 

Hamburg Advertiser .. ...M. H. Shollenberger. .. .186.5-1868 

Rural Press J. K. & J. G. Smith 1873-1875 

'Hamburger Berichter. . .WiWiam F. Tyson 1872-1874 

'Hamburg Weekly Item. Samuel A. Focht 1875-1909 

Name Founder 

■ Boyertown Bauer O. P. Zink 



Boyertown Democrat. . .George Sassaman lSSS-1909 


Name Founder Year 

Womelsdorf Gazette .... Samuel Mowry 1847-1848 

Womelsdorf Herald Michael K. Boyer 1879-1880 

Womelsdorf News Joel Weidman.' 1882-1885 


Name Founder Year 

Birdsboro Pioneer B. F. Fries 1873-1876 

Birdsboro Dispatch Rapp & Ryan 1885-1909 

Birdsboro Review Harry E. Hart 1893-1908 

D.AiLY Newspapers. — Weekly newspaper publi- 
cations were carried on at Reading for over sixty 
years before a daily was thought of, at before 
a public proposition to this end was made. Many 
weeklies had been instituted in that time ; but they 
all suspended excepting two, and these two are 

*Jolin Weiler, an employer and manager for many years, became 
the proprietor June 20,' 1908, 

worthy of especial mention for their energy, success 
and longevity — the Adlei- and the Journal — the for- 
mer a German publication founded in 1796, and the 
latter an English publication founded in 1816, which 
is strictly a continuation of the Weekly Advertiser, 
started also in 1796. The population was certainly 
here to support a daily newspaper. The rapid in- 
crease of the people would seem to have warranted 
— if it did not inspire — such an enterprise in that 
period of time. Education was quite general, 
though stimulated with marked public energy after 
1834; and the English language was growing grad- 
ually into favor. The railroad was constructed, 
various shops and factories, especially for the man- 
ufacture of iron goods, were erected; even English 
churches were founded. 

The second period of Reading was unusually 
prolific in producing great things for the common 
progress of its citizens. In 1840 the population 
was 8,410, and in 1847 it was about 12,000; and 
in the respective years named the entire county had 
about 65,000 and 70,000. The railroad extended 
through the entire Schuylkill Valley to the north 
and to the south, and the stages ran daily in every 
direction. These means facilitated the distribution 
of newspapers, and encouraged the spirit of pub- 
lication ; and the borough was advanced into a 
city. Still there was no daily newspaper. 

When the third period was begun there were 
seven weekly newspapers carried on successful!}', 
Adlcr, Journal, Berks County Press, Liberate Bco- 
bachtcr, Alt Berks, Jefferson Democrat and Reading 
Ga::cttc. They were issued upon diflfierent days in 
the week, but mostly on Saturday. Naturally, this 
number was sufficient to discourage the thought 
of a daily publication. But the spirit of enterprise 
was working its way through the people in different 
channels ; buildings were multiplying, trade was 
growing, population was increasing, and many 
strangers were locating here permanently. The 
daily events necessarily grew with the 'general 
growth, and the disposition to know them at once 
was preparing the way for a step beyond the weekly 
publication, and just as the stage-coach and canal- 
boat, through the energy of trading, came to be 
slow and had to make way for the steam-car, so the 
weekly newspaper was coming to be late in com- 
municating news, the feeling against the delay was 
growing stronger and stronger, public eagerness 
clamoring for an improvement. 

Three months after Reading was incorporated 
as a city, Abraham S. Whitman — a practical young 
printer of Reading— took the first step beyond a, 
weekly publication by instituting and carrying on 
a tri-weekly newspaper, which he entitled The 
Readnis: HcraUd, and within two months he en- 
larged its size and improved its appearance. But 
he soon found that he had stepped beyond his time, 
and was therefore compelled to issue the publica- 
tion as a weekly newspaper. 



About the same time, J. Lawrence Getz, publisher 
of the Reading Gazette (weekly), made the edi- 
torial announcement that he would undertake the 
publication of a daily newspaper, if supported ; but 
the support was so limited that he was forced to 
discontinue after an earnest trial of nine days. 

These first efforts were in 1847. Ten years 
elapsed. In that time two new railroads were ex- 
tended from this business center, one to the west 
through Lebanon Valley, the other to the north- 
east through East Penn Valley. From 12,000 the 
population of the city had increased to 30,000, and 
from 70,000 the population of the county had in- 
creased to 90,000. The post-offices round about 
in the county had multiplied from forty-one to 
seventy — a wonderful increase in this department 
of the public service. The added wealth to the 
community from all sources was estimated not by 
the thousands of dollars, but by the millions, and 
the hand-press for newspapers had become sup- 
planted by the steam-press. Mr. Getz doubtless 
reasoned in this manner in 1857, and, satisfying 
himself that the prospects were favorable, he started 
in this enterprise a second time. He continued 
the publication successfully, though under discour- 
aging patronage, until Feb. 3, 1858, when he 
changed the time of its issue to the evening, and 
reduced the price from ten cents a week to six 

His second ■experiment was, however, carried on 
for only three weeks, and he was again compelled 
to suspend publication. The Berks and Schuylkill 
Journal complimented his spirit and enterprise, 
but expressed the opinion that the suspension was 
by no means creditable either to the intelligence or 
to the public spirit of a city with 20,000 inhabitants. 
Its list of patrons embraced four hundred and fifty 
regular subscribers ; but only sixteen out of two 
hundred and forty business men of Reading took 
sufficient interest in its success to give it advertis- 
ing patronage. 

Immediately after the suspension of the Gazette, 
a stronger feeling for a daily newspaper manifested 
itself by the citizens and so a third attempt was 
made. This was by J. Robley Dunglison, a young 
man from Philadelphia, who had settled at Read- 
ing about that time. He issued the first number 
of his paper on July 19, 1858, which was entitled 
Reading Daily Times. It was a folio, printed in 
the English language, 16 by 24 inches, with five 
columns to the page, and issued in the morning. 
He published it until Dec. 9, 1859, when he sold it 
to Henry Lantz. Lantz published it until September, 
1861, when (owing to his enlistment in the Civil 
war) he sold the paper to A. S. Whitman and 
Charles F. Hause, who published it very success- 
fully during the Civil war. In 1865, F. B. Shalters 
became interested, and in 1868 the sole owner and 
editor. In 1869, the paper was purchased by J. 
Knabb & Co., the publishers of the Berks and 
Schw^lkill Journal, and this firm and its succes- 

sor, the Reading Times Publishing Company, have 
published it ever since. 

The Evening Dispatch was issued as an evening- 
daily paper from Feb. 10, 1866, until April 4, 1870,. 
when it was purchased by J. Knabb & Co. and 
merged with the Reading Times, and Alfred S. 
Jones had started the Daily Reporter on April 26, 
1864, and issued it for nearly a year. 

The Daily Eagle was founded by William S. Rit- 
ter and Jesse G. Hawley (publishers of the Reading 
Adler), on Jan. 28, 1868. In 1874, Hawley pur- 
chased the entire interest, and pubhshed the paper 
until his decease in 1903. By his great enterprise 
he enlarged its circulation v^ry much and distrib- 
uted its issue not only into every town and town- 
ship of the county, but into neighboring and distant 
counties in the Schuylkill, East Penn and LebanoiT 
Valleys. Since his decease, its pubHcation has beent 
continued with equal and deserved success by his 

The first daily German newspaper at Reading- 
was founded by William Rosenthal on June 1, 1868, 
under the title of Die Readinge Post, and he 
issued it successfully until 1908, when he sold it. 
to John Weiler. 

The Daily News was issued by William S. Ritter 
(proprietor of the Adler) from May, 1880, until. 
May, 1886. 

The Daily Spirit of Berks was started by Daniel" 
S. Francis on Aug. 6, 1881, and published by him- 
until November following, when he sold the daily 
and the weekly issue of this paper to John B. 
Dampman and A. C. Buckwalter, who then changed" 
the names to the Daily Herald and Weekly Herald.. 
William McCormick became the purchaser in the- 
fall of 1896 and discontinued the Weekly paper, 
but has issued the Daily since. During the Spanish 
war in 1898 he published a morning and evening- 
issue of the daily, but discontinued the morning- 
issue at the close of this war. 

The Reading Telegram, a daily, owned by the 
Reading Telegram Publishing Company, has been 
issued since 1887. 

Other daily newspapers were started at Readings 
and issued for various periods, but not beyond sev- 
eral years, such, as the Daily Leader, Evening Star, 
Evening Record, Daily People, Daily Graphic, Eve- 
ning Review, and Evening World. 

Language. — The great majority of the early set- 
tlers of Berks county were Germans, and through 
them their language, manners and customs be- 
came predominant. Most of them remained here, 
and, to a great degree, where the several families 
first settled and prospered. Their number influ- 
enced the early erection of the county in 1752. 
Their industry, perseverance and economy built up 
and enriched its valleys and hills with substantial 
improvements. Nearly two hundred years have 
elapsed since, but the general features of the whole 
community bear. their impression. Their manners 



and customs have been handed down from genera- 
tion to generation, with little change; and their 
language is still in general use in every section. 
This permanence exhibits inherent strength. The 
introduction of other peoples, with different lang- 
uages, but mostly English, have not weakened their 
hold upon the people. 

Their language is composed of words princi- 
pally from German dialects, such as the Alleman- 
nisch, the Pfalzisch, and the Schwabisch, and some 
from the German proper. Its preservation to such 
a marked degree is due mostly to their ' German 
Bible. Martin Luther performed a great service 
to one of the strongest and most prolific nations of 
the earth in translating the Latin Bible into the Ger- 
man, for through it he made the use of the German 
language here persistent and continuous. Their 
German hymn-books and prayer-books, and Arndt's 
Wahren Christenthum (True Christiariity) assisted 
greatly in this behalf. 

The use of the English language in courts of jus- 
tice, and in legal documents of all kinds, did not, 
and apparently could not, interfere with its preser- 
vation. Even English teaching, through a general 
system of school education, has not disturbed it 
very much, though two generations have passed 
away since its introduction. This system has caused 
the introduction of numerous English, mixed and 
contracted words, and doubtless induced the lan- 
guage to be called "Pennsylvania German" — or 
"Pennsylvania Dutch." These remarks are particu- 
larly applicable to the country districts, for the 
teachers are mostly young people, who, in many in- 
stances, are not qualified to use the English lan- 
guage accurately. Through them many peculiar 
and incorrect expressions have been engrafted upon 
the language of our locality ; and the German people 
themselves have occasioned the introduction of a 
considerable number, through an earnest desire to 
succeed in their business relations with the citizens 
of Reading. The sounds, expressions and intona- 
tions are peculiar and cannot be communicated in 
a published narrative. 

The Pennsylvania-German language has been 
presented admirably in a number of poems which 
Thomas C. Zimmerman translated from the Eng- 
lish, he having selected a variety of styles of com- 
position in order to show the capabilities of the 
dialect for metrical expression. This variety com- 
prehends subjects both grave and gay, as well as 
humorous and pathetic. Plis first translation was 
the Christmas poem bv Clement C. Moore entitled, 
"■'Twas the Night before Christmas." 

Harbaugh's "Harfe," and Fischer's "Pennsylvan- 
isch-Deutsche Gedichte" and "Kurzweil und Zeit- 
vertreib," are publications in the Pennsylvania- 
German which are worthy of especial mention. 
They contain numerous interesting poems in this 
dialect, and introduce in a superior style the notions, 
manners and customs of the German people in 
Berks countv. 

The English language, both written and spoken, 
has been in use from the time of the earliest settle- 
ments by the English in the county, and it is nat- 
ural to suppose that in all these years through ju- 
dicial proceedings, business transactions and 
general education, it should have made con- 
siderable progress, especially during the last fifty 
years; but frequent visits to churches and schools, 
stores and families throughout the county m this 
time enable the compiler to say that the German 
language is still prominent in the country dis- 
tricts. Another generation will have to pass away 
before the English language can take its place. 

The circulation of English newspapers is increas- 
ing gradually; but their total circulation is small 
compared with our population. They are a strong 
agency in effecting a change from the German to 
the English; in reality, they are a stronger agency 
in this respect than the common schools. This is 
particularly apparent in Reading. Before the daily 
English newspaper was established here, the Ger- 
man language was commonly used by the major 
part of its inhabitants in their daily affairs ; but now 
the English has its pkce, and principally through 
the gradual introduction of the newspaper. The 
increasing convenience of distribution facilitates its 
growth. The national government is contributing 
much aid by extending and increasing the postal 
facilities and the delivery of mail matter throughout 
the county. 


M.VNNERS AND CUSTOMS. — The buildings and im- 
provements throughout the county are mostly the 
result of German energy and thrift. Profits from 
labor have been almost entirely appropriated toward 
increasing the value of land rather than toward en- 
lightenment. Fine barns, dwellings and fields are 
prominent in every locality. They are superior to 
those which existed in the previous century. This 



is apparent in live stock, in the cultivation of fruit, 
in the possession of improved implements and ma- 
chinery, besides a better class of dwellings and 
barns. A higher order of taste in the adornment 
of persons and places has made its way through 
increasing liberality. 


Domestic 'habits, in respect to home-made articles, 
have changed. Spinning and weaving have been 
abandoned. The loom and the factory supply all 
the materials required. A change began to be made 
about 1840. Before that time, spinning was com- 
mon everywhere in the county, for it was one of 
the necessary accomplishments of mothers and 
daughters. Till then, reels and spinning-wheels 
were sold at different stores in Reading. Sales 
then declined gradually, and within twenty years 
afterward there was no demand at all for these 

Gardening is still carried on successfully in the 
country districts. Besides supplying vegetables for 
family use, it is a source of profit to mothers and 
daughters, who dispose of a large proportion of 
garden products in the markets at Reading and the 

The almanac is a common guide to indicate by 
the changes of the moon the proper time for plant- 
ing. The practice of consulting the moon's phases 
is regarded by many persons as a superstitious no- 
tion; but it still prevails. So fences are erected 
when the points of the moon are up; shingle roofs 
are nailed in position when the points are down; 

and woods are cleared when the moon is full. But 
the custom is hot so general as it was, especially 
in towns and cities, where building operations are 
conducted through all seasons; and walls, fences 
and roofs are placed in position regardless of the 
face of the moon. 

A funeral in the country districts is still largely 
attended, especially the funeral of a citizen of 
prominence. The services are generally conducted 
in the German language in the church of which the 
deceased was a member, as well as at his home, 
briefly. Afterward the guests return to the house 
of mourning and participate in a large dinner. This 
custom has continued time out of mind. Great 
sociability is exhibited upon such an occasion. 
Friends travel miles to attend a funeral in order 
to show respect for the deceased. And the entire 
neighborhood is represented. The burials are gen- 
erally made in the burying-ground adjoining a 
church. But the first settlers made burials in pri- 
vate grounds set apart on farms for this purpose. 
It was instituted as a matter of convenience; and 
then the funeral service was held at the house. The 
change of farm ownership caused this custom to 
be gradually abandoned. Seventy years ago, private 
grounds were still numerous ; afterward church 
cemeteries began to be more encouraged and bur- 
ials in them increased. 

The country store was a great institution years 
ago. But its influence, trade and popularity are 
much reduced. This change was effected through 
the introduction of competing stage lines and the 
railway. Variety of goods and cheapness are con- 
siderations which induce the people to visit the 
towns and the county-seat for their purchases. It 
is noticeable that the railway is drawing the pat- 
ronage of Reading to Philadelphia more and more ; 
so that as our townships come, to patronize Read- 
ing, Reading goes to patronize Philadelphia. This 
is apparent elsewhere — the cities attracting the 
trade of towns, and the towns that of the country 
districts. The trolley lines are particularly useful 
and influential in this behalf. 

The country inn was also a popular place for 
many years. Frolics and dances were common ev- 
erywhere years ago ; and they were carried on suc- 
cessfully at the inn. The "fiddler" was an impor- 
tant person upon such occasions. And "Battalion 
Day" brought much profit to the inn that was near 
by the place where the military exercise was con- 

Military affairs were active throughout the coun- 
ty from the close of the Revolution until the be- 
ginning of the Civil war, a period covering nearly 
eighty years. Companies of men were formed in 
every section, and battalions were drilled annually 
at the prominent towns, mostly at Reading, Kutz- 
town, Hamburg, Rehrersburg, Womelsdorf, Boyer- 
town and Morgantown. These exercises occasioned 
the day to be called "Battalion Day." They afford- 
ed the men much pleasure and a great change in 
their daily employment in the field, barn and work- 



shop. Many sons of early families became quite 
prominent as military men. 

The old "Conestoga wagon" is no longer seen 
passing over our highways. Seventy years ago it 
was in prominent use everywhere. Many were seen 


moving together in transporting great loads of 
wheat, and other products such as manufactured 
articles, whiskey, etc., to distant markets, especially 
to Philadelphia. Each one was drawn by four 
horses, sometimes by five and six; which attracted 
much attention, with jingling sweet-toned bells on 
the lead-horse of the team to indicate its movement 
on the way. Its capacity was from two thousand 
to three thousand pounds. It was covered with a 
strong canvas top. In returning, store goods of 
various kinds were brought along. After the open- 
ing of the railroad in 1838, this business of hauling 
in Conestoga wagons gradually ceased. Since then, 
the only considerable hauling by farmers is in con- 
veying their grain, hay, etc., to the market at Read- 
ing; and this is done almost entirely in one wagon 
at a time. 

In a "moving" by a farmer about April 1st, many 
teams are used to convey the whole stock, furniture, 
etc., in a day. The long train affords to a certain 
degree an idea how the Conestoga teams appeared. 

The life of the farmer is comparatively little be- 
yond hard, earnest labor and rigid economy through- 
out each succeeding year. His daily reflection is 
upon his stock and crops. All the improved imple- 
ments and labor-saving machinery are devised and 
introduced by others for his benefit. He would 
have continued in the same manner of conducting 
his farming operations practised from 1700 to 1800, 
and even till 1850, if inventive genius had 
not created new methods for him. The farmer of 
our own county has not produced anything to im- 
prove his situation in respect to labor. He adopts 
what is brought to him. This singular inactivity 
keeps him back of the advancing times. Through 
it, the products of his labor are permitted to ht 
drained to populous places. One of the chief con- 
sequences is little remuneration. The men of 

thought and energy in cities absorb the greater pro- 
portion of the profits. If his daily habits were not 
simple and his expenses small, he could not keep 
what he has, much less accumulate more. His net 
income from actual labor is limited. Compared 
with the incomes of business men, agents, officers 
of corporations and clerks in cities, it is insignificant. 
His manners are the same in this respect as in 
others. If we examine them closely and compare 
them with the condition of things one hundred 
years ago, we find little progress. His household 
furniture, bedding, clothing, tableware, social habits 
and general customs are generally the same. His 
walls are not decorated with costly paintings; his 
floors are not covered with fine, soft carpets ; his 
beds are not composed of easy springs and hair or 
wire mattresses ; his table does not glisten with pol- 
ished silver or sparkle with cut glass; his dwelling 
is not after the modern style, with arrangements 
for health and convenience; and he himself is not 
a patron of art, literature or amusements. In towns 
and cities, however, we find all these things, not 
only in the dwellings of bankers, lawyers and mer- 
chants, but also of industrious mechanics, agents 
and clerks; and art, literature and various amuse- 
ments are largely patronized and encouraged. 

This great difference is caused by the spirit of 
progress, which obtains more in populous places 
where the people are led in numerous ways to inter- 
mingle daily with one another. Association creates 
the laudable ambition to develop improvements in 
the various departments of domestic and social life ; 
and it relieves the monotony of daily labor by lit- 
erary, musical and dramatic amusements. In car- 
rying on its amusements successfully, it is convert- 
ing night more and more into day and devising new 
methods for social pleasure and excitement. Im- 
proved light facilitates and encourages it in the 

Traveling is a great agency in stimulating it. 
Indeed, in certain respects, it is like steam on the 
one hand and electricity on the other — active and 
energetic in moving about from place to place, and 
brilliant and powerful in providing the necessary 
light to accommodate its conceptions. Horse- 
power, and locomotion afforded by this means, may 
suffice for the people in the country districts, but 
steam and railroads afford locomotion which is not 
too rapid for the people in the towns and cities. 

Restless energy is introducing wonderful changes 
in the manners and customs of the people. In the 
mountainous and farming districts, where distance 
still separates many inhabitants and the means for 
rapid intermingling are impracticable, the changes 
are imperceptible. Their situation does not warrant 
changes, especially such as are constantly going on 
in the cities, for it could not support them. The 
profits of labor and investment in them are too 
slow and too small. Hence their manners and cus- 
toms, their dwellings and churches, their roads and 
movements, their speech and actions, their dress 
and associations, are the same or nearly the same as 


they were a hundred years ago. Their energy is open fireplace for the production of hght in a simple 
inseparable from the plow and the hoe and muscu- and inexpensive way; in the other, these have long 
lar exertion. But the cities produce and support passed away, especially for public purposes, and 
these changes, and in them energy partakes more the people have light from electricity. In the one, 
of the mind than of the body. And these changes, thousands of inhabitants are scattered over miles 
and this mental energy, are more active amongst of territory, but in the other thousands are concen- 
their inhabitants. trated upon a few acres, if not in a few very large 
In comparing the situation of the people of Al- buildings. In the one, a few hundred dollars suffice 
bany and Caernarvon townships, districts located to make the inhabitants contented and happy; but 
at the extreme northern and southern ends of the in the other, millions of dollars are invested and 
county, thirty miles apart ; also of Hereford and expended to carry out successfully the manners and 
Bethel townships, districts located at the extreme customs of its inhabitants and such changes as am- 
eastern and western ends, forty miles apart, with bition, competition and rivalry produce, 
the situation of the people of Reading, the county- Contentment would seem to be the companion of 
seat, the difference is apparent at a glance. One slowness, if not of stillness ; but discontentment, of 
hundred years ago they were alike, or nearly so. energy and activity. In the one, the expense of 
But just as Reading is in advance of the districts a few extra dollars in travel or amusement is looked 
mentioned, so is New York, the great metropolis of upon as luxury, if not extravagance ; but in the 
our vast country, in advance of Reading. other, thousands of dollars are expended as a mat- 
By contrasting the two extremes, our mountain- ter of necessity for the same purpose. These 
ous districts with the great metropolis, the differ- strong contrasts enable us to see our own manners 
ence in the manners and customs of the respective and customs as they are or were or as they will be, 
inhabitants is truly wonderful. And yet the fore- more especially in the more populous places, the 
fathers of each, as immigrants, started alike. In nearer that steam and electricity come to be con- 
the one, oil and tallow are still used, and even the nected with us in our material progress. 


ELECTION DISTRICTS' till 1789. During this time the county comprised 

one election district; and all elections were directed 

Provision was made for free and voluntary elec- to be held at the Court-House, in the county-town, 
tions by William Penn in the laws agreed upon in Then the county was divided into five election dis- 
England in 1682, for the government of Pennsyl- tricts, and the electors of the 'several townships 
vania and the right of election was given to every were required to vote at the places named : 
freeman of the province. A freeman was defined Reading; 1st District, at the Court-House 
to be "every inhabitant that is or shall be a pur- 
chaser of one hundred acres of land or upward ; and Readmg H^^d^lb 
every person who shall have paid his passage and ^^^^^ Maiden-creek 
taken up one hundred acres of land at one penny Brecknock Oley 
an acre, and have cultivated ten acres thereof; and Caernarvon Robeson 
every person that hath been a servant or bondsman Cumru Ruscombmanor 
and is free by his service, that shall have taken up Kutaiown, 2d District, at 'public house of Philip Gehr 
fifty acres of land and cultivated twenty thereot ; „ . , i,^ . 
and every inhabitant, artificer, or other resident that g^/Xd Rich^on^ 
pays scot or lot to the government." Longswamp Rockland 

At that time, the territory comprising Berks 

county was occupied by Indians. Not a single white Hamburg; 3d District, at public house of John Moyer 

man had yet settled upon it. There was no need Albany Brunswick 

for election laws then, nor for districts to facilitate Bern, Upper Windsor 

elections. But in one hundred years afterward, „ ,^ , , ,,u n- . ■'<. ^ i,i- t. r r- jr 

i iii 1. J „i.,_„,i ).u^ to^.-;f^^-.T Tulpehocken, 4th District, at pubhc house of Godfrey 
many permanent settlers had entered the territory, ' Roehrer 

and the necessity for government in all its forrris 

had become apparent. Townships had been organ- Bethel Tulpehocken 

ized and the county had become erected with all its Pme-Orove 

offices in that interval of time. Independence had ^„,ity^ 5th District, at public house of Wm. Witman— 

been declared ; government established ; and elec- called "White Horse " 

tions of various local officers held. a™;*,, Tr,^i 

_,. ,. , ^ . , ■ liji Amity Jiarl 

The elections for county officials were held at Colebrookdale Union 

Reading from the beginning of the county in 1752 Douglass 



There were then twenty-nine townships and one 
borough, Reading. In the performance of this poH- 
tical duty many electors traveled a distance of fif- 
teen miles. But this was an improvement on what 
had been required four years before — those living 
in the townships farthest removed from Reading 
having been required to travel from twenty-five to 
thirty miles. 

Subsequently, until now, additional districts have 
been established to facilitate elections. As a matter 
of historical interest they are presented in the order 
of priority; in the subdivisions of the county (as 
made in Chapter I). 

Manataivny Section 

Muthart's, 1794 — comprising Colebrookdale, District 
Earl and Hereford. 

Hereford, 1811. 

Keely's, 1812 — ^comprising Douglass, Amity, Colebrook- 
dale and Earl. 

01 ey, 1814. 

Ruscombmanor, 1815. 

Rockland, 1816. 

Pike, 1816. 

Earl, 1817. 

Reading, two wards, 1817. 

District, 1818. 

Amity, 182.2. 

Douglass, 1824. 

Colebrookdale, 1827. 

Exeter, 1839. 

Alsace, 1840. 

Washington, 1840. 

Reading, 1840, four wards ; 1844, fifth ward. 

Muhlenberg, 1850. 

Boyertown, 1866. 

Reading, 1864, nine wards; 1875, eleven -wards ; 1885, 
thirteen wards; 1892, fifteen wards; 1894, sixteen wards. 

Alsace, Lower, 1888. 

Mt. Penn, 1904. 

Ontelaimee Section 

Croll's 1790 — comprising Albany and Greenwich. 

Maiden-creek, 1817. 

Longswamp, 1817. 

Albany, 1819. 

Perry, 1821. 

Richmond, 1823. 

Greenwich, 1827. 

Windsor, 1S30 (at Hamburg). 

Hamburg, 1837. 

Maxatawny and Kutztown, 184]. 

Ontelaunee, 1850. 

Fleetwood, 1873. 

Topton, 1877. 

Lenhartsville, 1887. 

Titlpehockcn Section 

Womelsdorf. 1797 — comprising Bethel, Tulphocken and 

Bethel, 1803. 

Tulpehocken, 1809. 

Shartle's, 1812 — comprising Upper Bern and Upper Tul- 

Bern, Upper, 1822. 

Tulpehocken, Upper, 1829. 

Bernville, 1829. 

Heidelberg, Lower, 1834. 

Heidelberg, 1839. 

Bern, 1840. 

Penn, 1842. 

Centre, 1843. 

Marion, 1843. 

Heidelberg, North, 1845. 

Jefferson, 1851. 

Centreport, 1884. 

Tilden, 1887. 

West Leesport, 1901. 

Schuylkill Section 

Forest, 1791 — comprising then Caernarvon, Robeson and 

Marquart's, 1798 — comprising same townships with Breck- 
nock added. 

Caernarvon, 1818. 

Union, 1829. 

Robeson, 1829. 

Brecknock, 1829. • 

Cumru, 1840 (at Reading). 

Spring, 1850. 

Birdsboro, 1872. 

Wyomissing, 1906. 

West Reading, 1907. 

Mohnton, 1907. 

Shillington, 1908. 

Section beyond the Mountain 

Pine-Grove, 1797 — comprising all north of the Blue 

Orwigsburg, 1798 — comprising Brunswick and Man- 

Mahantango, 1802 — comprising that township. 

The election districts in the county now (1909) 
comprise 16 wards of Reading, 2 wards of Birds- 
boro and 2 of Hamburg; 1.5 boroughs, and 43 town- 
ships, altogether 78. 


Before 1820, it would seem that the major part 
of the voters of the county did not show so strong 
a partisan spirit in reference to the election of their 
representatives to Congress as they did afterward. 
Joseph Hiester was a very popular man with his' 
constituents, and he maintained their confidence 
and political support through a period embracing 
thirty years, notwithstanding his identification with 
the Federal party and the publication of certain 
letters in local newspapers reflecting against his 
political character. He succeeded in accomplishing 
what no other man in the history of the county ha's 
been able to do; for, besides securing his repeated 
election to Congress on- the ticket of the minoritv 
party, he even influenced the suflfrage of the Dem- 
ocrats in the county in his own behalf against their 
own regular nominee for Governor to such an ex- 
tent as to be elevated to the highest executive c<fice 
of the State. 

During the period from 1829 to 1844, Rev. Hen- 
ry A. Muhlenberg (the son-in-law of Hiester) was 
the most prominent political representative. By a 
reelection to Congress for five consecutive terms 
he evinced much popularity. In ISo.o, he received 
the nomination of the Dem'ocratic party for Gover- 
nor ; but he was not elected, owing to the action 
of an independent element in the party which was 
led by Governor Wolf, the incumbent then in the 
executive office and concluding his second term. 



At that time, the Anti-Mason party was strong 
in the State, and, through the division of the Dem- 
ocratic party, it was enabled to elect its candidate, 
Joseph Ritner. Muhlenberg polled the largest vote 
of the three candidates in the county. 

Several years afterward, Presideiit Van Buren 
appointed Muhlenberg to be the first minister to 
Austria, and, upon accepting this distinguished ap- 
pointment, he resigned his seat in Congress. This 
was the first honor conferred by a President of 
the United States upon the county of Berks, and 
the people appreciated it highly. In 1844, Muhlen- 
berg again became the regular nominee for Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, but he died before 
the election. 

There was a great difference between Hiester and 
Muhlenberg ; the former was a Federalist in a Dem- 
ocratic county, successful in winning . and ' holding 
a strong political support for himself, and a stanch 
advocate of a protective tariff, of the free school 
system, and of the United States B;ank (of which 
it is probable that he was one of the original sub- 
scribers of stock) ; but the latter was a Democrat, 
and opfHDsed to the rheasures mentioned. 

Twenty years after Muhlenberg's time in Con- 
gress, the first considerable dissatisfaction arose in 
the Democratic party in the county, which resulted 
in the defeat of Hon. J. Glancy Jones, the regular 
nominee. He had been the representative from this 
district since 1851, and while serving his fourth 
term announced his candidacy for re-election. But 
a great political change was then working its way 
amongst the people throughout Pennsylvania, and 
to a certain extent this change was manifesting 
itself also in Berks county. It was created princi- 
pally by the action of Buchanan's administration on 
the Kansas question, and Jones — one of Buchan- 
an's ablest supporters — ^having been intimately asso- 
ciated with it, the leaders of the opposition naturally 
took advantage of the situation to extend their feel- 
ing into the county so as to operate against him. 

Though Jones had made the nomination before 
the County Convention almost by acclamation, im- 
mediately afterward certain influential Democrats 
of the county developed sufficient strength against 
him to be able to call another convention and ex- 
press opposition to his re-election — the principal 
ground being his course on the subject of the tariff. 
The Independent Democrats therefore nominated 
John Schwartz — a prominent ironmaster of large 
ability and experience, and a highly respected sur- 
vivor of the war of 1812-15. 

The Republicans united in supporting Schwartz, 
and this co-operation caused the defeat of Jones 
by a small majority — the first real defeat which the 
Democrats had met with in the history of the party 
in the county. 

The defeat of Jones was both a surprise and a 
disappointment to President Buchanan, and immed- 
iately after hearing it he appointed Jones to the 
Austrian Mission. Jones accepted this appointment 
and thereupon resigned his seat in Congress. He 

represented the national government at Vienna for 
two years with great distinction. 

But the political activity in the campaign of 1858 
was not permitted to subside with the defeat of 
Jones. His resignation having caused a vacancy 
which the electors were obliged to fill the Democrats 
nominated Joel B. Wanner, Esq. (who had,_ two 
years before, served a term as mayor of Reading), 
and the Republicans nominated General William H. 
Keim, a man highly respected for his business qual- 
ifications and very popular throughout the county 
in military affairs. A special election was held in 
November, 1858, but the vote was small, especially 
for the Democratic candidate, and Keim was elect- 

Previously, on two occasions, in respect to coun- 
ty offices, a simitar result had occurred. In 1846, 
David Yoder, a prominent and influential farmer of 
Oley and a descendant of one of the first families 
in that township, was elected, as a Whig, to the 
office of county commissioner, because the nominee 
on the Democratic ticket was alleged to have been 
an Irishman, the Irish as a class not being par- 
ticularly appreciated by the German element in the 
county. And in 1853, Charles Van Reed, also a 
prominent farmer and paper manufacturer of Lower 
Heidelberg township, was elected as a Whig to the 
office of county treasurer. The nominee on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket was Adam Leize, who had held the 
office from 1849 to 1851. The incumbent during 
the election was William Ermentrout, whose son 
was married to Leize's daughter. Many Democrats 
thought that one family was obtaining too much 
political preferment and therefore they opposed the 
election of Leize. 

Between 1789 and 1820, Daniel Messersmith and 
Johp K. Messersmith had continued to hold the 
office of treasurer alternately for a period of thirty 
years ; David Bright from 1823 to 1835 ; and Peter 
Nagle from 1835 to 1843. The office was filled by 
appointment until 1841, when it became elective. 

In 1841, the Hon. John Banks (then the president 
judge of the courity) was the nominee of the Whig 
party for Governor. The Democratic party was 
at that time under thorough organization and Gov- 
ernor Porter was elected by a largely increased ma- 
jority, in the county as well as in the State. Sub- 
sequently, in 1847, while the Whigs were in the 
majority in the State Legislature, Judge Banks was' 
elected to the office of State treasurer for one year 
by the united support of all the Whigs. 

Between 1850 and 1860, there were two promi- 
nent representatives from the county in the State 
Legislature — William M. Hiester, in the Senate 
from' 1853 to 1855, serving as speaker during the 
latter year; and J. Lawrence Getz, in the House 
for 1856 and 1857, also serving as speaker during- 
the latter year. Mr. Getz subsequently served three 
terms in Congress from this district, 1867 to 1873. 

Hiester Clymer occupied great political promi- 
nence in the county for twenty years, from 1861 to 
1881. He was in the State Senate from 1861 to 



1866. In 1866, he received the nomination for they have continued to be till now ._ A smgular 
Governor on the Democratic ticket, but he was not change— if not a transformation— m respect to- 
elected. Reading was then Republican in political party names, arose afterward. As early as 1793, 
sentiment by a small majority and the nominee on the Anti-Federal party was called the Democratic- 
the Republican ticket received the full party vote, Republican party ; but the word 'llepublican" was 

notwithstanding Reading was the home of Mr. 
Clymer. He was the representative in Congress 
from 1-873 to 1881. 

Daniel Ermentrout succeeded Clymer in political 
prominence, having been State senator from 1874 
to 1880, and the representative in Congress from 
1881 to 1889, and from 1897 to 1899, dying before 
the end of his last term. 


dropped in 180.5, and the name Democratic alone 
used. Thence the Federals, or Whigs, or Republi- 
cans, have been on the one side and the Democrats- 
on the other, the latter party keeping its identity 
here for over a century. For twenty-five years, 
from 1830 to 185-5, the Anti-Mason party for ten 
years, and the Whig for fifteen, were substituted 
in the place of the Republican party. 

The Declaration of Independence was published' 
on the -Ith day of July, 1776. Smce the Revolution,. 

Political Parties.— From the beginning of the that day has been regarded as the nation's birthday, 
county, there have been two parties in political af- and it has been made a holiday by the several State- 
fairs. Before the Revolution, agitation of political governments. Annually for about eighty years, the- 
questions was not general or continuous. The elec- parties of each community celebrated this great 
tive franchise was a recognized privilege, but it was holiday by assembling at popular places and drink- 
not particularly encouraged by the creation of con- ing toasts, making addresses and enjoying them 

venient or numerous polls to enable electors to ex- 
press political preferences. Local offices for the 
townships and the town were filled by election, but 
county officials were appointed, and this feature 
continued in respect to the major part of them until 
1841, when r;n Act of Assembly was passed which 
pro-vided for a general change to election. For over 
thirty-five years Berks county comprised one gen- 
eral election district, with the court-house at Read- 
ing as the polls. In 1789, the districts began to 
increase; and they have increased gradually, to sat- 
isfy the demands and encourage the facilities for 
election, till they now number seventy-eight. 

During the Revolution, the people formed them- 
selves into two parties, especially those who mani- 
fested any concern in the government ; the one class, 
favoring a continuance of the royal government, 
called "Tories" ; and the other, favoring a free, rep- 
resentative government, called "Federals," or their respect for Joseph Hiester, though on the op- 

selves generally. At Reading, the parties celebrated 
the day regularly in this manner. The Federalists 
and the Whigs assembled on the island in the- 
Schuylkill river, several hundred feet above the- 
ferry, at the foot of Bingaman street ; and the Dem- 
ocrats at ^Mineral Spring, east of the limits of Read- 
ing. ^^''hen the Civil war broke out, this custom 
was discontinued, and it has not been revived. 

Vote for Governor. — Since 1788, the people of 
the county manifested a most remarkable adherence 
to the Democratic party and the principles which it 
advocated, chief among them the principle of local 
self-government. In 1802, the Democratic vote was 
eight times that of the Federal. Afterward this- 
proportion was at no time surpassed, not even 
equaled. The vote was regularly for the Demo- 
cratic candidate, excepting two occasions, in 1817 
and 1820, when the people of the county manifested 

"Whigs." The distinction was marked, and fortu- 
nately for the people of the county, as of the State 
and the great confederation of States, the latter 
party won a decisive victory. Upon the establish- 
ment of freedom, new parties arose. These pro- 
ceeded from Whigs, and were recognized either- as 
the Government Whigs, or Federals, who desired 

posing ticket. These occasions were when Hiester 
was a candidate on the Federal ticket for Governor. 
He had distinguished himself in political affairs 
through a period of forty years. 

Berks county was not alone in honoring him, for 
of the eleven counties in the southeastern section 
of the State, he had eight in 1817. This important 


a Republican form of government, with checks section of the'' State gave him a majority of 

upon the impulses or passions of the people, and though the State was against him by a majority of 

with liberty regulated, strengthened and confirmed 7,005. And in 1820 he had nine" of the eleven 

by central authority; or as the Particularist Whigs, counties, with a majority of 8,194, and in the State 

or Anti-Federals, who desired the same form of a majority of 1,605. In this connection, the vote 

government, but Democratic in spirit, with, the of Fliester for Congress, as against Daniel Clymer, 

rights of local self-government, and of States ever in 1798, can be mentioned in order to show Hiester's 

uppermost. popularity. The vote was more than four to one 

In 1784, there were two parties in the province, in his favor. All the districts in the county except 

called Republicans and Constitutionalists. Most of one gave him large majorities, and this exception 

the electors of this county were of the latter party, was the "Forest" district, influenced by the Clvmer 

In a certain sense, the latter took the place of family, resident in Caernarvon to\Ynship. 

the "Tories," and were called "Republicans." They Even through the excitement incident to the Civil 

were the dominant party in the county then and war, 1861-65, the county continued Democratic bv 



Jarge majorities. The city of Reading was other- 
wise, though theretofore also generally Democratic ; 
■for, at the election previous to 1860, it was almost 
Ihree to one Democratic, but in 1860, 1863, and 
1866 it was Republican. Since then, it has been 
Democratic, excepting at the election of 1894, when 
the Republicans received a plurality of 1,123. 

Vote for President. — In 1828, the vote for 
Jackson in Berks was five to one against Adams. 
Then it was that the county distinguished itself in 
voting for Jackson. It would seem that the people 
here, as the people elsewhere, had felt keenly the 
outrage perpetrated upon them by the House of 
Representatives, in not respecting the will of the 
majority by the selection of a candidate for Pres- 
ident whose electors had received the greatest num- 
"ber of votes. The idea of self-government was 
again uppermost in their minds, and this idea they 
felt it their duty to express by ballot in a most un- 
equivocal manner. The vote of Reading was in 
•the same proportion. And at Jackson's re-election 
in 1832, the result of the vote, both in the county 
and city, was for him in the proportion of about 
four to one. The vote in the county for President 
from 1828 to 1904 was always Democratic by a 
large majority. 

The city of Reading was also Democratic by a 
considerable majority till 1860 ; then a decided 
change took place through the great upheaval in 
political affairs. Lincoln was given a majority of 
more than 500 over Breckenridge, and of more 
-than 300 over all, Douglas and Bell included. 
This Republican feeling in the city prevailed till 
-the re-election of Grant, when, remarkable to say, 
a majority of 1,207 was given for him. In the elec- 
tion of McKinley, there was a plurality of 1,717 
for him in 1896, and of 1,111 in 1900 ; in the elec- 
tion of Roosevelt, there was a plurality of 3,369 for 
him in 1904; and in the election of Taft, of 866 
for him in 1908. 

Vote for Constitutional Amendments. — On 
the question of amending the State Constitution, the 
election returns are interesting. In 1825, the coun- 
ty was against the Convention by a vote of five to 
one; and in 1835, also against it, of over two to 
one. But in 1838, on the question of ratifying the 
work of the Convention, the county voted for the 
Amendments. The chief provision gave electors the 
right to elect county officials, excepting the judges, 
and this the county electors appreciated very much. 
The State adopted them, but by a very small major- 
ity compared with the total vote. 

In 1850, on the question of making the judges of 
the Supreme and Cotmty co"rts elective, the county 
Avas for it by a large majority; and the State was 
for it by a vote of two to one. 

In 1871, the question of a Convention was again 
srbmitted to the voters. The county was against 
it by a remarkable vote of two to one, but the State 
was for it by a vote of almost five to one. How- 
ever, on the ratification of the report of the Con- 
-vention at a special election in 1873, the county 

was decidedly for the New Constitution by a vote 
of five to one. 

Vote for PROHiiiiTiON and License. — The liquor 
question was submitted twice to a vote of the elec- 
tors ; first in 1854, and again in 1873. On both 
occasions, the county was decidedly in favor of li- 
cense; first, by a vote of four to one; and next, 
three to one. 

Election of 1876; — The Democrats in Berks 
county were certain of victory in 1876. They were 
taught to expect it, and when the night of the elec- 
tion arrived they looked for it. But the news was 
doubtful. They had counted upon a "Solid South," 
and also certain Northern States. Their leader had 
calculated with great shrewdness, but neither he 
nor any of his followers had thought the loss of 
three Southern States within the range of possi- 
bility. And this result actually occurred. Late on 
election day, the chairman of the Republican 
National Committee announced that Hayes had 
185 electoral votes, and would be the next Presi- 
dent. This came to be exactly so. But during 
the four intervening months, great excitement 
prevailed and fears of a political revolution 
were entertained. At Reading, excited crowds 
of people assembled for many nights in suc- 
cession to hear the returns which were reflected 
upon screens — the Times screen having been set up 
against the Jameson building on the Sixth street 
side, above the portico, so as to show the figures 
down Penn Square, and the Eagle screen in front 
of the Eagle building. Some of the cartoons were 
striking and afforded much merriment in reliev- 
ing the monotony of election returns. The ele- 
phant figured conspicuously in them. At one time 
he came out with a rooster in his trunk lashing 
it around wildly in the air; then with a rooster 
tied to his tail, running away with it; now jump- 
ing for joy at a favorable report, then lying on 
his back as if dead from a Democratic victory, with 
a rooster crowing lustily over his fallen body; Jeff 
Davis was represented as sitting up in a sour apple 
treej and different prominent Democrats were 
drawn in various laughable positions; and numer- 
ous short witticisms appeared frequently. Alto- 
gether, the exhibition awakened a thrilling interest 
in the people. 

State Conventions at Reading. — Three Demo- 
cratic State Conventions were held at Reading at 
which candidates for Governor were nominated: 
the first on June 4, 1851, when William Bigler was 
nominated by acclamation; the second on Feb. 29, 
1860, when Henry D. Foster was nominated; and 
the third on May 30, 1873, when Charles R. Bucka- 
lew was nominated. 

A Democratic State Convention assembled at 
Reading in the Academy of Music on Aug. 31, 1897, 
which was reported to have been the most turbu- 
lent in the history of conventions in the State of 
Pennsylvania. The purpose was to nominate candi- 
dates for auditor-general and State treasurer. Hon. 
Daniel Ermentrout of Reading was elected tern- 



porary chairman and he filled the position under 
adverse and exciting circumstances. 

Mass-Meetings. — Numerous mass-meetings have 
been held at Reading by the respective political 
parties. The earliest meeting of w'hich any extend- 
ed notice was given, was held by the Democratic 
party Sept. 4, 1852, for the purpose of ratifying 
the nomination of Franklin Pierce as the Demo- 
cratic candidate for President. Philadelphia sent 
a delegation of fifteen hundred men, accompanied 
by three fine bands of music ; and large delegations 
were in attendance from Dauphin, Lebanon, Lan- 
caster, Chester, Bucks, Montgomery, Lehigh, 
Schuylkill and other counties, whilst from the hills 
and valleys of Berks county hundreds of the in- 
domitable Democracy came to swell the assembled 
multitude. Conspicuous among those from the 
county were the North Heidelberg delegation in 
large hay-wagons and vehicles of every description ; 
the Boyertown Pierce Club in carriages with flags, 
banners and wreaths of flowers ; and the Kutz- 
town Pierce Club in carriages, with flags and music. 
It was the largest meeting ever held at Reading till 
that time, and it included the largest number of 
great political leaders which the citizens had ever 
seen together here. A platform was erected at the 
upper end of the Western Market-House and 
around it the crowd assembled and heard the speech- 
es of such distinguished men as Hon. James Bu- 
chanan, Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, Gov. Enoch 
Lowe (Maryland), Gov. William Bigler (Pennsyl- 
vania), Hon. Barnabas Bates (New York), Hon. 
Charles J. Faulkner (Virginia), Hon. B. F. Ballett 
(Massachusetts), Chief Justice LeGrand (Mary- 
land), Hon. John A. Wilcox (Mississippi), and 
Hon. John H. Savage (Tennessee). Addresses 
were made from noon till midnight. Mr. Buchanan 
was chairman of the meeting during the afternoon, 
and, in the course of his opening remarks, he com- 
plimented Berks county for "her undeviating patri- 
otism and entire devotion to Democratic princi- 

RiTNER Young Men's Convention. — The young 
men of Pennsylvania, who were favorable to the 
election of Joseph Ritner for Governor held a con- 
vention at Reading on June 4-5, 1838. Seventeen 
hundred delegates assembled from all parts of the 
State. Their meeting was held in the Trinity Luth- 
eran Church, and it was distinguished for earnest 
enthusiasm. Appropriate addresses were made and 
resolutions passed. The meeting was the largest 
of a representative character ever held at Reading 
until that time. It was conducted with ability and 
occasioned much excitement. But it did not in- 
crease the strength of the Anti-Mason party in 
this section of the State. It was the first and only 
political convention ever assembled in a church 
building at Reading. Permission was granted by 
the church vestry because there was no large hall 
in the borough then, and the Trinity Church was 
the only place in which so large a body of men 
could assemble with convenience. 

Whig Mass-Meeting of 1844. — The Presidential 
campaign of 1844 was particularly exciting. Henry 
Clay was the Whig candidate for President, and 
James K. Polk the Democratic candidate. The 
former enjoyed a very high degree of popularity 
throughout the county, and his friends conducted 
a very active campaign in his behalf. The Whigs of 
Pennsylvania exhibited much enthusiasm for him 
during the canvass, for he was a great favorite in 
every section of the State, especially where man- 
ufactures were carried on. Reading was then a 
growing centre for industries of various kinds, and 
the W^higs here idolized him for his earnest labors 
in the cause of protection to home industries. They 
held a mass-meeting at Reading, on Sept. 27, 1844. 
Over five thousand persons were in attendance, 
delegations having come from different sections 
of the surrounding country. The day was especially 
noted for a large procession in which the various 
trades and employments were represented. Minia- 
ture shops and factories were hauled about the 
town and successfully operated. 

The living raccoon again figured conspicuously 
in the procession, as it had in the previous cam- 
paign. The singing of campaign songs added in- 
terest to this occasion, just as it had been practised 
four years before, when there was one universal 
shout for "Old Tippecanoe and Tyler too." Not- 
withstanding this great effort of the Whigs, they 
could not weaken the devotion of the Democrats 
in the county or lessen their majority. The poke- 
berry was brought into great prominence by the 

During this campaign, the Democrats also held 
a large mass-meeting. One of its prominent fea- 
tures was a large boat, rigged as a "Ship of State," 
manned by a number of boys dressed as sailors, 
and drawn on wheels in the procession by many 
young men. The majority for Polk in the borough 
was 369, and in the county 4,674. This result in- 
dicated the thorough organization of the Democrats. 
Dallas, their candidate for Vice-President, visited 
Reading during the campaign and delivered an 
address at the "Mineral Spring," dwelling particu- 
larly upon and favoring the tariff. Gen. Sam 
Houston from Texas was also present. 

Clymer M.vss-Meetings in 1866. — Hon. Heister 
Clymer, a citizen of Reading, received the nomina- 
tion for Governor on the Democratic ticket in 1866. 
He had been State senator from 1861 to 1866, dur- 
ing which time he had acquired considerable popu- 
larity throughout the State. Gen. John W. Geary 
was the Republican candidate. Both parties were 
under thorough organization and they labored ear- 
nestly for success. Many mass-meetings were held 
in different parts of the State, and at all of them 
much enthusiasm was manifested. 

In Berks county the leaders of the party were 
particularly active. Numerous public meetings were 
held and many speeches delivered. General politi- 
cal excitement prevailed from the beginning until 
the close of the campaign; which increased'as the 



day of election approached. Two Democratic mass- 
meetings were held at Reading, one on July 18th, 
and the other on Oct. 3d; and upon each occasion 
a multitude of people assembled. At the former 
there were delegations from four-fifths of the coun- 
ties in the State. Hon. Richard Vaux acted as 
chairman of the meeting, and addresses were made 
by Mr. Clymer, Hon. Montgomery Blair, Hon. 
George H. Pendleton, and other distinguished poli- 
tical leaders. High party feeling was produced 
under the great excitement, so high, indeed, that 
it almost resulted in riots with certain Republicans 
who were equally earnest and demonstrative for 
their leader. General Geary. There was a grand 
procession, with Gen. Tobias Barto as chief mar- 
shal, estimated to contain five thousand persons in 
a line two miles long. Many wagons, teams, bands, 
and banners of all kinds accompanied the numerous 
delegations, and the enthusiasm was unbounded. 

Notwithstanding all this exertion and expense 
by the Democrats, the city of Reading was not car- 
ried for Clymer. It had been Republican through 
the war, and this political sentiment still prevailed 
by a small majority which Clymer could not over- 
come, even with the aid of local prejudice and en- 
thusiastic demonstrations. The vote in Reading for 
him was 2,689 and for Geary 2,704 — a majority of 
15 against him; and in the county for him 13,288 
and for Geary 7,121 — a majority of 6,167 for him. 


HiESTER Festival of 1820. — In 1817, the Hon. 
Joseph Hiester, of Reading, was nominated as the 
Federal candidate for Governor against the Hon. 
William Findlay as the Democratic candidate; but 
he was defeated by a majority of 7,005. In 1820, 
the same candidates were again on the respective 
tickets-, and Hiester was elected by a small majority, 
1,605. The success of this election contest, by 
which the most distinguished citizen of Berks county 
was chosen to be the chief executive officer of Penn- 
sylvania, was an event which could not be permitted 
to pass away in the annals of local affairs without 
signalizing it by an impressive public demonstration. 
He was then concluding his ninth term in Congress, 
and resigned his seat soon after the election. His 
fellow-citizens had therefore come to regard him 
with more than ordinary feelings of respect and 
honor. And what means could they have selected 
more adapted to display their satisfaction and joy 
than a feast at which they could eat, drink and be 
merry? Accordingly, in honor of this event, pursu- 
ant to public invitation, a grand festival took place 
on Wednesday, Nov. 1, 1820, on the "Common" 
near the "arched spring," east of the borough. Peo- 
ple assembled from every part of the county and 
many distinguished politicians came from Philadel- 
phia and counties adjoining Berks to participate in 
the feast. Over four thousand persons united in 
the demonstration. A procession was first formed 
by the Committee of Arrangements on Penn Square, 

about 11 o'clock in the morning, which marched 
up Penn street to the "Common," arriving there 
about noon. An area comprising several acres was 
surrounded by a barrier, with a large platform on 
the eastern side, upon which the articles for the 
feast were placed. Two fat bullocks on spits, and 
a bear and a hog on gridirons, were roasted en- 
tire. The four skins bad been stuffed and mounted 
on cars. The area was occupied by the Committee 
of Arrangements, High's Dragoons, Getz's Guards, 
and a band of music from Philadelphia; and it in- 
cluded thousands of spectators, whose orderly de- 
portment was highly commendable. 

The butchers commenced to carve the roasted 
animals about 2 o'clock. The first slice of each 
animal was taken to the residence of Hiester on 
Penn Square (adjoining the Farmers' Bank on 
the west) by two butchers, who were escorted by 
a detachment of the Guards ; and the carving then 
continued until all were satisfied. After the feasting 
was concluded, a meeting was organized and twenty 
toasts, expressive of patriotic and complimentary 
sentiments, were read, all of which were received 
with, loud applause. Then a unanimous desire was 
expressed "to see the Revolutionary Veteran," and 
he was accordingly escorted to the meetings from his 
residence by a special committee, his presence 
awakening "indescribable effusions of joy." At 4 
o'clock, the procession was reformed and, with the 
"Governor-elect" supported by two stalwart citi-- 
zens, it paraded through the principal streets of 
the borough, halting opposite his residence, where 
they were dismissed in perfect harmony. 

In the evening, the celebration was continued by 
a "torch-light procession." A transparent temple 
was carried by four men through the principal 
streets, preceded and followed by a train of citi- 
zens who held lighted candles in their hands. The 
sides of this temple were illustrated ; the front pre- 
sented a likeness of Washington, the rear the arms 
of the United States, and the right and left sides 
well-executed likenesses of Hiester. 

A similar festival, to celebrate the same event, 
was held at Orwigsburg, in Schuylkill county, on 
Nov. 10, 1820. The morning of that day was ush- 
ered in by the firing of cannon and the ringing of 
bells. A meeting was first organized in the Court- 
House; then the people formed into line and pro- 
ceeded under the leadership of three marshals, as- 
sisted by a band of music, to "Mount Monroe." As 
they marched, bells rang and cannon boomed. A 
fine ox and deer were roasted, and a large num- 
ber of persons, seated at tables especially arranged, 
participated in a great feast. At a meeting, after- 
ward formed, thirteen toasts were offered and 

On the same day, a festival was also held at 
Kutztown. Twenty-five toasts were offered and 
drunk at a large meeting. 

Harrison Festival of 1840. — The Presidential 
campaign of 1840 was conducted with great enthu- 
siasm, and it developed much political excitement 



throughout the country. Grand processions were 
witnessed in every community. The voters of Read- 
ing and the surrounding districts in the county 
caught the feeling, especially on the side of the 
Whigs. One of the processions was distinguished 
for its log cabin and living raccoons. The election 
resulted in a victory for the Whigs, an event which 
elicited from them particular demonstrations of joy. 
It was their first victory, and they felt great pride 
in it. What could they do upon such an occasion 
but demonstrate their feelings as their party, under 
the name of "Federals," had done twenty years be- 
fore? The leaders therefore decided to signalize 
their triumph by a "grand ox-roast," on the "Com- 
mon," on Wednesday, Dec. 9, 1840, and they issued 
a public notice that "an ox will be roasted whole 
and plenty of hard cider will be provided." The 
day was accordingly celebrated under the direction 
of an organized meeting, with men prominent in 
respect to business, politics and military as its offi- 
cers. Thirteen toasts were announced, and appro- 
priate responses were made. Many persons parti- 
cipated in the feast. 

TiLDEN Festival of 1876. — The Presidential 
campaign of 1S7G was full of enthusiasm from the 
beginning to the end. Samuel J. Tilden, of New 
York, was the Democratic candidate, and Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes, of Ohio, the Republican. The Dem- 
ocrats throughout the county were very hopeful 
of success with so distinguished a candidate as Mr. 
Tilden, and they therefore carried on the political 
contest with all the energy that they could com- 
mand. The leaders of the party in the county were 
particularly active. Toward the close of the cam- 
paign they made arrangements for a "buffalo roast" 
in order to enable their party the more thorough- 
ly to demonstrate their feelings in a public manner, 
and they selected a day for that purpose. The pre- 
vious festivals in 1820 and 1840 were held after 
the election, but this was to be held before the elec- 
tion. The announcement was made, giving the pub- 
lic to know "that the Democratic citizens of Berks 
and adjoining counties will have a — 


lately captured on the western plains, and a 

Jubilee Parade 

in honor of their candidates for President and Vice- 
President, and the gallant freemen of the 
West, at the Fair Grounds, City of Read- 
ing, on Thursday, OctolDer 26, 1876, 
and also an 

Old-fashioned Democratic Procession, 

in which soldiers and sailors, farmers and me- 
chanics and all good citizens, with their wives 
and daughters, are respectfully invited 
to participate 

The dav arrived and the programme was carried 
out very successfully. In the morning many dele- 
gations came to Reading from all parts of the 
county, and by 11 o'clock the "Jubilee Parade" 
was formed, when it was marched over a long route. 

Besides the usual demonstrations in a procession 
of this character, there was an "elephant in boots," 
veritably walking in the parade, hired from Fore- 
paugh (the showman) for the occasion. The sym- 
bol of the Reading Times, in signalizing a political 
victory on the morning after an election, for many 
years, was the "elephant in boots" at the head of its 
columns; but the Democrats desired to show by .i 
living cartoon that they had taken its elephant cap- 
tive, and were going to carry it along in their tri- 
umphant march. This conception created much 
amusement throughout the entire route. It was the 
centre of attraction. On the way, the elephant 
kicked off one of his Democratic boots, just as if 
he were walking in doubtful company and on a 
doubtful platform, and desirous of freeing himself. 
The procession was nearly an hour in passing a 
point, and ended in the "Fair-Ground," where the 
feast on roasted buffalo was enjoyed by many hun- 
dreds of persons. Speeches were made by promi- 
nent men from different parts of the country. The 
most distinguished guest upon this unusual occasion 
was Gen. George B. McClellan, whose presence elic- 
ited great applause wherever he went. 

Cleveland Festivals. — The election of Grover 
Cleveland, the Democratic candidate for President 
in the election of November, 1884, was the occasion 
of great rejoicing. In the county the plurality of 
Cleveland over Blaine was 6,897, and in Reading, 
499. The victory was of such an extraordinary nat- 
ure that the Democrats could not refrain from pub- 
lic demonstrations of various kinds. 

In Reading, a grand "Salt-River Parade" took 
place on Nov. 12th, in which there were fifteen hun- 
dred men in line, with numerous teams and eight)' 
men on horseback, as well as many humorous trans- 
parencies and a prostrate stuffed elephant on one 
of the floats. 

At Bernville, and also at Rehrersburg, there were 
ox-roasts on Nov. 15th, which elicited a great deal 
of public excitement. 

At Kutztown, on Nov. 21st, there was one 
of the grandest political demonstrations ever 
witnessed by the inhabitants. An ox, weigh- 
ing twelve hundred pounds, was roasted, and 
after a grand parade, in which three hundred men 
on horseback from all the surrounding districts par- 
ticipated, including a large delegation from the 
"Americus Club" of Reading, there was a grand 
feast and much hilarity. A "Liberty Pole," 160 feet 
high, was erected to signalize the victory. 

The next day after the election, there was a con- 
siderable fall of snow, and the epigrammatic expres- 
sion — "And the next day it snowed" — caused much 
merriment among the participants in this demon- 
stration, as well as in the demonstrations elsewhere. 


The general political history of Berks county is 
similar to that of the whole State in respect to its 
general government. Legislation created territorial 



divisions and provided offices of various kinds for 
them in order to facilitate the regulation of local 
affairs, and the representation of the people in the 
legislative bodies of the State and nation. And 
these offices have been filled either by election or 
"by appointment from the beginning of our political 
existence as a county until now. A sameness ex- 
tends throughout the whole period. Comparatively 
little special legislation has been done for our county 
in the way of creating positions. 

Four Acts of the General Assembly are worthy 
of mention: One passed in 1824, relative to the 
management of poor affairs; another in 1848, rela- 
tive to the management of prison affairs; a third 
in 1869, relative to the election of an additional 
law judge; and a fourth in 1883, to the election 
of an Orphans' court judge. 

A marked change was introduced by the Consti- 
tution of 1873, enabling the minority party to elect 
officials. In Berks county this applied to county 
commissioners and county auditors. Theretofore, 
these officials in the county were almost entirely 
Democrats since their election in 1841. 

The first Republican commissioner and auditor 
tmder this provision were elected in 1875. And in 
1873, the Act of 1848 creating the board of prison 
inspectors was so amended as to enable the minor- 
ity party to elect three out of nine inspectors or an- 
nually one out of three. 

The Act of 1824, relating to the poor directors, 
which provides for the annual election of a director 
for three years, has not yet been amended to meet 
the spirit of the times and of the State Constitu- 

In 1867, when jury commissioners were author- 
ized to be elected, provision was made that each 
elector should vote for one person for this office, 
and the two persons having the highest vote should 
be the commissioners. This provision enabled the 
minority party in the county to elect one commis- 
sioner, and accordingly, the Republicans have elect- 
ed a jury commissioner since 1867. 


The office of representative to Congress of the 
United States was created by the Constitution of 
the United States which was adopted Sept. 17, 1787, 
and ratified by the Convention of Pennsylvania 
Dec. 12, 1787. The term of office was then made 
two years ; and so it has continued to the present 

Representatives were apportioned among the sev- 
eral States according to population, which was enu- 
merated within three years after the first meeting 
of Congress, and every ten years thereafter. 

The first apportionment by Congress gave Penn- 
sylvania eight representatives. These were appor- 
tioned by the State Legislature, March 16, 1791, 
to eight diFtricts. Berks, Northampton, and Lu- 
zerne counties were erected into one district, with 
one member. In 1793, the State was given thirteen 

members. These were apportioned by the State 
Legislature on April 22, 1794, when Berks and Lu- 
zerne counties were made the Fifth Congressional 
District for the next ten years, with one mem- 

In 1802, Berks, Chester, and Lancaster formed 
the Third District, with an apportionment of three 

In 1813, Berks and Schuylkill formed the Seventh 
District, with one member. 

In 1822, Berks, Schuylkill, and Lehigh formed the 
Seventh District, with two members. 

In 1832, Berks became a separate district, called 
the Ninth, with one member. 

In 1843, and every ten years successively until 
1887, Berks comprised the Eighth Congressional 
District, with one member. 

By the Act of May 19, 1887, in the apportionment 
of the State, Lehigh county was included with 
Berks county in the formation of the Ninth Dis- 
trict, and through delegates of the Republican and 
Democratic parties from the two counties, respec- 
tively, an agreement was entered into that Berks 
county should have the nominee for three consec- 
utive terms and Lehigh for two as long as they 
continued together. 

By the Act of July 11, .1901, in the apportion- 
ment of the State these two counties constituted 
the Thirteenth District. 

The following persons represented Berks county 
in Congress : 

Name Terra 

Daniel Hiester _^ 1789-97 

Joseph Hiester* 1797-1807 ; 1813-20 

Matthias Reichert 1807-11 

John M. Hynemant 1811-13 

Daniel Udree 1813-15 ; 1823-35 

Ludwig Wormant 1821-22 

William Adams 1835-29 

Henry A. Muhlenberg§ 1829-38 

George M. Keim 1838-43 

John Ritter 1843-47 

William Strong 1847-53 

J. Glancy Jones|| 1851-53 ; 1854-58 

Henry A. Muhlenberg, Jr.^ 1853-54 

William H. Keim 1858-59 

John Schwartz** 1859-60 

Jacob K. McKenty 1860-61 

Sydenham E. Ancona 1861-67 

* Joseph Hiester was elected Governor of Pennsylvania in Oct- 
ober, 1820, and resigned his seat in Congress Daniel Udree was 
elected in December, 1820, to succeed him for the unexpired term 
ending March 3, 1821. 

t John M. Hyneman was re-elected; but he resigned his seat, and 
Daniel Udree was elected to fill the vacancy for the unexpired term 
ending March 3, 1815. 

t Ludwig Worman died Oct. 17, 1822, whilst filling this office, 
and Udree was elected in December following to fill the unexpired 
term ending in March, 1823. 

§ Henry A. Muhlenberg resipmed his seat in February, 1838, and 
accepted the Mission to Austria as the first Minister. George M. 
Keim was elected in March, 1838; to fill the unexpired term ending 
March 3, 1839. 

II J. Glancy Jones resigned in October, 1858, and accepted Mis- 
sion to Austria. William H. Keim v;as elected on Nov. 30, 1858, te 
fill unexpired term ending March 3, dS^9. 

1 Henry A. Muhlenberg. Jr., died at Washington on Tarn. 9, 1854. 
He had appeared in Congress only a single day, when he was taken 
sick with typhoid fever, and thereafter was unable to resume his 

•"John Schwartz died in July, 1850, and Jacob K. McKenty 
was elected to fill unexpired term ending March i, 1861. 



J. Lawrence Getz 1867-73 

Hiester Clymer 1873-81 

Daniel Ermentrout 1881-S9 ; 1897-99' 

David B. Brunner 1889-93 

Coiistantine J. Erdman* 1333-97 

Henry D. Green 1899-1903 

Marcus D. Kline* 1903-1907 

John H. Rothermel 1907-1911 


Henry A. Muhlenberg, to Austria 183S-40 

J. Glancy Jones, to Austria 1858-61 


John Endlich. at Basle, Switzerland 

Henry JNIay Keim, at Prince Edward Island 


William Strong 

Samuel L. Young 1853-1901 

William J. Young 1901-05 

Henry Maltzberger 1905 


Harrison Maltzberger 1867-92 

Christian H. Ruhl 1898-1904 

Samuel E. Bertolet 1905 

The "Continental Congress" passed a resolution 
on May 15, 1776, calling upon the respective Assem- 
blies of the "United Colonies" "to adopt such gov- 
ernment as shall in the opinion of the representa- 
tives of the people best conduce to the happiness 
and safety of their constituents in particular and 
America in general." In pursuance thereof a Pro- 
vincial Conference was held in "Carpenter's Hall." 
at Philadelphia, on Tuesday, June 18, 1776. It was 
attended by representatives from all the counties of 
the province, then eleven in number. The repre- 
sentatives — or delegates, as they were called — from 
Berks county were: 

Jacob Morgan Benjamin Spyker Joseph Hiester 

Henry Haller Daniel Hunter Chas. Shoemaker 

Mark Bird Valentine Eckert 

Bodo ptto Nicholas Lutz 

This Conference decided that a Provincial Con- 
vention should be called to meet on Monday, July 
15, 1776, for the express purpose of "forming a new 
government in this province on the authority of 
the people only" ; fixed the qualifications of electors, 
the number of representatives from each county and 
the time of their election ; ordered an address to 
the people ; and agreed upon a "Declaration of In- 
dependence" of the province, the truthfulness, for- 
cibleness, and elegance of which are worthy all pos- 
sible praise and admiration. 

Accordingly, on July 15, 1776, the Convention 
assembled, composed of delegates from each coun- 
ty. The delegates from Berks county were: 

Jacob Morgan P.enjamin Spyker Chas. Shoemaker 

Gabriel Hiester Daniel Hunter Thomas Jones, Jr. 

John Lesher Valentine Eckert 

A constitution was agreed upon on Sept. 28, 
1776, comprising a Preamble, Declaration of 

*■' From Lehigh county. 

Rights and Frame of Government. The "Declara- 
tion of Rights" was reported by a committee of 
eleven, of which John Lesher from Berks was a 

By the 47th section of the "Frame of Govern- 
ment" a provision was made for the election of 
Censors in 1783 and every seventh year thereafter, 
who were "to inquire whether the Constitution was 
preserved inviolate in every part." The Censors 
elected in 1783 to represent Berks county were 
James Read and Baltzer Gehr. 

The General Assembly of the State met at Phil- 
adelphia on March 24, 1789. The representatives 
from Berks county were : 

Joseph Hiester 
Gabriel Hiester 

Joseph Sands 
John Ludwig 

Daniel Brodhead 

The Assembly decided that alterations and 
amendments to the Constitution of 1776 were nec- 
essary; and the Assembly met again on Sept. 15, 
1789. A resolution was reported by a committee 
of the whole Assembly which favored the calling 
of a convention to amend the Constitution, and 
it was adopted. 

Delegates were accordingly elected by each of 
the districts in the State, and those from Berks 
county were : 

Joseph Hiester Abraham Lincoln Balser Gehr 

Christian Lower 

Abraham Lincoln 
Paul Groscup 

The Convention assembled in the State House, 
at_ Philadelphia, on Nov. 24, 1789, and a New Con- 
stitution was agreed upon, all the delegates sub- 
scribing it on Sept. 2, 1790. It was soon afterward 
submitted to the people of the State by a special 
election, and adopted. 

This Constitution was continued as the general 
political law of the State until the adoption of a 
New Constitution in 1873. In the mean time ef- 
forts were made to improve it. An Act of Assem- 
bly was passed March 28, 1825, which provided 
for an election to be held at the next succeeding 
election to ascertain the opinion of the people rela- 
tive to the call of a Constitutional Convention, but 
they decided by ballot that such a convention should 
not _ be called. The vote in -Berks county was 
against it. 

In 1835 a convention was again recommended, 
and the people decided that it was necessary. The 
vote in Berks county was against it again. 
_ In 1837 a Convention was'duly assembled at Har- 
risburg and various amendments to the Constitu- 
tion were recommended, which were adopted at 
the regular election in October, 1838, The vote 
in Berks county was for them. The delegates at 
this Convention from Berks county were: 

John Ritter William High 

George M. Keim Mark Darrah 

James Donagan 

Subsequently, till 1873, various amendments 
were proposed by Acts of Assembly and adopted by 
elections of the people. 



An Act of Assembly was passed in 1871 which 
provided for the calling of a general convention to 
amend the Constitution of 1790. It was submitted 
to the people at the general election of October, 
1871, and ratified. The vote in Berks county was 
against the proposition. 
"Delegates were accordingly elected; the Conven- 
tion assembled — first at Harrisburg, then at Phil- 
adelphia; and the result of their labor was 
submitted to the people in 1873, and adopted. The 
vote in Berks county was favorable. The delegates 
from Berks county were: 

George G. BarclayHenry W. SmithHenry Van Reed 

Under the Provincial Constitution, and after- 
ward under the State Constitutions of 1776, 1790, 
and 1873, the officers named in the subsequent 
pages were elected and appointed. 


The following persons from Berks county held 
State offices: 

Charles Biddle, Supreme Executive Councillor, elected 
by the Legislature, 1784-87. 

Joseph Hiester, Governor, elected, 1820-23. 

Gabriel Hiester, Surveyor-General, appointed by the 
Governor, 1824-30. 

Frederick Smith, Supreme Associate Justice, appointed 
by the Governor, 1828-30. 

Jacob Sallade, Surveyor-General, appointed by the 
Governor, 1839-45. 

John Banks, State Treasurer, elected by the Legisla- 
ture, 1847. 

William Strong, Supreme Associate Justice, elected, 

William M. Hiester, Secretary of State, appointed by 
Governor, 1858-60. 

William H. Keim, Surveyor-General, elected, 1860-61. 

Warren J. Woodward, Supreme Associate Justice, 
elected, 1874-79. 

David McMurtrie Gregg, Auditor-General, elected, 1892- 


The office of State senator was created by the 
Constitution of 1790. The State was thereby ap- 
portioned into senatorial districts; and again in 
1793, and subsequently every seven years till the 
adoption of the New Constitution of 1873, where- 
by the apportionment was thereafter to be made 
on the decennial census of the United States. In 
the beginning, Berks and Dauphin counties com- 
prised a district with an allotment of two mem- 
bers; and they continued together till 1808, when 
Berks was erected into a separate district with two 
members. After the erection of Schuylkill county 
in 1811, it was added to Berks, and they together 
comprised a district with two members till 1836, 
when Berks was again erected into a district by 
itself with one member, and continued so from 
that time till now. The term' was four jjears from 
1790 to 1838 ; and three years thence to 1874, when 
the New Constitution fixed it at four years again. 

The members from Berks alone are mentioned : 

Name lerm 

Joseph Hiester 1790-94 

Gabriel Hiester 1795-96 ; 1805-12 

Christopher Lower 1797-1804 

John S. Hiester 1809-12 

Charles Shoemaker 1813-16 

Marks John Biddle 1817-20 

Conrad Feger 1821-24 

George Schall 1825-28 

Daniel A. Bertolet 1829-33 

Paul Geiger 1833-36 

John Miller 1837-40 

Samuel Fegely 1841-46 

John Potteiger 1847-49 

Henry A. Muhlenberg 1850-52 

\yilliam M. Hiester* 1853-55 

John C. Evans 1856-58 

Benjamin Nunnemacher 1859-60 

Hiester Clymer 1861-66 

J. Depuy Davis 1867-73 

Daniel Ermentrout 1874-80 

Edward H. Shearer 1881-84 

Frank R. Brunner 1885-88 

Henry D. Green 1889-96 

W. Oscar Miller - 1897-1900 

Edward M. Herbstf 1901-1908 


The office of assemblyman was first created by 
William Penn in establishing a government for 
the province; and representatives thereto, from the 
several counties as they were erected, were elected 
annually till the Declaration of Independence and 
the adoption of a Constitution by the State in 1776. 
It was continued by this Constitution, and afterward 
by that of 1790, whereby members to the Assembly 
were elected annually till the adoption of the New 
Constitution of 1873. Then the term was increased 
to two years. In all these years — from 1752 to the 
present time — Berks county was a separate dis- 
trict, excepting after the erection of Schuylkill 
county out of portions of Berks and Northalmp- 
ton, when it was added to Berks, and continued so 
for a period of eighteen years — from 1811 to 1839. 

The number of representatives from Berks was 
as. follows: 

1752-71 1 

1772-76 2 

1777-81 4 

1782-86 6 

1787-1829 5 

1830-57 .' 4 

1858-74 3 

In 1874 six members were apportioned to Berks, 
to so continue until an apportionment be duly made 
on next census of United States (1880) — namely, 
to the city of Reading two members, and to the 
county of Berks four. 

By the Act of May 12, 1887, in the apportion- 
ment of the State for representatives, the county 
of Berks became entitled to five members — ^the 
city of Reading as the First District to elect two 
members, and all the county outside of Reading 

* William M. Hiester was elected and served as Speaker of the 
Senate for year 1855. 

t Re-elected in November, 1908. 



as the Second District to elect three members ; 
which has continued unchanged. 

The representatives from the county were as fol- 
lows : 

Name Term 

Moses Starr , 1752-54 

Francis Parvin 1755 

Thomas Yorke 1756-57 

James Boone 1758 

John Potts 1759-161 

John Ross 1763-64 

Adam Witman 1765-66 

Edward Biddle* 1767-81 

Henry Christ 1771-81 

Valentine Eckert 1776-79 

Henry Haller 1776-81 

John Lesher 1776-81 

Jonathan Jones 1779-80 

John Hiester 1782 

Gabriel Hiester 1783 ; 1787-89 ; 1791 ; 1802-04 

Baltzer Gehr 1782; 1786; 1792-99 

Daniel Hunter 1783 

Benjamin Weiser 1782 

Joel Bishop 1782-84 

Daniel Clymer 1783-84; 1787; 1791 

Chris. Lower 1783-85 ; 1793-94 ; 1796 

Abraham Lincoln 1783-86 

John Ludwig 1783 ; 1783 ; 1790-92 

John Patton 1783 

George Ege 1783 

Nicholas Lotz 1784-86 ; 1790-94 

John Rice 1784 

Henry Spyker 1785-86 

David Davis 1785-88 

Martin Rhoads 1785 

Philip Kraemer 1783-87 

Joseph Hiester 1787-90 

Charles Biddle 1788 

Joseph Sands 1788-90 

Daniel Brodhead 1789 

Daniel Leinbach 1790 

James Collins 1791 

C. Shoemaker .' 1792-1801; 1810; 1812 

Paul Groscup 1793-98 

John Christ 1795-96 

John Spayd 1795-1810 

Peter Frailey 1797-1801 ; 1810 ; 1813 

William Lewis 1797-98 

D. Rose 1799-1804; 1806-08; 1811-12 

Daniel Udree 1799-1803 ; 1805 

William Witman 1800-05 

Frederick Smith 1802-03 

Isaac Adams 1804-p5 

Jacob Rhoads 1804-05 ; 1809 

Jacob Epler 1805 ; 1816 

Elias Redcay 1806-07 

Valentine Probst 1806-08 

Jacob Schaeffer 1806-08 

John Bishop 1 806 

Daniel Yoder 1807-08 

Bernard Kepner 1808 

Jacob Schneider 1809 

David Kerby 1809-3 2; 1815; 1817 

John M. Hyneman 1809 

James McFarland 1809 

Adam Ruth 1810-11 

Conrad Feger 1811-14 

John Miller ; 1813 ; 1815 

Jacob Krebs 1813-14 

John Adams 1813-14 

Jacob Sassaman 1813 

George Marx 1814 

Tonnthan Hudson 1814 

Daniel Kerper 1815 

* In 1774 Edward Biddle was Spealcer of the Assembly. 

Name Term 

Daniel Rhoads, Jr 1815-17 ; 1832 

Jacob Dreibelbis 1815 

Christian Haldeman 1816 

D. Hottenstein 1816 ; 1832-24 ; 1837 

William Schoener 1817 

Godfried Roehrer 1817; 1820; 1823 

Michael Graeff 1817-19 

Joseph Good 1818-19 

Jacob Levan 1818-19 

Elisha Geiger 1818 

Jacob Griesemer 1818-19 

John Neikerch 1819; 1822 

John Kohler 1820 

Abraham Mengel 1830 

John W. Roseberry 1830 

George Gernant 1830-21 

Samuel Jones 1821 

Joseph Good 1821 

Jacob Rahn 1821 

Jacob Schneider 1831 

William Adams 1832-24 

John Gehr 1823-23 

William Audenried 1823-34 

Henry Boyer 1824-27 ; 1832 

James Everhard 1824-26 

George Rahn 1825; 1827-28 

Jacob Gehr 1825-26 

Geo. M. Odenheimer 1825 

Daniel A. Bertolette 1836-28 

Michael Graeff 1826 

Philip A. Good 1827-29 

Mordecai Lewis 1828 

John Stauffer 1839-31 

Thos. J. Roehrer 1829-30 

George Klein 1829 

Paul Geiger 1829-31 

John Wanner 1830-32 

John Potteiger '. . . 1831-34 ; 1842-44 

William High 1833 

Peter Klein, Jr 1833-34 

Benjamin Tyson 1833 

Jacob M. Snyder 1833-34 

Adam Schoener 1834 ; 1839-40 

William Hottenstein 1835-36 

Lewis W. Richards 1835 

John Ulrich 1835-36 

John Jackson 1835-37 

John Sheelz 1836-37 

Michael K. Boyer ' 1837 

S. Fegely 1837-39; 1848 ; 1849;' 1851 

Jacob Walborn 1838-39 

Abraham Hill 1838-39 

James Geiger i838 

Henry Flannery 1840-41 

Peter Filbert 1840 

Daniel B. Kutz 1840-41 

Robert M. Barr .......1841 

Samuel Moore 1841-43 

John Shenk ' 1843-43 

Joseph Bachman 1842-43 

Henry W. Smith 1844-45 

Joh" ,C- Evans .'.'.■.■.■ '{gU ;' ' 1850-52 

Alfred J. Herman ^844 

Jacob Tice '.'.".'.■.■.■.■.■. '.1845-46 

Michael Hoftman 1845-46 ■ 18.37 

Henry G Stetler .'.'.'.'.'.'.'1845-46 ;' 1848 

Charles Levan 1846-47 

John Long 1847-48 

John C. M\ers 1847-49 

Jacob Graeff .... 1847 

William Shaffner ' . . i849-.")0 

Daniel Z^rbey '..'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'l'8'49'-50 ; 1853 

Alex S. Feather 1850-51 

Jacob Rcifsnvder IS'il-S'"" 

Isaac Yost ' ','.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 1852-53 

George Dengler 1852-53 



Name Term 

Jacob Wicklein 1853-54 

John B. Smith 1854 

George Shenk 1854-56 

Dan'l V. R. Hunter 1854 

Jeremiah Mengel 1855 

John F. Linderman 1855 

Samuel Shearer 1855 

Andrew M. Sallade 1855 

J. Lawrence Getz* 1856-57 

William Heins 1856-57 

Benj. Nunnemacher 1856-58 

Michael Hoffman 1857 

Edmund L. Smith 1858-59 

Amos Weiler 1858 

Solomon L. Custer 1859-60 

Augustus F. Bertolet : . . . 1859 

Joshua S. Miller 1860 

Elijah Penn Smith 1860-61 

Michael P. Beyer 1861 

Henry B. Rhoads 1861 ; 1865-67 

Charles A. Kline 1862-64 

Daniel K. Weidner 1852-63 

William N. Potteiger 1863-64 

John P. Missimer 1864-66 

Frederick Harner 1865-67 

Richmond L. Jones 1867-68 

Henry S. Hottenstein 1848-69 

Henry Brobst 1868-70 

Aaron T. C Keffer 1870-72 

Hiram H. Schwartz 1870-72 

John A. Conrad 1871-73 

Benjamin E. Dry 1873-76 

Michael McCuUough 1873-74 

Aaron Smith 1874-76 

Daniel L. Batdorf 1875 

Nicholos Andre 1875-78 

Joseph B. Conrad • 1876-78 

George D. Schaeffer : . . . .1877-80 

Stephen J. Smith 1877-80 

James Liggett 1879-82 

John H. Riegel 1879-82 

C. A. Seidel 1881-84 

George K. Lorah 1881-84 

Isaac Z. Deck .1883-86 

James W. Sponagle 1883-86 

Benjamin C. Baer 1884-88 

L. P. G. Fegley 1884-88 

N. S. Kauffman 1887-90 

John E. Pautsch 1887-90 

Cyrus W. Kutz 1889-92 

Samuel B. Keppel 1891-94 

F. Leonard Reber 1891-94 

Jacob G. Herzog .M893-96 

Cyrus J. Rhode ■ 1815-98 

Jacob M. Weible 1895-98 

Charles B. Spatz 1897-1900 

Frank H. Naftzinger ; 1899-1903 

Lot W. Reiff 1899-1902 

Elmer E. Squibb 1901-04 

Francis W. Balthaser 1903-06 

Thomas R. Houck 1903-06 

Jacob A. Le.<!her ' 1905-06 

Howard G. McGowan 1907-08 

Irwin M. Sharman 1907-10 

David H. G. Kuser 1907-10 

Alvin K. Lesher 1909-10 


Commissioners. — The board of county commis- 
sioners comprises three members. Previous to 
1875, one was elected annually for three years. The 
Constitution of 1873 provided for the election of 

* Speaker of House in 1857, 

the three commissioners in 1875 and every third 
year thereafter. 

The board of county auditors also comprises 
three members. Previous to 1809 they were ap- 
pointed by the county judges. An Act was passed 
March 16, 1809, providing for the annual election 
thereafter of three auditors. In 1814, this pro- 
vision was modified so that a new auditor was in- 
troduced into the board annually thereafter. This 
practice prevailed until the Constitution of 1873, 
which provided for the election of three auditors 
in 1875 and every third year thereafter. 

In respect to both commissioners and auditors, 
"each qualified elector shall vote for no more than 
two persons, and the three persons having the 
highest number of votes shall be elected." This 
was a marked departure from the old system, by 
which all of one political party were elected. It en- 
abled the opposite party to. elect one member. 
Since 1875, these officers have been elected — two 
by the Democrats and one by the Republicans. 


Name Term 

Evan Price 1752-53 

Edward Drury 1752-56 

John Godfrey 1752-61 

Jacob Lightfoot 1753-56 ; 1759-62 

Thomas Rutter 1756-59 

William Reeser 1757-60 

Samuel High V . . 1760-63 ; 1773-76 

Christian Witraan 1761-64 

John Hughes 1762-65 

Fred'k Weiser 1763-66 

Richard Lewis 1764r67 

Isaac Levan 1765-68 

Nicholas Harmony 1766-69 

Christian Merkel 1767-70 

Jacob Snyder 1769-71 

John Jones 1769-73 

Henry Rightmeyer 1770-73 

Davis Brecht 1771-74 

Abraham Lincoln 1772-78 

Michael Brecht 1774-77 

Christian Lower .' 1776-79 

John Kerlin .' 1777-80 

Adam Witman 1778-81 ; 1784-87 

Thomas Jones 1779-82 ; 1783-86 

Thomas Parry 1780-83 

Daniel Messersmith 1781-84 

Michael Forry 1782-85 

Conrad Eckert 1785-91 

Daniel Leinbach 1786-89 

John Keim 1787-90 

Jacob Boyer 1789-92 

Jacob Bower 1790-9$ 

John Riegel 1791-94 

George Lorah 1792-95. 

Philip Miller 1793-9S 

Peter Kershner 1794-9T 

William Witman 1795-9S 

Nicholas Dick 1796-99> 

Isaac Addams 1797-1800 

Jacob Rhoads 1798-1801 

Peter Feather 1799-1802 

Jacob Epler 1800-03 

Casper Merkel 1801-04 

Tohn Cunnius 1802-05 

Daniel Yoder 1803-06 

Adam Ruth 1804-OT 



Name Term 

Henry Hahn 1305-08 

Henry Hottenstein 1806-09 

Nicholas Leib 1807-10 

Jacob Miller 1808-11 

Valentine Boyer .' 1809-12 

Daniel Ruth 1810-13 

George Boyer 1811-14 

Jacob Gehr 1813-15 

William Addams i 813-16 

George Shreffler 1814-17 

Daniel Levan 1815-18 

William High 1816-19 

Peter Stichter 1817-30 

George N. Lechner 1818-21 

Peter Knabb 1819-23 

David Bright 1830-33 

George Kemp 1821-24 

Fred'k Stamm 1822-35 

Henry Reescr 1823-26 

John Wanner 1824-27 

John Potteiger 1823-28 

John Hahn 1826-39 

Stanley Kirby 1837-30 

George Gernant 1828-31 

Anthony Bickel 3829-33 

Daniel K. Hottenstein 1830-33 

John Filbert 1831-34 

Jacob Goodman 1833-35 

Daniel Snyder 1833-36 

John Deysher 1834-37 

John Y. Cunnius 1835-38 

John Seibert 1836-39 

David Kutz 1837-40 

Michael Reifsnyder 1838-41 

George Weiler 1839-42 

John Long.' 1840-43 

William Arnold 1841-44 

John Sharraan 1842-45 

Adam Leize 1843-46 

Fred'k Printz 1844-47 

Michael Gery 1845-48 

David Yoder 1846-49 

Charles Fichthorn 1847-50 

Conrad Clonse 1848-51 

Thomas Shaner 1849-52 

Joseph A. Schneider 1850-53 

John McGowan 1851-54 

Benjamin Kutz 1852-55 

Jacob Young 1853-56 

Gabriel Filbert 1854-57 

William Knabb 1855-58 

Samuel Summons 1856-59 

D. L. Wenrich 1857-60 ; 1863-66 

William Miller 1858-61 

John F. Moers 1859-62 

Paul Wenrich, Sr 1860-63 

J. Donahower 1861 

George K. Lorah 1861-64 

H. R. Hawman 1862-65 

Adam Stein ; 1864-67 

Wm. S. Young 1865-71 ; 1879-81 

Jacob Schartel .1866-69 

Benjamin Levan .1867-70 

John L. Moyer 1869-73 

William Rahn 1810-73 

Joseph Muthart* 1871-74 

David Lord 1872-75 

Henry Seidel 1873-74 

William Fry 1873-75 

William Umbenhauer 1874-75 

Henry W. Smith 1876-78 

William Davidheiser 1876-78 

William G. Moore 1876-78 

John Walborn 1879-81 

* Muthart died in April, 1873, and Seidel was appointed to fill 
-vacancy for unexpired term. 

Name Term 

Jeremiah R. Guldin 1879-81 

Samuel G. Hatfield 1883-84 

Peter Spang 1883-84 

David C. Keller 1883-84 

John L. Wagner 1885-87 

Samuel K. Fisher 1885-87 

David C. Keller 1885-87 

Samuel G. Herbine 1888-90 

Cyrus Levan 1888-90 

Samuel R. Deppen 1888-90 

Cyrus W. Kauffman 1891-93 

Jacob H. Reeser 1891-93 

Franklin Seidel 1891-93 

Jeremiah Hartman 1894-96 

Henry Stoyer 1894-96 

John Wunch* 1894-96 

George K. Linderman 1896-99 

Wesley K. Loose 1897-99 

Charles E. Stangier 1897-99 

Alfred Gunkel 1900-02 

Frank H. Moyer 1900-03 

John W. Slipp 1900-03 

Harry L. Johnson 1903-05 

Jacob Miller 1903-05 

Oliver H. Sanders 1903-0.5 

James M. Yerger 1906-08 

James F. Fisher 1906-08 

Chester B. Cleaver 1906-08 

Jacob M. Bordner 1909-11 

Augustus R. Anderson 1909-11 

Eugene L Sandt 1909-11 



Thomas Lightfoot 1797-98 ; 1803-05 

William Moore 1797-1800 ; 1803-08 

John Bishop 1797-98 

Paul Groscup ['_[[ iygg-isoo 

Ja^ob Bower 1799-1800 

Wilham Green 1801-03 

William Bell '.'.'. '.'.1801-03'; '1806-08 

George De B. Keim 1801-02 ; 1809 

James May 1803-05 

Johri VVitman 1806-08 

Lewis Reeser jggg 

Fred'k Frick !lS09 

John Bieber . 1810 

George Boyer ..............'.'.'. 1810-11 

Daniel Yoder ^gj^g 

Christopher Shearer . ,isil ; 1817-19 

John S. Hiester ' -^^i^ 

§f°r°^ J;"'"'''' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.v. . .1812 

Philip Moyer jg-[2 

John Adam's jg]^2 

Henry M Richards .".'.■.'.'.';;".'.'.'.'.'. '. '. '. '. '. '. i8i3-16 

William Addams 1813-14 

Peter Trexler 135^3 

Abraham Mengei '".'.'. '.'.".■.;;;;;;;;;;;;i8i4-i7 

Wilhani High i8i5_i8 . 1835.33 

l^l"'- H'gh 1817-20 

Peter Sheetz ig^ 

George Getz 1819-32 

Jacob Dick 1820-33 

Geo. U. Odenheimer !!!!!! 1821-34 

Jacob Schneider j^goo o j 

Peter Adams ■'.I'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.V.'. 1823-26 

Henry S. Klein -^^04. 07 

P-'iJ^h Dechert V^ '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'. '.Ash'-28 

I otin 6. Pearson 1826-29 

John Beitenman '/_ 18''7-30 * 

Simon Seyfert .'.'.'.".".'.'.'.'.";."!!!; !lS28-31 

J ohn Jackson 1829-32 

T ' •^°i"\ ™ ^'^'^ ''»^'"g died, George K. Linderman was appointed 
.Tunc 0, ] SflS, to serve unexpired term. 



Name. Term 

John Seltzer 1830-33 

John M. Keim. . .' 1831-34 

Daniel V. R. Hunter 1832; 1839-43 

Thomas Wanner 1833-35 

Jacob Klein 1833-36 

Jacob Fricker 1834-37 

Daniel Young 1836-39 

William Wunder 1837-39 

John L. Rightmyer 1838-41 

H. H. Muhlenberg ■ 1839-40 

John F. Moers 1840-43 ; 1852-58 

Jacob K. Boyer 1841-44 

David Schall 1842-45 

John L. Reifsnyder 1843-46 

Chas. H. Adams 1844-50 

Jacob Dick 1845-48 

Michael Kraemer 1846-49 ; 1864-67 

Paul Geiger 1848-51 

John Y. Cunnius 1849-53 

Charles J. Cummens 1850-56 

Daniel Laucks 1851-54 

Reuben R, Kline 1854-57 

Samuel M. Klee 1856-63 

Amos K. Strunck 1857-60 

Heriry F. Felix 1858-61 

William Steffe 1860-63 

Joseph S. Hoyer 1861-64 

Ezra D. Yorgey 1863-65 

Andrew Kurr ; 1863-69 

John G. Glase 1865-68 

James Bell 1867-70 

Peter S. Albright 1868-71 

William Y. Shearer 1869-73 

Daniel G. Knabb 1870-75 

Henry H. Dubson 1871-74 

Harrison M: Reber 1873-75 ; 1876-78 

Wm. H. Sallade 1875 ; 1876-78 

Henry Z. Van Reed 1876-78 

Jacob D. Hoffman 1879-81 

Charles S. Tobias 1879-81 

William H. Clark 1879-81 

Isaac S. Bagenstose 1883-84 

Jacob S. Yoder 1883-84 

James M. High 1882-84 

Morris H. Boyer 1885-87 

Jared B. Kramer 1885-87 ; 1888-90 

Allen B. Aulenbach 1885-87 

Franklin G. Krick 1888-93 

Reuben Rhoads 1888-90 

Howard Spatz 1891-96 

George F. Schock 1891-93 

Nathan D. Trexler 1894-96 

Edwin H. Weller 1894-99 

Henry M. DeTurk 1897-1901 

Peter Hartman 1897-1901 

Charles B. Reis 1900-01 

Controllers. — The Act of June 27, 1895, pro- 
vided that counties of the State having 150,000 
population shall elect a controller to take the place 
of county auditors, and it appearing by the United 
States census of 1900 that Berks county had a pop- 
ulation in excess of 150,000, the Governor, on May 
33, 1901, appointed Joseph N. Shomo as controller 
to serve until Jan. 6, 1903, when an incumbent duly 
elected would be qualified to fill the office. 


Name Term 

Joseph N. Shomo 1901 

John F. Ancona 1902-04 

Horace F. Livingood 1905-07 

Ambrose L. Rhoads 1908-10 

Treasurers. — Previous to 1841 the county treas- 
urer was appointed annually by the county com- 
missioners. On May 37, 1841, an Act was passed 
providing for the election of this officer in October 
following and every two years thereafter. The 
Constitution of 1873 increased the term to three 
years after 1875. 

Name Terra 

Jonas Seely 1752-68 

Christopher Witraan 1768-79 

Daniel Levan 1779-89 

Daniel Messersmith 1789-1807; 1809-11; 1814-17 

John K. Messersmith 1807-09 ; 1811-14 ; 1817-30 

Daniel Rhoads 1820-23 

David Bright : 1823-35 

Peter Nagle 1835-43 

Henry Nagle 1843-45 

William Arnold 1845-47 

Henry Hahs .' 1847-49 

Adam Leize 1849-51 

William Ermentrout • 1851-53 

Charles Van Reed • 1853-55 

George Feather '. 1855-59 

David Plank 1859-61 

William Herbst 1861-63 

John Kurtz 1863-65 

Isaac R. Fisher 1865-67 

Charles 'H. Fritz 1867-69 

Samuel Merkel 1869-71 

Abraham Y.Yoder 1871-73 

Hiester M. Nagle 1873-75 

Abraham H. Schaeffer 1876-78 

Adam M. Dundore 1879-81 

John Kerschner 1883-84 

John S. Holtzman 1885-87 

David W. Mogel 1888-90 

Isaac F. March 1891-93 

Amendon Bright 1894-96 

Cosmos D. Kutz 1897-99 

Alfred K. Rentschler 1900-03 

Edwin G. Ruth 1903-05 

Henry H. Fry 1905-08 

William M. Croll 1909-11 

Sheriffs. — The Duke of Yorke's laws (intro- 
duced into Pennsylvania Sept. 33, 1676) provided 
for the nomination, by the justices of the county, of 
three persons within their jurisdiction, out of which 
the Governor should make choice of one to be sher- 
iff for the year ensuing. By virtue of his office the 
sheriff was then a justice of the peace. 

In the Frame of Government, prepared by Wil- 
Ham Penn for the province in 1683, it was provided 
that the freemen of the counties should annually 
elect and present to the Governor a double number 
of persons to serve for sheriff, justices, and coroner 
for the year next ensuing, out of which the Gov- 
ernor should nominate and commission the proper 
number for each office. After the erection of the 
county, the first appointments of sheriff and cor- 
oner were made Oct. 4, 1753. 

The Constitution of 1790 provided for a similar 
election and appointment of sheriff and coroner; 
but the term of service was increased to three years, 
and no person was to be twice appointed sheriff in 
any term of six years. The Constitution of 1838 
provided that one person for said offices respective- 



ly should be elected by the people for the term of 
three vears. And these oflSces have thence been so 
filled. ' 


Xame Term 

Benjamin Liglitfoot 1752-54 

William Boone 1735-56 

Thomas Lincoln 1757-58 

Jacob Weaver 1759-60 ; 1763-64 

Henry Christ 1761-62 

Jasper Scull 1765-67 

Jacob Shoemaker 1768-70 

George Nagle 1771-73 

Henry Vanderslice 1774-76 

Daniel Levan 1777-79 

Henry Hoffa 1780-81 

Philip Kraemer 1782-84 ; 1791-93 

Peter Filbert 1785-87 

Jacob Bower 1788-90 

Peter Frailey 1794-96 

John Christ 1797-99 

Nicholas Dick 1800-02 

John Spycker 1803-05 

Conrad Feger 1806-08 

George Marx • 1809-11 

Daniel Kerper 1812-14 ; 1824-26 

Peter Aurand 1815-17 

John Miller 1818-20 

Henry Eetz 1821-23 

John Bickel 1827-29 

James Sillyman 1830-32 

Henry Bowman 1833-35 

George Fox 1836-38 

Henry Binkley 1838-41 

Daniel Esterley 1841-44 

George Gernant 1844-47 

John S. Schroeder 1847-50 

John Potteiger 18oO-3:-i 

John Manderbach 1853-56 

Henry H. Manderbach 1856-59 

Jeremiah D. Bitting . 1859-62 

Abraham R. Koenig 1862-65 

Tobias Earto 1865-68 

William B. Albright 1868-71 

Evan Mishler 1871-74 

George R. Yorgey 1873-77 

Alfred C. Kemp 1878-80 

Levi M. Gerhart 1881-83 

George D. Boyer 1884-86 

George B. Schaeffer 1887-89 

Elias Becker 1890-92 

George D. Fahrenbach 1893-95 

Frank H. Schmeck 1896-98 

Frank Brobst 1899-1901 

Albert F. Mogel 1902-04 

Jacob H. Sassaman 1905-07 

John C. Bradley 1908-10 

Name Term 

William Boone 1752-54 

Benjamin Parvin 1755 — 

Tohn Warren 1759 

Tacob Kern 1760-61 

Adam Witman 1762 

Samuel Weiser 1763-65 

Christopher Witman 1766 

Henry Haller 1767 

Jas. Whitehead, Jr 1768-69 ; 1779-80 

Samuel Jackson 1770 

Isaac Levan, Jr 1771-72 

Peter Brecht 1773-75 

Philip Kreamer 1776-78 

Name Term 

Peter Nagle 1781-87 

Peter Feather 1788-93 

Thomas Wildbahn 1794-99' 

Peter Aurand 1800-02 

Daniel Kerper 1803-05 

Henry Rieser 1806-11 

J. Christian 1812-14 

Samuel Feather 1815-17; 1831-29 

Samuel Ritter 1818-20 

Adam Reitmyer 1830-32 

John Hahn 1833-34 

John Fox 1835-37 ; 1859-64 ; 18 j8-7& 

William Stable 1838-49 

John H. Seltzer 1850-52 

William Keen 1853-5& 

Henry Palm 1865-67 

Geo. S. Goodhart 1877-79 

William H. Kellv ]88%82 

Henry D. Schoedler 1883-85. 

Frank H. Denhard 1886-8a 

Dr John G. Hoffman 1889-91 

Dr. Frank J. Kantner 1892-94 

John C. Griesemer 1895-97 

Dr. Wilson H. Rothermel 1898-1900 

Reuben E. Moyer 1901-03 

Dr. Albert N. Seidel 1904-06 

Dr. Robert E. Strasser 1907-09' 

Prothonotaries, Recorders, Registers, Clerks 
OF Orphans' Court, and Clerks of Quarter Ses- 
sions. — The offices of prothonotary, recorder, regis- 
ter, clerk of Orphans' court, and clerk of Quarter 
Sessions were created with the county courts. Imme- 
diately after the erectioii of Berks county, they 
were established at the county-town, and filled by 
appointment of the Governor. The Amended Con- 
stitution of 1838 changed the manner of filling the 
offices named from appointment by the Governor 
to election by the people ; and the Act of July 2, 
1839, fixed the term of office at three years. The 
first officers were elected in October, 1830. No 
change has been made since. From that time, the 
terms of the officers began on the 1st day of De- 
cember following their election till the adoption of 
the New Constitution, when the time was changed 
to the first Monday of January following their elec- 
tion. This change included also the other county 

Name Terii 

James Read 1752-75 ; 1777 

Thomas Dundas 1776 

Jacob Shoemaker 1778 

Daniel Levan 1779-89 ; 1791 

John Otto 1790 

George Eckert 1792-1800 

John S. Hiester 1801-08' 

Gabriel Hiester, Jr 1809-17 

Samuel D. Franks 181S- 

John Adams 1819-20; 1824-26; 1830-35 

Marks John Biddle 1821-23 

Jacob Sallade 1827-29 

Alex. H. Witman 1836-3S 

Benj. Tyson 1839-42 

Daniel Young 1842-45 

Peter Strohecker 1845-48 

Michael K. Boyer 1848-51 

Cbarles H. Hunter 1851-54 

Josiah Hearing 1854-57 

David Fister ; 1857-60 

Adam W. Kauffman 1860-63- 

Jonathan L. Reber 1863-6S 



Name Term 

Wellington B. Griesemer 1866-69 

George K. Levan 1869-72 

Ephraim Armstrong 1872-75 

Charles F. RentschJer .' . 1876-78 

Amos Weiler " 1879-81 

William D. Althouse 1882-84 

Levi F. Dietrich 1885-87 

Daniel H. Schweyer 1888-90 

Joshua R. Burkey , 1891-93 ; 1894 

William H. B. Schoenly* ; . 1894 

■Oliver J. Wolflf '. 1895-97 

Daniel R. Schmeck 1898-1900 

John G. Rhoads 1901-03 

Edward J. Morris 1904-06 

Eldridge Zimmerman 1907-09 

^ Name Term 

James Read 1752-76 

Henry Christ 1777-89 

John Christ 1790-91 

Jacob Bower 1792-99 

Peter Frailey 1800-08 

Jacob Schneider 1809-17 

John Adams 1818 

Daniel Rhoads 1819-20 

John Miller 1831-23; 1830-35 

John Fred'k Smith 1824-29 

Joseph AUgaier 1836.-38 

John Green 1839 

William Wunder 1839-42 

Henry H. Maurer 1842-45 

John W. Tyson 1845-48 

Israel R. Laucks 1848-51 

John Bush 1851-54 

Hiram S. Getz 1854-57 

Nicholas Heckman 1857-60 

Charles N. Keller 1860-63 

Isaac Laucks 1863-66 

Henry Reider 1866-69 

Daniel Hummel 1869-72 

Charles Hill 1872-75 

Jefferson M. Keller 1876-78 

William Zimmerman 1879-81 

Isaac M. Bechtel 1882-84 

W. Benton Stolz 1885-87 

James F. Dumn 1888-90 

Simpson Becker 1891-93 

Isaac W. Keimf 1894 

Amos F. Dumn 1894 

James W. Sponagle 1895-97 

Daniel H. Rieser 1898-1900 

Frank F. Bressler 1901-03 

Henry H. Holzm'an 1904-06 

Jeremiah A. Bausher .' 1907-09 

Name Term 

James Read 1752-74 

Collinson Read 1775-76 

Henry Christ 1777-89 

John Christ 1790-91 

Jacob Bower 1793-99 

Peter Frailey 1800-08 

Jacob Schneider 1809-17 

Daniel Rhoads ». 1818-20 ; 1824-29 

Peter Aurand 1821-23 

George Smith. . . ? 1830-35 

William Zieber 1836-38 

Joel Ritter 1839-43 

John Green 1842-45 

Isaac Ely 1845-48 

Joseph Rittej- 1848-51 

Jacob Snell 1851-54 

Daniel Buskirk 1854-57 

* Died on March 11. 1894, and the Deputy Joshua R. Burkey 
was appointed to fill office until first Monday of January, 1895. 
tDied April 17, 1894. 

Name Term 

Tobias Barto 1857-60 

Benjamin E. Dry 1860-63 

Michael S. Thirwechter 1863-66 

J. Daniel Wanner 1866-69 

Hiram S. Getz 1869-72 

Henry C. Croll 1872-75 

Peter Y. Edelman 1876-78 

Solomon S. Kindt. 1879-81 

Jonas M. ShoUenberger 1883-84 

Ammon S. Strunk 1885-87 

Albert H. Fegely 1888-90 

Henry D. Strunk 1891-93 

William H. Schaffner 1894-96 

George B. Miller 1897-99 

Levi S. Mabry 1900-03 

William R. Kemmerer 1903-05 

Wilson M. Dumn 1906-08 

George R. Gregory 1909-11 

Name Term 

James Read ; 1752-76 

Henry Christ 1777-88 

James Scull ; . . . 1789-91 

Jacob Bower 1793-99 

Peter Frailey 1800-09 

John M. Hyneman 1810-15 

John Adams 1816-17 

William Schoener 1818-23 

Matthias S. Richards 1833 

Jacob Sallade 1824-36 ; 1830-31 

Nathaniel P. Hobert 1827-39 

Jacob Marshall 1832-35 

Henry Rhoads 1836-38 

WiUiam H. Miller 1839-41 

James Donagan 1843 

William Shearer 1843-45 

Zacharias H. Maurer 1845-48 

William W. Diehl 1848-51 

Charles J. Wink 1851-54 

Daniel Potteiger 1854-57 

Ephraim Fritz 1857-60 

Daniel Hahn ' 1860-63 

Solomon Close 1863-66 

Levi H. Liess : 1866-69 

Mahlon F. Wolff 1869-72 

Isaac K. Knoll 1872-75 

Charles M. Clouse 1876-78 

Ephraim Dunkle 1879-81 

William H. Gilmer* 1882-83 

T '^ame ■ Term 

James Read 1752-76 

James Whitehead 1777-78 

Henry Christ 1779 

Daniel Levan 1780-91 

George Eckert 1792-99 

John S. Hiester 1800-08 

Gabriel HieSter, Jr 1809-12; 1814-17 

John M. Hyneman 1813 

Samuel D. Franks igig 

John Adams 1819-20 

Henry M. Richards 1821-22 

Jacob Marshall 1823 

Jacob Sallade . , ' 1834-36 

Nathaniel P. Hobert ■ 1827-29 

Philip A. Good 1830-33 

William Schoener 1833-35 

Charles Troxell , . . 1836-38 

William H. Miller ; 1339 

Samuel Myers 1839-42 

John L. Rightmyer 1843-51 

Zacharias H. Maurer 1851-54 

Edwin H. Brockway 1854-57 

Joseph S. Hoyer .1857-60 

* Upon the establishment of a separate Orphans' Court in 1883, 
this officer was discontinued, and the Register became the Clerk 
as provided by law. ' 



Name Term 

James Bell 1860-63 

Francis Roland 1863-66 

Levi M. Gerhart 1866-69 

Adam H. Sailor : 1869-72 

Jacob H. Hain 1872-75 

Mahlon A. Sellers 1876-78 

Enoch S. Matthias 1879-81 

Isaac Eckert 1882-84 

Morris H. Shaeffer 1885-87 

Henry G. Heinly 1888-90 

William H. Sallade 1891-93 

Henry H. Hell* 1894-95 

Edwin T. Brown 1895 

Harry J. Dumn 1896-98 

Daniel A. Bausher 1899-1901 

Jacob B. Esser 1902-04 

Peter S. HoU 1905-07 

Samuel T. Bordner 1908-10 

District Attorneys. — The office of district at- 
torney was created by Act of May 3, 1850, and 
made elective, with a term of three years. Prev- 
iously, the Attorne3'-General of the State appointed 
an attorney in the several counties to represent the 
Commonwealth in the prosecution of criminal cases. 

The Act of 1850 required a residence of one year 
in the county and a practice of two years at the bar. 
The latter was reduced to one year by the Act of 
1852, hut increased again to two years bv the Act 
of April 26, 1883. 

Name Term 

Jacob Hubley 1789-1817 

Frederick Smith 1818-20 ; 1824-27 

Charles Richards 1821 

Daniel J. Hiester 1822-23 

Joseph H. Spayd 1828-29 

Joseph D, Biles 1830-31 

Alexander L. King 1832-35 

George G. Barclay 1836-38 

J. Pringle Jones .' 1839-46 

Peter Filbert 1847-48 

John S. Richards 1849-50 

Jeremiah Hageman 1850-56 

Jacob K. McKenty 18.i6-59 

James B. Bechtel 1859-02 

Daniel Ermentroiit 1862-65 

Wharton Morris 1865-68 

Edward H. Shearer 1868-71 

Peter D. Wanner 1871-74 

Henrv C. G. Reber 1875-77 

William M. Goodman 1878-80 

Hiram Y. Kauffman 1881-83 

Israel H. Rothermel 1884-86 

Jeremiah K. Grant 1887-89 

W, Oscar Miller 1890-92 

Frank K. Flood 1893-95 

Adam B. Rieser 1896-98 

Abraham H. Rothermel 1899-1901 

George W. Wagner 1902-04 

Ira G. Kntz 1905-07 

Harry D. Schaeffer 1908-10 

Special Detectives. — An Act was passed May 
19, 1874, which provided for the appointment of a 
special detective officer in the several counties of 
the State, by the district attorney, with the approval 
of the court of Quarter Sessions. The first appoint- 
ment was made in February, 1875. The officers 
were : 

* Died April 4, 1S95. 

Name Term 

William L. Graiil 1875-77 

John Denhard* 1878-83 

Lawrence P. Ressler 1S83 

James P. Kershner- 1884-86 

George Kramer 1887-89 

John Wunch 1890-92 

Frank H. Derihard 1893-95 

Henrv C. W. Matz** 1895 

WilliW Baiiknecht 1896-98 

James P. Kershner 1899-1900 

Daniel J. McDermott l^^"! 

Eugene W. Fegely 1902-04 

James J. A/Ierkel 1905-10 

Surveyors. — The office of surveyor-general of 
the State was created April 9, 1781 ; and this officer 
was then empowered to appoint a deputy or depu- 
ties in any county of the State. The first appoint- 
ment of a deput)'-surveyor for Berks county was 
made in 1800. One deputy was appointed from that 
time to 1834, when two deputies were appointed. 
The appointment of two was continued till the pas- 
sage of the Act of April 9, 1850, which provided 
for the election of a county surveyor in October 
following, for the term of three years, and every 
third )-ear thereafter, and since 1850, this officer 
has been elected by the people. 

Name Term 

Joseph Hoch 1800-13 

John M. Hyneman 1814-22 

Matthias S. Richards 1823-34 

Daniel A. Bertolette 1835-37 

Thomas H. Jones 1837-38 

Aaron Albright 1838 

Michael K. Boyer 1839-44 

Benjamin Delong 1839-40 

Daniel J. Wanner 1841-47 

Daniel Potteiger 1845-50 ' 

Samuel Hoffman 1848-50 

Augustus F. Bertolet 1S50-56 

Andrew Kurr 1856-63 

Daniel S. Zacharias 1863-77 ; 1881 

Henry C. Zacharias 1877-80 

Solomon K. Dreibelbis . . .' 1882-1901 

Nevin M. Davis 1903-04 

Orlando F. Berger 1905-10 

Poor Directors. — Previous to 1809, "overseers" 
of the poor were appointed bv the justices of the 
county. On March 11, 1809, an Act was passed 
authorizing the election of the overseers annually. 
The poor of the county were provided for by over- 
seers till the passage of an Act of Assembly on 
March 29, 1824, especially for Berks county, where- 
by the county commissioners were authorized to 
levy a tax for the purpose of purchasing land and 
erecting thereon and furnishing necessary buildings 
for the employment and support of the poor of the 
county ; and seven directors were appointed to pro- 
ceed in the establishment of the institution. At 
the following election, in October of that year, 
three directors were elected in pursuance of the 
Act — one for one year, one for two years, and one 

* John Denhard was appointed for a second term, 1S81-SS: but 
he was elected to the office of Alderman of the Eighth Ward, Read- 
nig, in May, 1SS3, when he resigned, and Lawrence P. Ressler was 
appointed for the unexpired term. 

** From Aug. 25, 1S95, to fill vacancy caused by death of Frank 
H. Denhard. 



for three years ; and annually after said election one 
director was elected for three years. This law has 
not been altered. The directors appointed a stew- 
ard and other officers annually, to 'superintend and 
carry on the management oi the institution success- 
fully. The board organizes annually on third Mon- 
day of November. 

The first seven directors appointed by the Act to 
serve till the election*of three directors as required 

John Ritter John Beitenman 

Jacob Mast Samuel Adams 

David Bright John Wanner 
Abraham Knabb 


Name Term 

John Beitenman 1824-35 

Daniel K. Hottenstein 1824-26 

David Bright 1824-27 

George Gernant 1825-28 

John Levan 1826-29 

George Boyer 1827-30 

David Ludwig 1828-31 

David Deysher 1829-32 

Henry Reeser 1830-33 ; 1835-36 

Daniel Oyster 1831-34 

Joseph Schmucker ; 1832-35 

John Bickel 1833-35 

Jacob Gilbert 1834-37 

John Filbert 1835-38 

Henry Schoener 1836-39 

Daniel Kauffman 1837-38 

William Fisher '. 1838-40 

Peter Fister 1838-41 

Abrahani Kerper .' 1839-42 

John Shollenberger 1840-43 

Jacob W. Seitzinger 1841-44 

Abraham Kerper 1842-45 

Daniel Baum 1843-45 

William Bertolet 1844-47 

John Dotterer 1845-46 

Michael Nunnemacher .' 1845-48 

John Gernant 1846-49 

Daniel Sohl 1847-48 

Conrad Reber 1848-49 

Jacob S. Ebling 1848-51 

Peter Kershner 1849-53 

William Knabb 1849-52 

William Arnold 1850-57 

William Lorah 1852-55 

John Richards 1858-56 

John R. Edelman 1855-58 

George K. Haag 1856-59 

Jacob Malsberger 1857-60 

Samuel Shaner 1858-61 

Samuel Filbert 1859-62 

Aaron Getz 1860-66 

R. F. Drumheller 1861-64 

Peter Marshall 1862-65 

Ezra Z. Griesemer 1863-67 

George Lash 1865-68 

Joseph Muthart 1866-69 

Silas W. Fisher 1867-70 

Daniel B. Lorah 1868-71 

Jacob B. Mast 1869-72 

, Daniel Y. Peter 1870-73 

Henry Animon 1871-74 

Michael Goodman 1872-75 

Samuel Strunk : 1873-76 

Isaac Y. Beidler 1874-77 

George Heckman 1875-78 

John Herbein 1876-79 

Mahlon Vogelman 1877-80 

Francis Roland 1878-81 

Name Term 

John H. Bauer 1879-83 

Elias Obold 1880-83 

Elias Bickel 1881-84 

Henry Shearer .1882-85 

John P. F. Marshall 1883-86 

Michael E. Geiger 1884-87 

George Herbein 1885-88 

Jacob Miller 1886-89 

Isaac D. Whitman 1887-90 

Abraham. Schlegel .■ 1888-91 

Samuel Z. Deck 1889-92 

Frederick Roland 1890-93 

Milton H. De Long 1891-93 

William H. S«itzinger 1892-95 

Tilghman De Long 1893-94 

John A. Hiester 1893-1902 

Jonathan Schwartz 1894-97 

Harrison S. Matz 1895-98 

Daniel M. Herbein 1897-1900 

Cornelius Blatt 1898-1901 

William M. Kase 1900-03 

John W. Fisher 1901-04 

Wellington G. Woods 1902-05 

Jacob Hollenbach 1903-06 

Jacob Kessler 1904-07 

George G. Ritter 1905-08 

Peter H. Knabb 1906-09 

William W. Field 1907-10 

Joel Krick 1908-11 


Name Term 

Abraham Knabb ; 1825-32 

Henry Boyer 1833-37 

Marshall B. Campbell 1838 

Daniel Kaufifman 1839-45 

Daniel Baum 1846-48 

Daniel Sohl 1849-52 

Jacob Conrad ■ 1853-68 

Philip Eagle 1869-70 

Silas W. Fisher 1870-77 

Benjamin Anderson -.1878-82 

Reuben Hetrich 1883-85 

Joseph Hornberger 1885-92 ' 

John W. Gilbert 1892-96 

Oliver C. Sitler* 1896-1905 

William J. Hollenbach 1905-09 

Prison Inspectors.^ — The first county prison was 
erected in 1770. It stood at the northeast corner 
of Fifth and Washington streets, Reading, until 
1848, and upon the completion of the new prison at 
the head of Penn street the prisoners were removed 
thither, and the old prison was sold and converted 
into a store building. The walls are still standing, 
though changed. Under the law then prevailing, 
the sheriflf had control of the prison during his offi- 
cial term ; and he was authorized to appoint keepers. 
This practice continued till the passage of the Act of 
April 8, 1848, expressly for Berks county, whereby 
seven prison inspectors were to be appointed, four 
by the judges of the court of Quarter Sessions, and 
three by the county commissioners, who were to com- 
prise the "board of inspectors," the terms of office 
to be as follows : for three, three years ; two, two 
years; and two, one year; and afterward, all terms 
three years. The inspectors were authorized to 
appoint, with sanction of the court, a keeper, 
matron, etc. 

* Sitler resigned on April 7, 1905, and Hollenbach was appointed^ 
on April 15th to fill unexpired term. 



This Act of Assembly continued in force till the 
passage of the Act of April 10, 1873, whereby nine 
inspectors were to be elected at the next regular 
election, when each elector was to vote for six can- 
didates, and the nine highest to be the inspectors. 
The elected candidates were to draw lots for one, 
two, and three years. And annually thereafter, 
three inspectors were to be elected for three years, 
the electors to vote for two, and the three having 
the highest vote to be the inspectors. 

The following persons were the first inspectors 
under the Act of 1848 : 

Appointed by the Court Aug. 7, 184S 
Name Term 

Jacob Lightf oot 3 yrs. 

J. Glaiicy Jones 3 yrs. 

William Heidenreich 2 yrs. 

Thomas Slianer 1 yr. 

.\ppointed by County Commissioners Aug. 10, 1848 
Name Term 

John Banks 3 yrs. 

Henry Nagle 3 yrs. 

Charles Kessler 1 yr. 

Appointed from 1848 to 1873 
Name Term 

Jacob Lightfoot 1848-57 

J. Glancy Jones 1848-51 

William Heidenreich 1848-50 

Thomas Shaner 1848-55 

John Banks 1848-49 

Henry Nagle 1848-59 

Charles Kessler 1848-51 

William Peacock 1849-51 

David Fister 1850-53 

J. Bowman Bell 1851-57 

Lewis Briner 1851-64 

Samuel Frees 1851-54 

David Kntz 1853-68 

William Henry 1854-60 

Jacob Dick 1855-57 

Daniel Young 1857-66 

Abr. D. Hill 1857-66 

Levi B. Smith 1858 

James Lee 1858-64 

Jacob Young 1859-71 

Samuel Summons 1860-72 

Charles H, Fritz 1864-70 

Henry Z. Van Reed 1864-70 

J. Glancy Jones 1864-68 

David McKnight 1864-70 

David L. Wenrich 1868-71 

Amos Weiler 1868-69 

Calvin Goodman 1869-72 

Peter A. Kline 1869-72 

George Lerch 18T0-7S 

Joseph Ganser 1871-73 

W. B. Griesemer 1873-73 

William Grim 1872-73 

Isaac R. Fisher 1873-73 

Benjamin Levan 1873 

Jacob Miller 1873 

Elected under .\ct 1873 * 
Name Term 

John Gtrnant (1 yr.) 1873-74; 1874-77 

Wm. Stump (1 yr.) 1873-74 ; 1874-77 

S. Schmehl (1 vr.) 1873-74 ; 1878-81 

Samuel Buch (2 yrs.) 1873-75 

Amendon Bright ' '(2 yrs.) 1873-75 

William Herbst (2 yrs.) 1873-75 

W. Y. Lvon (3 yrs.) 1873-76; 1876-79 

Tobias Barto (3 yrs.) 1873-76 

* The first nine named comprised the first board elected in 1873. 
After organization, on the 1st dav of December, lots were cast for 
the terms of these inspectors. The board organizes annually on 
the 1st day of December. 

Name Term 

Jacob Miller (3 yrs.) 1873-76 

Calvin Goodman 1875-77 

Peter Rapp 1874-77 

Jacob Shafifner 1875-78 

Peter A. Kline '' 1875-78 

Peter L. Hain 1873-78 

James T. Reber •" 1876-79 

Wm. S. Ritter 1877-82 

Adam Minnich '...1877-80 

Daniel L. Rhoads 1877-80 

David Brown 1877-80 

Tosiah Boltz 1878-81 

Isaac H. Rahn 1878-81 

Lewis L. Moyer 1879-83 

John Stieff ..'. 1879-82 

Adam H. Potteiger 1880-83 

Charles S. Wentzel : 1880-83 

Milton T. Donmoyer '■ 1880-83 

Wm. D. Klopp 1881-84 

Wm. A. Schall 1881-84 

•Wm. W. Lewis 1881-82 

Wm. Schweitzer 1882-84 

John Obold 1882-85 

Henry Rieger 1883-85 

Jacob S. Wisler 1883-85 

John S. Wenrich 1883-86 

Samuel H. Mensch 1883-86 

Dallas Leinbach 1883-86 

John B. Clemmer 1884-87 

William H. Seitzinger 1884-87 

Daniel D. Hinterleiter 1884-87 

lohn H, Obold 1885-94 

Henry Rieger 1885-88 

Wm. H. Wetherhold 1885-88 

Franklin H. Brintzeghoff 1886-92 

Levi M. Neischwender 1886-89 

Wilson Sweitzer 1886-89 

Charles S. Dengler 1887-93 

Reuben Updegrove 1887-90 

loseph B. Clemmer 1887-90 

lohn Maver : 1888-91 

William High 1888-91 

Albert Stamm 1889-95 

Jbhn M. Gift 1889-93 

William A. Lindemuth 1890-93 

Darius E. Sheidy 1890-91 

Augustus B. Forrey 1891-93 

John M. Smith 1891-94 

David E. Snvder 1891-94 

Charles H. Knabb 1892-94 

Abraham Grimes 1893-98 

Henry Z. Kramer 1893-96 

Amos Glass 1893-99 

Levi S. Reber 1893-96 

George H. Nagle 1894-1900 

John H. Kintzer 1894-97 

Alexander Schlottman 1894-97 

John Endy 1894-95 

Urias Rothenberger 1895-98 

Lenious Wessner 1895-97 

Isaac L. De Turck ] 897-98 

George Clous 1896-99 

George B. Wagner 1896-99 

Joel H. Krick 1897-1906 

John L. Seiders 1897-1903 

Daniel Gross 1898-1907 

John Warren 1898-1907 

A. M. Lesher 1898-1901 

Daniel F. Kramer 1899-1908 

T. Heber Witman 1899-1911 

Edmund A. Schenck 1899-1902 

Martin Hauck* 1900-05 

.Mien W. Fritch 1901-04 

Albert Seiwert 1902-05 

•Died April 12, 1905, and Charles P. Saylor appointed to fill 
unexpired term. 



Name . Term 

Israel H. Wentzel 1903-09 

David K. Manmiller 1904-10 

John Warren 1904-10 

David B. Gross 1904-07 

Charles P. Saylor 1905-09 

Jacob S. Kelchner 1905-08 

Nathan K. Dundore 1906-09 

John H. Rhoads . , 1907-10 

Henry G. Hoyer 1908-11 

Edmund A. Shenk 1908-11 

Name Term 

Mahlon Bertolet 1849-53 

Dr. Henry Tyson 1853-65 

Joseph Ganser 1865-70 

Daniel S. Francis 1870-73 

Thomas Will 1873-76 

Isaac K. Knoll 1876-79 

Adam B. Brossman 1879-83 

Dr. R. B. Rhoads 1882-85 

Aaron M. Wenrich 1885-88 ; 1898-99 

Isaac D. Lutz 1888-91 

Samuel H. Mensch 1891-92 

John M. Smith 1892-95 

Isaac Y. Kintzer 1895-98 

William W. Newrcomet* 1899-1904 

Jeremiah M. DeTurk 1904-09 

Jury Commissioners. — Before 1867 the jurors 
for the trial of cases in the several courts of the 
•county were selected from the quaHfied electors 
by the county commissioners and the sheriff. On 
April 10, 1867, a general Act was passed- for the 
State requiring the election of two jury commis- 
sioners in October following, for the term of three 
years, and every third year thereafter, for the pur-, 
■pose of selecting jurors from the qualified electors. 
The Act provides that each elector shall vote for 
■one person for this office, and the two persons hav- 
ing the highest vote shall be the commissioners. 
They are to select a number designated by the 
court, and place the names in a jury wheel in the 
presence of a Judge of the court; and they and 
the sheriff are to draw panels of jurors as grand, 
petit, and traverse jurors of the county as there- 
tofore. The number generally designated for the 
jury wheel previous to 1875 was a thousand names; 
then, upon the introduction of an additional law 
judge, the number was increased to twelve hun- 
dred. Since 1867 the jurors for the quarterly 
terms of the several courts of the county were 
■selected and drawn as mentioned, by the following 
commissioners, who were elected for that purpose: 

Name Term 

■8KsT.-liw"'"! ^««"° 

Zacharias H. Maurer ) ..„„„ „„ 

Joseph Brelsford J lS7U-7d 

Israel R. Laucks 1 1873-76 

Samuel U. Hollenbach ) 

Michael K. Boyer ) 1877-79 

Reuben Rhoads j 

Henry Graul ] 

Edward H. Harnerf [ 1880-82 

Jacob K. Sterrett J 

* Died in office June 27, 1904, and Jeremiah H. DeTurIc, the 
deputy-warden, was appointed July 5th to fill the vacancy. 

t Edward H. Harner removed from the county, and J. K. Sterrett 
"was appointed Feb. 26, 1881, for unexpired term. 

Name Term 

Cosmos Swoyer ) -loaa q- 

John B. Snyder | 1883-8d 

William G. Welder) ^g^^^g^ 

Daniel Sheirer j 

Frank R. Wanner ) . . 

Ephraim R. Wagner J 1889-9] 

Jacob A. Spangler / ..„„„ „. 

David Brown \ 1892-94 

Constantine Jones ) , „q_ q- 

John S. Wenrich I 1895-97 

Krffmai"&.^°u"t:l IB^^-l^"" 

Constantine Jones I .,„„., „, 

Adam S. Klee j 1901-03 

J. Henry Burkhard ? ' innA na 

Elias W Seidel j ^^°*-°^ 

Isaac Barr 1907-10 

William F. Renno 1907-10- 

Mercantile Appraisers. — Previous to 1846, 
only dealers in foreign merchandise were required 
to take out a county license to enable them to make 
sale thereof. But on April 23, 1846, an Act was 
passed requiring all dealers in goods, wares, and 
merchandise to take out a county license, and there- 
by the county commissioners of each county were 
empowered to appoint annually a mercantile ap- 
praiser, who was directed to assess and classify 
all dealers, and furnish a list of them to the county 
treasurer. From 1830 till this Act was passed, 
the constables of the townships, etc., of the county 
furnished under oath a list of the foreign dealers 
to the clerk of the Quarter Sessions, and the as- 
sociate judges and county commissioners classitied 
them and delivered a list to the county treasurer. 
Before 1830, the foreign dealers were returned by 
the constables to the clerk of the court of Quarter 
Sessions; the clerk certified the returns to the 
State treasurer, who forwarded a list to the county 
treasurer for the collection of the license fees. 

In Berks county, the constables still made their 
returns for the years 1846 and 1847. The county 
commissioners made the first appointment for 1848. 

Name Term 

Mahlon Bertolet 1848 

William Karns 1849-51 

Adam Leiss 1352 

Solomon Klohs I853 

J. H. Kelly ".1854 

Isaac S. Hottenstein 1855 

Ephraim Fritz 1856 

Daniel S. Kutz 1857 

George K. Lorah 1858 

Albert C. Henry .' 1859 

Henry Reider i860 

Franklin S. Ludwig I86I 

Henry R. Hawman 1863 

Elias Filbert ■ 1863 

David Lord 1864 

Caspar Reif snyder 1865 

William H. Kelly 1866 

Andrew S. Strassburger 1867 

Joseph Harvey I868 

John C. Reed i869 

Alfred Dreibelbis „„ 1870 

Charles Hill 1371 

Aaron Snyder 1372 

Charles Hottenstein 1873 



Kame Term 

Abraham Schaeffer 1874 

Henry F. Bush 1875 

Jonathan L. Rhoads 1876 

Michael Seltzer 1877 

Benjamin Klahr 1878 

Morris Guldin 1879 

Edward Schmeltzer 1880 

William A. Young 1881 

Levi J. Fisher 1882 

George M. Fryermuth 1883 

Peter Spang, ']r 1884 

John Slangier 1885 

J. M. S. Stertzler 1886 

Edwin Umbenhauer 1887 

James P. Kershner 1888 

Daniel P. Rothermel 1889 

Cyrus E. Bollinger 1890 

John S. Dunkle 1891 

Elias R. Kemmerer 1892 

I Harry D. Wagner 1893 

William D. Reeser 1894 

Frederick Roland 1895 

Peter H. Knabb 1896 

J. Howard Eshelman 1897 

John E. Stangier 1898 

Jacob H. Sassaman 1899 

Frederick Stephan, Jr 1900 

Nathan Rothermel 1901 

James Schlaesman 1902 

John Z. Rieser 1903 

Jacob Bordner , 1904 

Abraham B. Johnson 1905 

William Sanders 1906 

George Reider 1907 

Charles Brintzeghoff 1908 

John G. Herbein 1909 

License Coimmissioners. — In 1676, the Duke of 
Yorke's laws required a license for the sale of 
liquors in the province of Pennsylvania. This was 
granted by two justices of the peace in the Quarter 
Sessions, for the term of one year, upon the ap- 
plicant furnishing "a certificate of his good be- 
havior from the constable and two overseers of tlie 
parish" wherein he dwelt. In 1710, the law re- 
quired the application to be recommended by the 
justices of the county courts to the Governor, 
who issued the license. The number was unlimited. 
But in 1794, the law required the judges of the 
Quarter Sessions at the first session of every year 
thereafter to limit and declare the number of tav- 
erns and public houses to be licensed for the year 
following; and the judges were to have "regard 
to the particular neighborhoods and situations 
the most suitable for the accommodation of 
the inhabitants and travelers." The Governor 
still granted the licenses upon the proper recommen- 
dation ; and he continued to grant them .till the 
passage of the Act of March 8, 1815, when the 
judges of the Quarter Sessions issued them upon 
the recommendation of the applicant by twelve rep- 
utable citizens of the district in which the tavern 
was to be kept. 

On April 23, 1869, an Act was specially passed 
for- Berks county, whereby a board of license com- 
missioners was created to issue licenses. The 
first board was composed of three members : the dis- 
trict attorney in office c.r officio; one member ap- 
pointed by the judges of the Quarter Sessions for 

a.< term ending February, 1871 ; and the third by 
the county commissioners for a term ending Feb- 
ruary, 1873. And every two years after 1869, the 
court or commissioners were authorized to appoint 
a person for a term of four years. Licenses in the 
county were accordingly issued annually by this 
board till the law was repealed May 5, 1876. 

In the year previous, on April 12, 1875, a gen- 
eral law to restrain and regulate the sale of liquors 
was passed by the Legislature for the State, ex- 
cepting in those counties for which special provis- 
ion was made. After the repeal of the Act of 1869, 
the court of Quarter Sessions issued licenses pur- 
suant to the Act of 1875. And this is the law 
under which the licenses are still issued. 

In respect to licenses a general Act was passed 
March 27, 1872, "to permit the voters of this State 
to vote every three years on the question of grant- 
ing licenses to sell intoxicating liquors." The time 
for the first general election on the question in every 
city and county was fixed for the third Friday in 
March, 1873, and every third year thereafter on 
the day for the annual municipal elections. It wilt 
be observed that the time was set in the spring of 
the year, in order to obtain the expression of poli- 
tical sentiment uninfluenced by the general tide of 
opinion of the fall elections. One election was held, 
but before the first three years had expired the 
Act was repealed, on April 12, 1875. 

The toard, during the seven years in which the 
Act prevailed, comprised the following members: 

E.V officio, being the District Attorneys 
Name Term 

Edward H. Shearer 1869-71 

Peter D. Wanner 1871-74 

Henry C. G. Reber 1874-76 

Name Term 

Richard Ludwig 1869-75 

John H. Snyder 1869-73 

William Hines 1873-76 

Elias Obold ' ... .1875-76 

Oil Inspectors. — The office of oil inspector was 
created by the Act of May 15, 1874, "to provide 
for the better security of life and property from 
the dangers of coal and petroleum oils." By this 
Act the standard or fire test of all burning fluids 
was fixed at 110 degrees Fahrenheit. The'inspec- 
tor is appointed by the court of Cominon Pleas of 
the county for the term of three vears ; and he is 
required to furnish security in $10,000 for the 
faithful discharge of his duties. The first appoint- 
ment was made in August, 1877. 

Charles A. Z. Griesemer was the first inspector. 
He was re-appointed in 1880, and again in 1883. 

Sealers of Weights and Measures. — In 1834, 
a law was enacted which required the Governor 
to furnish the county commissioners of each county 
with standards of weights and measures, which 
were to be used for the purpose of adjusting 
weights and measures; and these standards were 
to be examined, and, if necessary, corrected at least 
once in every ten years. The standards as required 



be levied, directors to be elected, etc., and to see 
that the branches of a common education were 
properly taught, teaching directed, established grad- 
ed schools maintained, and uniformity in course of 
studies preserved; a county superintendent was to 
be elected for a term of three years by all the direc- 
tors of the county. Since 1854 the system of edu- 
cation provided by the State has been carried on 
successfully in the ' county by school directors and 
a county superintendent, and the superintendents 
have been : 

Name Term 

William Good 1854-60 

John S. Ermentrout 1860-69 

David B. Brunner 1869-75 

Samuel A. Baer 1875-81 

David S. Keck 1881-90 

William M. Zechman 1891-96 

Eli M. Rapp 1896-1911 


The county buildings comprise the Court-House, 
Prison, and Poorhouse. 

were furnished to the county commissioners, and 
deposited in the Court-House for the purpose in- 
tended! But there was no provision for an officer 
whose duty it was to test all weights and measures. 
In 1845, this discrepancy was supplied by an Act 
passed on April 15th. It authorized the Governor 
to appoint a sealer of weights and measures for 
such respective counties as should apply for and 
obtain copies of the standards, as provided in this 
Act, for the term of three years. And it was made 
the duty of the sealer "at least once in every year 
to go to stores, houses, stalls, and offices of the 
makers, venders, or proprietors of beams, scales, 
weights, and measures within the county, and try 
and adjust all beams, scales, weights, and measures, 
and seal the same with the initials of his last or 
surname, and the current year." Under this 
law the first appointment was made on June 16, 
1853. This office, hovvever, became burdensome 
and offensive to the people of the county, 
and accordingly they, with the people of seven 
other counties of the State — Bucks, Dauphin, 
Lancaster, Lehigh, Montgomery, Franklin, and 
Westmoreland — who felt similarly burdened and, 
offended, effected the passage of a Special Act on 
March 22, 1859, whereby the office within the coun- 
ties named was abolished. After the lapse of 
eighteen years thereafter, it would seem that the 
weights and measures of this county, as well as 
other counties of the State, needed the test of the 
standards. So they were brought to the notice of 
the people again by the passage of a general law 
on April 4, 1877. By it the Governor was author- 
ized to appoint one person as sealer, in the several 
counties where no such office existed, for the term 
of three years. The first appointment under this 
law was made April 30, 1877. 

And strangely enough, as previously, the office 
only survived six years, and was again abolished, 
by an Act passed on March 8, 1883. The standards 
are, therefore, not carried around throughout the 
whole county to remind the dealers and storekeepers 
that they must at least give true measure, if not 
good, pressed down, and running over. The mar 
ket commissioner of Reading, who visits the mar- 
kets under the city ordinance, is the only tester 
now with the standards. The sealers were : 

Name Term 

Michael S. Thirwechter 1853-54 

Solomon Spohn 1855-57 

George K. Boyer 1858 — 

William Geiger 1877-78 

Matthew Rhoda 1879-81 

James D. Long 1882-83 

Superintendents of Common Schools. — Num- £ 

erous legislative attempts were made to popularize 

and thoroughly introduce public education. Fifty ^^_ ^^^^ 

years were spent in endeavors to educate the poor- ' ^^^LS^^^r^^ 

er classes of children by proposed taxation, with 

comparatively little progress. Finally an Act was °^° court house 

passed May 8, 1854, which rnade proceedings in this Court-Houses. — The first Court-House of the 
behalf compulsory, and authorized a school tax to county was erected in 1762, at the intersection of 


Penn Square and Callowhill street, now Fifth. It 
was built of stone, plastered, and marked off in 
imitation of cut stone, and it was surrounded by a 
brick pavement about thirteen feet wide. The first 
floor was arranged in one large room for the 
"courts," and the second floor in three rooms — the 
eastern half having been in one room, and the 
western in two rooms. An entry separated the 
former from the latter. The stairway was con- 
structed in the southeast corner of the court-room. 
The "bench" was arranged along the northern side 
of the room, and the "bar" was inclosed by a semi- 
circular railing, the ends of which extended to the 
wall on both sides of the "bench." The "jury box" 
was situated in the northwest corner of the room. 
The court-room was entered by two door-ways, 
one on the south side and the other on the west. 
The latter was little used. A large stove was lo- 
cated near by and wood was generally piled up 
against the door, on the inside^ during cold weather. 

The crier's seat was situated a few feet west of 
the center of the room, adjoining the "bar," and the 
"prisoner's dock" was next to it on the east. The 
crier was a prominent figure in the room by reason 
of the elevation of his seat. 

The floor was laid with brick. Benches 
were arranged on inclined platforms 
along the southern and eastern walls. 
The seating capacity was rather limited 
for a public place. The dimensions of 
the building were about forty by fifty 
feet. A marble tablet was built in the 
eastern wall near the centre, which con- 
tained the following inscription; 
J. L., C. W., S. H., 1762. 

These initial letters represented the 
names of the officiating county commis- 
sioners, Jacob Lightfoot, Christopher 
W'itman and Samuel High. 

The steeple contained a bell and 
town-clock. The bell was cast in Eng- 
land in ]76.'3, especially for the county; 
and the clock was a thirt3'-hour clock, 
imported from London about 1755. 

Previously, for ten j^ears. the judges 
of the courts held their sessions of court 
in an inn of the town. There were no 
rooms in the building for the county officials, but 
many were not necessary, for five offices were 
vested in one individual for upward of twenty 
years, these having been prothonotary, recorder, 
register, clerk of the Orphans' court and clerk 
of the Quarter Sessions, and the person was James 
Read, a lawyer. 

By a letter addressed to the Pennsylvania Ga::ctte, 
dated the 20th of February, 176G", it would ap- 
pear that "public offices were opened on Monday 
previous at Reading." It is not known in which 
building they were opened, if not in the Court- 

Election polls were held at the several windows 
on the first floor, which were properly marked for 

•■^the voters. The poll for the electors of Reading 
■ was at the eastern window on the side facing south. 
This building was used for the purposes of hearing 
and determining criminal and civil matters until 
1840, the last term of court having been the April 
term. During the follow- 
ing three months, the coun- 
t)- records were transferred 
from the "State-House" to 
the new Court-House. It 
was sold to Joseph Kendall 
at public sale and he re- 
moved it in JMav, 1S4-1. 


The smallness of the old building had been felt 
for many years and the increasing inconvenience 
had become so objectionable by the" year 1837 that 
the taxpayers and officials determined to remedy 
the difficulty by securing a new building, and in 
that behalf a petition was presented to the judges 
at the August Sessions, setting forth— "That, in 
consequence of the rapid increase of the population 
and public business of the county of Berks, the pres- 
ent Court-House ha,s become too small and incon- 
venient for the transaction of business, and also for 
the accommodation of those persons who are obliged 
to attend court," and praying the court "to recom- 



mend to the county commissioners the erection of 
the necessary buildings for the accommodation of 
the Court and the Public." 

This petition was referred to the grand jury, and 
they recommended a new building, selecting the 
northeast corner of Fifth and Penn streets as the 
place for its erection. This return was approved 
by the court on Aug. 11, 1837, but the site was 
changed to the northeast comer of Sixth and Court 
streets, in order to obtain. a larger lot for the pro- 
posed building. The county commissioners then 
purchased two adjoining lots (120 by 230 feet) 
and during the years 1838, 1839 and 1840 erected 
on the site the western half of the present three- 
story brick building which fronts on Sixth street, 
the dimensions being 63 feet wide, 118 feet long 
and 60 feet high. The total cost was $63,000. A 
substantial fire-proof two-story extension was added 
at the rear in 1869 ; and this was subsequently en- 
larged, when numerous important improvements 
were introduced. The first session of court was 
held in it at August Term, 1840. 

Gas was introduced for lighting purposes in May, 
1849, shortly after the Reading Gas Co. had estab- 
lished its plant. Previously oil in lamps was used. 

A new clock was placed in the steeple in October, 
1851. The bell weighed nearly seventeen hundred 
pounds. From that time on, this has been the 
"town-clock," and town-bell for indicating "town- 
time." The clock-dials have been illuminated at 
night-time by electric light since 1895. 

The first floor was arranged in four compartments, 
the corner room, facing the streets, having been 
occupied as an office by the sheriff; and the second 
floor in four compartments for prisoners. The 
sheriff and family occupied the remaining rooms 
of the building; and this practice was continued 
till the prison system was changed by special legis- 
lation for Berks county, in 1848. The property was 
sold on Feb. 5, 1849, to William Rhoads, for $7,460, 
and by him converted into a store. It has been oc- 
cupied for store purposes ever since. 

A new prison was erected on the "Common," at 
the head of Penn street, by the county commission- 
ers in 1847-48, at a cost of $17,000. It is construct- 
ed of stone from Peon's Mount, and is situated on 
a lot of ground 170 by 300 feet, which is inclosed 
on the north, east and west by a high stone wall. 
The tower is 96 feet high. It is still standing, a 
fine specimen of superior workmar^ship. 

An addition, or "annex," was erected at the rear 
in 1869. The total number of cells is 94 — ^in the 
main part, 44, and in the annex, 50; arranged in 
two stories. 

State-House.— The "State-House" was erected 
by the county commissioners in 1793 for the accom- 
modation of the county officers and the public rec- 
ords. It was situated on .the northeast corner of 
Fifth and Penn streets; built of brick, two stories, 
30 by 90 feet, with a narrow alley extending along 
the eastern wall from the front to the rear. An 


Prisons. — The iirst prison was erected in 1770, 
on the northeast corner of Callowhill and Thomas 
streets (Fifth and Washington). It was construct- 
ed, of stone and plastered, two stories in height, and 
in dimensions 30 by 70 feet. The lot was 60 by 230 
feet. A substantial stone wall, 20 feet high, was 
■erected to inclose the lot to the depth of 130 feet. 

entry extended across the building near the center 
with its doorway on Fifth street; and a stairway 
led from this entry to the second floor. The first 
floor was divided into three compartments ; the first, 
adjoining Penn street, having been used for the 
prothonotary's office and clerk of Quarter Sessions ; 
the central for the recorder, register and clerk of 



the Orphans' court; and the rear for count}' com- 
missioners and county treasurer. The second floor 
was divided into two compartments, the front room 
having been occupied mostly for Sunday-school pur- 
poses and public meetings from 1819 for about 
twenty years, and the rear room for lodge purposes. 
The building was sold by the county commissioners 
upon the removal of the county offices and records 
to the new Court-House. 

The rear room on the first floor was used as the 
post-office from 1861 to 1865. 

necessary buildings, and seven directors were ap- 
pointed to proceed in the establishment of this public 
institution. They served till the election of three 
directors in October following, as provided in said 
Act. In the mean time (May 30, 1824) they pur- 
chased the "Brown farm," formerly known as the 
"Angelica farm," in Cumru township (owned anrt 
occupied during the Revolution by General Thomas 
jMifflin), three miles from Reading, situated on the 
Lancaster road, and containing 417^ acres, for the 
consideration of $16,690, and there erected a com- 


In January, 1872, a large fire broke out in 
Stichter's hardware store, near by, which spread 
over the adjoining buildings to the west, and con- 
sumed the entire comer, including the ''State- 
House." The inscription stone was preserved and 
given a place in the rear wall of the building which 
was soon afterward erected in its stead. 

PooR-HousE. — The poor people of the county 
were provided for by "overseers" till the passage 
of an Act of Assembly on March 29, 1824, especially 
for this county, whereby the county commissioners 
were authorized to levy a tax for the purpose of 
purchasing land and erecting and furnishing the 

modious building to accommodate the poor people 
of the county. This building was finished in 1825. 
It has since been known as the "Main Building." 
Other improvements were subseciuently made upon 
the premises, prominent among them being the "In- 
sane Building," erected in 1837 and 1843, and the 
"Hospital," in 1871-1874. The first poor persons 
were admitted on Oct. 31, 1825, from Reading. 
During the first year 130 inmates were admitted. 
Annually afterward the average number increased 
until 1878, when they reached 613; but since then 
they have gradually decreased until now, being 
about 250. 


By the charter of William Penn and the several 
grants thereunder, various laws and ordinances 
were enacted from time to time ''for the good gov- 
ernment of the province/' and the regulation of its 
affairs was directed 'by officers, either appointed or 
elected, for the entire territory or for the counties 
comprising it. The several officers for the county 
were as follows : 

JUDGES— 1753 to 1790 

Various Acts of Assembly were passed before 
1722, for a period of forty years, to establish the 
powers of courts for the purpose of protecting men 
in the enjoyment of their personal rights, of re- 
dressing wrongs, of adjudicating the rights of prop- 
erty, and of administering estates, and in that 
year the law for the several courts of the province 
became settled, continuing so till the Revolution, 
with the exception of certain amendments by two 
supplementary Acts passed in 1759 and 1767. 

From the time of the erection of the county in 
1752 down to 1776, the following persons acted in 
the capacity of justices, the length of service of 
several of them being unknown : 

Name Term 

Conrad Weiser. ..." 1752-60 

Francis Parvin 1752-66 

Anthony Lee 

Jonas Seely 1753-66 ; 1769 

Henry Harvey 1752-62 

William Bird 1752-55 

William Maugridge 1756-66 

Moses Starr 

James Boone 

Jacob Levan 1752-62 

James Read 

Peter Spycker 1763-90 

Joseph Millard 1768-69 

Benjamin Lightfoot 1771-74 

George Webb 1770-71; 1774 

Thomas Rutter. . . , 1770-71 

Jacob Morgan 1768-69 ; 1772 ; 1774-77 

James Diemer 1766-71 

John Patton 1766-75; 1777 

George Douglass 1768-73 ; 1775-84 

Henry Christ 1766-71; 1784-90 

Sebastian Zimmerman 1767-71 ; 1778-84 

Nicholas Harmony 1766-71 

Mark Bird 1775-76 

Daniel Brodhead 

William Reeser 1778-84 

Jonathan Potts 1776-77 

Balthaser Gehr 1775-84 

Thomas Dunlap 

In 1776, the first constitution of the State pro- 
vided that a Supreme Executive Council should con- 
sist of twelve persons, who were to be chosen by 
ballot by the respective, counties for the term of 
three years. The apportionment gave one to Berks 
county. The following councillors were elected 

from Berks till the adoption of the Constitution of 
1790. The term of the first was fixed at two years; 
and afterward three years. 

Name Term 

Richard Tea, elected in 1776, but declined to serve 

Jacob Morgan 1777-78 

James Read : 1779-81; 1788-90 

Sebastian Levan 1782-84 

Charles Biddle 1785-87 

This Constitution also provided for the establish- 
ments of courts of justice in every county of the 
State. The following persons officiated as judges 
of the county from 1776 till 1790. The first three 
were president judges of the courts for a time. 

Name Term 

James Diemer 

Henry Christ 1784-90 

Peter Sypcker 1776-90 

James Read 

Daniel Levan 

Valentine Eckert 1785 

John Ludwig 1785 

Jacob Morgan 

Charles Shoemaker 1785-90 

Paul Groscup 

John Eckert '. .1786-87 

Jacob Weaver 1785 

John Otto 1786-87 

Matthias Reichert 1788-90 

Nicholas Hunter 1788 

Egedius Meyer 1789-90 

John ■ Christ 1789-90 

And it provided also that each election district 
should elect two or more persons for the office of 
justice of the peace, and that the president of the 
Executive Council should commission one or more 
for each district for seven years. The following 
justices were elected in Berks county, and commis- 
sioned, from 1777 till 1790— the dash after the year 
indicating uncertainty whether or not the full term 
was served, and the repetition of the year indicating- 

Name Term 

Henry Christ ■. 1777-84 ; 1784— 

Jacob Shoemaker 1777 — 

James Read 1777 — 

Daniel Hiester 1777 — 

Peter Spycker 1776-90 

Jacob Weaver 1777-84 ; 1784— 

John Ludwig 1777-84; 1784— 

Benjamin Shott ' 1777 — 

Christopher Schultz 1777 — 

Samuel Ely 1777-84; 1784— 

Jacob Waggoner 1777 — 

Daniel Rothermel 1777 — 

John Old 1777— 

Chas. Shoemaker 1777-84; 1784— 

Egedius Meyer 1777-84; 1784— 

Jacob Morgan 1777-84; 1784— 

Thomas Parry 1777 — 

Michael Lindenmuth 1778 — 



Name Term 

Gabriel Hiester 1778— 

John Guldin 1780— 

Valentine Eckert 1784— 

Paul Groscup 1784 — 

John Eckert 1784— 

John Otto 1785— 

Matthias Reichert 1788-91 

Nicholas Hunter 1788 — 

James Diemer 1788-91 

JUDGES— 1790 TO 1909 

The Constitution of 1790 provided for the estab- 
lishment of Circuit courts in the State to be com- 
posed of certain counties^ — not less than three nor 
more than six ; and for the appointment by the Gov- 
ernor of a president judge of the courts in each 
circuit, and also of other judges, not less than three 
nor more than four in number, whose residence 
should be in the county. All the judges appointed 
were to hold their offices during good behavior. 

In 1791, in pursuance of the Constitution of 1790, 
the State was divided into five judicial circuits or 
districts, and each district became entitled to a pres- 
ident judge. The Third District comprised Berks, 
Luzerne, Northampton, and Northumberland coun- 
ties. In 1806, the State was divided into ten dis- 
tricts, and Berks, Northampton, and Wayne com- 
prised the Third District. In 1811, Schuylkill county 
was erected and included in the district, but it was 
cut off in 1815. In 1812, Lehigh county was erected 
and included in the district. In 1834, the State was 
divided into seventeen districts, and Berks, Lehigh, 
.and Northampton comprised the Third District. 

The county of Berks was erected into a separate 
judicial district by the Act of April 5, 1849, and 
called the Twenty-third District. It has since been 
a separate district, with this, number in the judicial 

In 1810 the associate judges were limited to two 
in number. The provision in reference to the tenure 
of office was modified by the Amended Constitution 
of 1838. whereby the term of president judge was 
fixed at ten years, and of associate judge at five 

In 1850 an amendment to the Constitution was 
adopted which provided for the election of the 
judges for the terms mentioned. The first election 
was held in October, 1851. 

The office of additional law judge was created 
by the Act of April 15, 1869, for Berks county, with 
powers and term similar to those of president judge. 

The office of Orphans' court judge was created 
for the county by the Act of June 13, 1883, pursuant 
to the New Constitution ; and on the 29th of June 
following, the Governor made the first appointment. 
His judicial powers are confined to matters which 
arise in the Orphans' court; and the term of service 
is ten years. 

The office of associate judge was abolished by 
the New Constitution, the incumbents to continue 
in office until their terms of service expired. 

Before 1874, county officials took their offices on 
the second Monday of December succeeding their 

election. The New Constitution provided that 
thereafter they should take their offices on the first 
Monday of January succeeding. 

Name Terra 

Jacob Rush 1791-1805 

John Spayd 1806-09 

Robert Porter 1810-33 

Garrick Mallery 1833-35 

John Banks 1836-46 

J. Pringle Jones 1847-48 ; 1851-61 

David F. Gordon 1849-51 

W. J. Woodward* 1861-71 ; 1871-74 

Teremiah Hagenmanf 1875-79 ; 1880-89 

James N. Ermpntrout} 1890-1908 

Gustav .\. Endlich 1908-09 

Name. Terra. 

Henry Van Reed§ 1869;1875 

Jeremiah Hagenman|| 1869-7^ 

Augustus S. Sassaman 1876-85 

James N. Ermentrout 1887-89 

Gustav A. Endlich 1890-190S 

Wm. Kerper Stevens1[ 1908-09 

orphans' court judges 

Name. Term. 

Hiram H, Schwartz** 1SS3-1891 

H. Willis Bland ■. .1891-19— 

Name Term 

James Diemer 1791-1819 

George Ege 1791-1818 

Matthias Reichert 1791-97 

Joseph Hiester 1791-94 

Nicholas Lotz 1793-1806 

Benjamin Morris 1798-1809 

Gabriel Hiester 1819-23 

Charles Shoemaker 1820-22 

William Witman 1S23-2S 

Jacob Schneider 1824-29 

Matthias S. Richards 1829-45 

William Darling 1830-38 

WilUam Addams 1839-42 

John Stauffer 1843-51 

William Pligh 1845-50 

Samuel Bell 1851 

Daniel Young 1851-50 

William Heidenreich 1851-56 

David Schall 1856-66 

* Warren J. Woodward was elected one of the associate justices 
of the Supreme court of Pennsylvania, on Nov. S, 1S74, for the 
term of tv/enty-one years. He took and held his seat from' January 
1875, till his death on Sept. 23, 1ST9. 

t Jeremiah Hagenmaii succeeded Warren J. Woodward, by pro- 
motion, on Jan. 13, 1S75, when he was sworn as president judse 
for the remainder of the term, ending Jan. 5, IS.SO. He was elected 
in November, 1879, for a term of ten" years. Not having been re- 
elected, Judge Ermentrout was promoted bv law to be president 

i Died Aug. 19, 190S, and succeeded by Gustav .-\. Endlich. 

§ Henry Van Reed, a member of the county bar, was appointed 
on July 13, 1869, by the Governor, John W. Geary, to fill the office, 
and he held his seat till his successor, duly elected, was qualified! 
Oec. 6 ],sr;9. He was n|ipointed a second time by the Governor, 
John F. Hartranft, on Jan. 12, 1876, to fill the vacancy in this 
office, caused by the promotion of Jeremiah Hagenman to "the oflice 
of president judge, until his successor, Augustus S. Sassaman, a 
member of the county bar, duly elected, was qualified on Tan 2, 
1S76, for ten years. 

II Jeremiah Jlagenman was elected Oct. 15 1869, to this office for 
ten years from Dec. 6, 1869. He was promoted to the office of 
president judge, for the remainder of his term, on Jan. 13 1875 
to fill the vacancy caused bv the resignation of Warren J 'Wood- 
ward, wdio had been elected to the Supreme bench. 

H Appointed, by Governor Sejit. 10, 1908, to serve till first 
Monday in January. 1910. 

••Hiram H. Schwartz was appointed on Tune 29, 1883, to serve 
in this office till Jan. 7, 1SS4. He was nominated for the office, 
for the full term, by the Democratic Convention in August, 1883, 
:ind elected in November following. He died before the expiration 
of his term, on Aug. ;.-i, 1891, when H. Willis Bland was appointed 
bv the Governor, on Sept. 16. 1891, and he was elected, November, 
1S92, for a full term; and at its expiration he was re-elected. 



Name Term 

George D. Stitzel 1856-66 

Charles Kessler 1866-71 

David Kutz* .- 1866-70 

Henry Rhoads 1870-71 

George W. Bruckman 1871-76 

Daniel Buskirk. 1871-76 


The office of attorney at law is not an elective one. 
It never was. But it has existed time out o-f mind. 
It began with the administration of justice, and is 
inseparable from it. The history of attorneys would 
be the history of the courts of judicature. They 
have always occupied a prominent place. Their 
prominence has resulted from energy well directed 
in behalf of the rights and property of mankind, and 
also in behalf as well of the establishment as of the 
development of principles regulative of associations 
in every department of life. 

A law was enacted in this State as early as 1710 
in relation to this office. Then the justices were 
authorized to admit any attorney or attorneys to 
plead in any of the established courts during good 
behavior. No provision was made as to the number 
or ability. In 1715, however, the authority of the 
justices was modified. They might admit "a com- 
petent number of persons, of honest disposition and 
learned in the Law, to practise as attorneys who 
shall behave themselves "justly and faithfully in 
their practice." And in 1727 a provision was made 
requiring such persons before they were admitted 
to take the following oath : "Thou shalt behave thy- 
self in the office of attorney within the court, ac- 
cording to the best of thy learning and ability, and 
with all good fidelity as well to the court as to the 
client; thou shalt use no falsehood, nor delay any 
person's cause for lucre or malice." And these qual- 
ifications have continued to this day. Since the 
adoption of the State and national constitutions 
they have- qualified to support them. This last 
qualification is common to all statutory officers. 

The following attorneys have resided in the coun- 
ty of Berks and practised in its several courts. 
The date after each name is the time of admission 
to practice. 

Name Admitted 

James Biddle 
David Henderson 
James Whitehead, Jr. 
Edward Biddle 

Daniel Levan, Jr Nov. 11, 1769 

Collinson Read Aug. 13, 1772 

James Potts Aug. 1, 1773 

Daniel Clymer May 4, 1776 

Alexander Graydon May 14, 1779 

Edward Scull Aug. 17, 1779 

Nathaniel Potts Aug. 14, 1781 

Jacob Hubley Nov. 14, 1786 

George Eckert Feb. 19, 1787 

James Scull Feb. 19, 1787 

Joseph Hubley Aug. 14, 1787 

John Spayd Feb. 14, 1788 

Peter Hoofnagle Feb. 14, 1788 

* David Kutz having died in office Tuly 20, 1870, Henry Rhoads 
was appointed by Gov. John W. Geary, on Aug. 3, 1870, for unex- 
pired term ending Dec. 4, 1871. 



Marks John Biddle Dec. 9 

Jacob R. Howell Feb. 11 

Charles Evans ' Aug. 9 

William Witman Aug. 20, 

Frederick Smith Aug. 

Levi Pauling Aug. 18, 

Bird Wilson May 14, 

Andrew Graff, Jr April 9, 

John Hiester •. . .Aug. 6, 

William S. Biddle June 

Frederick John Haller Nov. 

William Morris Aug. 

Anthony Morris Nov. 

Samuel D. Franks Aug. 10, 

James B. Hubley April 4, 

John Spayd April 2, 

Samuel Baird, Jr April 10, 

William Morris, Jr Nov. 

Thomas B. Smith July 4, 

James Biddle Aug. 9, 

Francis S. Muhlenberg. . ". May 8 

Nathaniel P. Hobert ' Jan. 13 

Charles Davis Aug. 4, 

Charles Whitman Aug. 9, 

William Darling Nov. 13 

Edward B. Hubley April 5 

James L. Dunn Nov. 10, 

W. C. Leavenworth Aug. 18 

Daniel J. Hiester Aug. 4, 

Lloyd Wharton March 26, 

Lawrence S. Lardner April 

David F. Gordon Aug. 

Thomas Morris : Nov. 

Wm. FuUerton Duncan Jan. 

David Evans Jan. 

Henry W. Smith Jan. 

John S. Wharton March 

Edward P. Pearson May 23 

Charles J. Jack Aug. 1 

Robert M. Brook Aug. 2, 

John H. Sheetz Aug. 3 

Joseph W. Roland Aug. 20, 

George M. Keim Aug. 11 

Joseph H. Spayd Nov. 8 

Philip Kendall Jan. 1, 

Elijah Deckert Jan. 4, 

Levi B. Smith J an. 10, 

William M. Biddle April 4, 

Jacob Hoffman , Nov. 10, 

Robert M. Barr Jan. 3 

Peter Filbert Jan. 6 

John Mayer Jan. 8 

Henry Rhoads April 3 

William Strong Nov. 8 

George S. Wharton Aug. 15. 

James Pauling Nov. 7 

Francis Aurand Nov. 13 

William Betz '. J'an. 10| 

George G. Barclay April 10, 

Newton D. Strong Aug. 3 

.^uFustus F. Boas < Aug. 4 

J. Pringle Jones Nov. 2 

Anthony F. Miller Aug. 15 

Franklin B. Schoener Jan. 

John S. Richards April 4, 

Garrick Mallery Aug. 14 

Dennis W. O'Brien Aug. 7 

Jeremiah D. Bitting Aug. 8 

Andrew M. Sallade Aug. 11 

Jackson H. Sherman Aug. 

William M. Hiester Jan. 

Peter Shearer April 

Matthias Mengel April 

George E. Ludwig . . , Nov. 3, 

James Donagan Dec. 22 

Samuel Sohl April 5 




Name Adn: 

Jeremiah Hagenman April 7, 

J. Dundas Biddle May 17, 

Charles Wierman May 17, 

George W. Arms March 8 

John K. Longnecker Nov. 6 

Henry Van Reed April 5 

William M. Baird April 12 

Henry A. Muhlenberg July 5 

Isaac High Keim July 5 

Franklin B. Miller Dec. 14 

Jacob S. Livingood Jan. 7 

J. Glancy Jones Jan. 7 

Silas E. Buzard April 8 

Edward W. Scudder Aug. 4 

Edward M. Clymer Aug. 4, 

J. Bowman Bell Jan. 5 

J. Lawrence Getz Aug. 6 

William B. Schoener Aug. 15 

J. De Puy Davis Jan. 5 

James May Jones Jan. 5, 

John Banks April 7 

Samuel L. Young Aug. 10, 

A. Lucius Hennershotz Nov. 11, 

J. Biddle Gordon Jan. 6 

James A. Banks Feb. 31, 

J. Bright Smith April 

William F. Filbert Aug, 9, 

A. Jordan S wartz Sept. 28, 

Joel B. Wanner Jan. 13 

Jacob M. Sallade April 6^ 

John A. Banks April 6, 

Hiester Clymer April 

Charles B. Weaver Nov. 

Jacob K. McKenty April 

Henry C. Kutz April 34, 

Wm. Edmund Banks April 2,5 

Wm-. S. Marx Aug. 4 

Albert G. Green Nov. 11 

Edmund L. Smith Nov. 11 

George DeB. Keim , ."^pril 8 

Charles K. Robeson April 8 

E. R. Zimmerman April 8 

Carl O. Wagner Nov. .5 

Michael P. Boyer \ug. 8 

Wharton Morris Nov. 15 

George J. Eckert April 28, 

Frederick L. Smith Nov. 10 

Amos B, Wanner Jan. 12 

B. Frank Boyer March 15 

Daniel R. Clymer Aug, 30 

James B, Bcchtel April 14 

William K. Loose April 14, 

Chas. Ph. Muhlenberg Nov, 8^ 

Daniel Ermentrout Aug. 3 

Wm. H. Livingood Jan. 19 

Hiram FL Schwartz July ] 4, 

Jesse G. Hawley Sept. 30, 

Thomas S. Brenholtz Sept. 20, 

J. George Seltzer Feb. 5 

Abner K. Stauffer April 15 

Edward H. Shearer .- April 15, 

John Ralston Aug. 14 

Frank B. Schmucker Aug. 2 

William P. Bard Feb. 9 

Charles Henry Jones April 14 

Richmond L. Jones April 14, 

Daniel E. Schroeder April 23, 

Charles A. Leopold April 33, 

J. Warren Tryon Nov. 14, 

J. Howard Jacobs Nov. 14, 

Augustus S. Sassaman Jan. 9, 

Israel C. Becker Jan. 33, 

Francis M. Banks May 31, 

Horace A. Yundt Aug. 

Charles H. Schaeffer Aug. 9 

Franklin B. Laucks Aug, 13 

itted Name Adm 

1843 William M, Goodman Aug. 13 

1842 Edwin Shaher Aug. 13, 

1843 Louis Richards Jan. IG, 

1843 Irenaeus Shalter Jan. 16, 

1843 J. Ross Miller Aug. 7 

1844 J. Dallas Schoener Aug. 7 

1844 Henry May Keim Aug. 

1844 Harrison Maltzberger Aug. 

1844 Peter D. Wanner Nov. 

1844 Llewellyn Wanner Aug. — , 

1845 William M. Rightmyer Jan. 21, 

1845 George M. Ermentrout Nov. 37, 

1845 James N. Ermentrout Nov. 37, 

1845 Geo. F. Baer Jan. 23, 

1845 Chas, F. Evans April 38, 

1846 T. H. Garrigues. Aug. 10, 

1848 Ben. B. Laucks Jan. 11, 

1846 H. WilHs Bland April 13 

1847 Henry C. G. Reber April 12, 

1847 Cyrus G. Derr Aug. 13 

1847 Wm. L. Guinther Nov. 14, 

1847 Morton L, Montgomery Aug. 28 

1847 Garrett B. Stevens Aug. 13, 

1848 Horace Roland Aug. 12, 

1848 Edgar M. Levan Aug. 17, 

1848 Frank R. Schell Sept. 16, 

1848 Edwin White Moore Sept. 30, 

1848 James A. O'Reilly Jan. 13 

1849 Stephen M, ^^leredith Aug. 11 

1849 Dan'l H. Wingerd Sept. 39 

1849 Hiram Y. Kaufman Nov. 9, 

1849 John C. K. Heine April 12 

1850 B. Frank Dettra April 12, 

1851 B. F. Y. Shearer April 13 

1851 C. H. Ruhl April 15 

1851 B. F. AIcAtee April 15 

1851 Jno. F. Smith Aug. 9, 

1851 Jefferson Snyder Aug. 

1851 John B. Dampman Nov. 

1852 Flenry A. Muhlenberg Nov. 

1852 Daniel B. Young Jan. 10, 

1852 Adam H. Schmehl Jan. 10 

1852 Edwin B. Wiegand Jan. 18 

1853 Wesley D. Horning April 17 

1854 Gustav A. Endlich Nov. 12, 

1855 Simon P, O'Reilly Jan. 14^ 

1855 Wayne Hayman Jan, 14^ 

1857 Henry .\. Zieber April 10 

1857 Isaac Hiester \^v 13 

1857 J. H. Marx Aug. 13 

1858 Jeremiah K. Grant Nov. 

1858 Walter B. Craig ' Nov. 12 

1859 D, Nicholas Schaeffer Nov. 12 

1859 M. Brayton McKnight Nov'. 12 

1860 Israel C. Becker Dec. 12, 

1860 Daniel G. Guldin j^„ og 

1860 Warren Woodward Jan' 20, 

1860 Chas. P. Sherman ,Au"-. 11 

1861 Frank S. Livingood Au^ 11 

1861 John W. Apple .".".' .'Xug. 11 

1861 Henry D. Green t^Tqv 10 

1863 William C. Heacock ' " \pril 19' 

1863 William O. :Miller '. . . .".'.\pril 12 

1863 Chas. M. Plank .Nov 22 

1863 William J. Rourke isTov ^^ 

1863 Albert R. Heilig .....'. Nov! 23 

1863 Alonzo E. Ream .Nov! 33 

1863 Geo. F. Hagenman Jan. 24 

1863 Israel H, Rothermel ' ' Auo-' ^0 

1863 John H. Rothermel ' " " /Vu?' ^o 

1864 Daniel F. Westley "■.■,; '. ^Tqv 14 

1864 Charles C. Kehr Nov" 14 

1864 Henry Maltzberger !!!!'.!'.'. Nov 14 

1864 George J. Gross, Jr Nov! 14 

1804 Henry. 0. Schrader Nov 13 

1864 I. Comley Fetter ' "nov 13 



Name Admitted 

James B. Baker Nov. 13, 1882 

Adam B. Rieser Nov. 13, 1882 

EUwood H. Deysher Nov. 13, 1882 

Richard H. Koch Nov. 12, 1883 

Henry P. Keiser Nov. 12, 1883 

J. Edward Miller Nov. 12, 1883 

Felix P. Kremp Nov. 12, 1883 

Charles H. Tyson Nov. 10, 1884 

William B. Bechtel Nov. 10, 1884 

Frank K. Flood Nov. 10, 1884 

Philip S. Zieber Nov. 10, 1884 

William Kerper Stevens Nov. 10, 1884 

Howard P. Wanner Nov. 9, 1885 

William P. Schell March 13, 1886 

Daniel F. Ancona Nov. 8, 18§6 

Caleb J. Bieber Nov. 8, 1886 

Edwin Sassaman March 28, 1887 

David Levan Nov. 14, 1887 

Morris H. Schaffer Nov. 14, 1887 

Ammon S. Strunk Nov. 14, 1887 

Samuel N. Potteiger Nov. 24, 1888 

Abraham H. Rothermel Nov. 24, 1888 

Herbert R. Green „ .Jan. 21, 188A 

Ira P. Rothermel Jan. 21, 1888 

George R. VanR^ed Jan. 21, 1888 

Edward S. Kremp Nov. 23, 1889 

David F. Mauger Nov. 23, 1889 

John H. Zweizig Nov. 23, 1889 

John J. Kutz Nov. 10, 1890 

George W. Wagner Nov. 10, 1890 

William J. Young , Nov. 10, 1890 

Fitz-Daniel Ermentrout Nov. 7, 1892 

Lee Friday Nov. 7, 1892 

J. Fred Hartgen Nov. 6, 1893 

Ralph H. Mengel Nov. 6, 1893 

Silas R. Rothermel Nov. 6, 1893 

Howard L. Greenawald Nov. 12, 1894 

Harvey F. Heinly Nov. 12, 1894 

Louis A. Sassaman Nov. 13, 1894 

Walter S. Young Nov. 12, 1894 

Sherman H. Hoverter Nov. 11, 1895 

John H. Millholland Nov. 11, 1895 

Frederick W. Nicolls Nov. 11, 1895 

Robert P. Shick Nov. 11, 1895 

Hiester A. Bowers Nov. 11, 1895 

S. Leo Donovan Nov. 9, 1896 

Wilson Ferguson Nov. 9, 1896 

J. Wilmer Fisher , Nov. 9, 1896 

Tames P. Long Nov. 9, 1896 

William Rick Nov. 9, 1896 

Ira G. Kutz , Nov. 8, 1897 

Thomas K. Leidy Nov. 8, 1897 

Name Admitted 

William A. Hope May 21, 1898 

George D. Humbert Nov. 14, 1898 

George M. Jones Nov. 14, 1898 

Harvey F. Kantner Nov. 14, 1898 

J. Milton Miller Nov. 14, 1898 

Paul H. Price ■ Nov. 14, 1898 

Harry D. Schaeffer • Nov. 14, 1898 

Henry Seidel Throm '. Nov. 14, 1898 

Allen S. Hottenstein Dec. 13, 1898 

Harry J. Dumn Jan. 3, 1899 

Samuel E. Bertolet Nov. 13, 1899 

Joseph R. Dickinson Nov. 13, 1899 

Edwin W. Kalbach Nov. 13, 1899 

Edwin S. Livingood Nov. 13, 1899 

William H. Sadler Nov. 13, 1899 

Edward D. Trexler Nov. 13, 1899 

Charles S. Shalters Dec. 23, 1899 

Garrett Stevens Dec. 23, 1899 

Foster S. Biehl - Nov. 12, 1900 

Charles K. Derr Nov. 12, 1900 

John M. Frame Nov. 12, 1900 

William E. Fisher Nov. 12, 1900 

Walter B. Freed Nov. 12, 1900 

Earl I. Koch Nov. 12, 1900 

Oliver G. Lentz Nov. 12, 1900 

Frederick A. Marx Nov. 12, 1900 

Charles G. Moyer Nov. 12, 1900 

Wilson S. Rothermel Nov. 12, 1900 

Charles R. Wanner Jan. 7, 1901 

J. Bennett Nolan Nov. 18, 1901 

Oliver M. Wolff Sepft. 8, 1902 

John H. Bridenbaugh Nov. 10, 1902 

E. Carroll Schaeffer Nov. 10, 1902 

John B. Stevens Nov. 10, 1902 

Thomas laeger Snyder Nov. 10, 1902 

H. Robert Mays Feb. 20, 1904 

H. Franklin Brossman March 7, 1904 

William A. Shomo Oct. 3, 1904 

Spencer B. Roland Nov. 7, 1904 

Walter G. Steininger Feb. 13, 1905 

William Abbott Witman, Jr Feb. 13, 1905 

J. Howard Jacobs Aug. 14, 1905 

James B. Mercer Aug. 14, 1905 

Randolph Stauffer Feb. 13, 1906 

H. Otto Lowe May 14, 1906 

Robert Gray Bushong Sept. 22, 1906 

Leonard G. Yoder Sept. 22, 1906 

Frank D. Arnold Oct. 9, 1906 

John S. Rader Nov. 5, 1906 

John K. Hahn March 11, 1907 

John Arthur Keppelman Sept. 19, 1907 

Wayne W. Light Feb. 10, 1908 


Practitioners of medicine were located in all the 
sections of the county from the earliest settlements, 
but their names have not been preserved because 
there was no place to register them. But they 
were scattered many miles apart. On this account, 
cases of ordinary sickness were generally attended 
to by the parents of the family, and the adminis- 
tration of home remedies was practised. The phys- 
icians in active practice were of the allopathic school 
altogether, those of the homoeopathic school not 
having started in the county until about 1838. Mid- 
wifery was in general use. Pow-wowing was prao 
tised to a considerable extent until in recent years, 
when it was gradually abandoned as education be- 
came more thorough and regular physicians more 

Resolved, That one hundred copies of the constitution 
and by-laws of the Medical Faculty of Berks county be 
printed in pamphlet form, under the superintendence of a 
committee consisting of Drs. Otto, Baum and Bishop, and 
that the proceedings of this evening, together with the 
inaugural address of the president, be pubHshed in the 
several papers of this borough, signed loy the president 
and attested by the secretary. 

On motion, 'Resolved, That the president deliver an ora-, 
tion in public as soon as may be convenient, in the name 
and on behalf of this faculty. 

The faculty adjourned to the next stated meeting on the 
first Saturday in October next, at 7 o'clock, p.m. 

Charles Baum, Recording Secretary. 

The members who subscribed the charter of in- 
corporation were as follows : 



Faculty of Berks County. — The 
physicians of this county, having 
and become a body politic in 
law (incorporated July 14, 1824), under the 
above style and title, met agreeably to public 
notice, on Saturday evening, Aug. 7, 1824, at the 
public building of this borough, and duly orga- 
nized their institution. Dr. Isaac Hiester was 
called to the chair, and Dr. Charles Baum ap- 
pointed secretary. The charter and bv-laws hav- 
ing been read, the following gentlemen were 
elected officers for the ensuing 3'ear : Isaac Hies- 
ter, president; C. L. Schlemm and John B. Otto, 
vice-presidents; Charles Baum, recording sec- 
retary; William J. C. Baum and Edward Hay- 
dock, corresponding secretaries; George Eckert, 
treasurer; Bernard M' Nicil and Gerhard G. 
Bishop, curators. 

The president delivered a short address to the 
association, and then proceeded agreeably to the 
by-l/aws to appoint a standing committee of 
three members for the examination of candi- 
dates for the grade of junior membiership. The 
following gentlemen composed the committee : 
C. L. Schlemm, John B. Otto and Charles Baum. 

The following resolutions were then ofifered, 
discussed and adopted : 

Resolved, That the members of the Medical Faculty be 
requested to furnish monthly to the corresponding secre- 
taries, a list of the diseases and deaths that may occur in 
their respective neighborhoods, and an account of the 
general health of the county, together with such remarks 
as they may deem proper for publication. 

Resolved, That it is expedient to apprize the public of 
the existence of small pox in this borough, and that inafl- 
much as this body retains undiminished confidence in vac- 
cination, this mild and safe preventative be strongly recom- 
mended in all cases deemed liable to the infection of that 
loathsome and too often fatal disease. 

Resolved, That the students in medicine of Berks county 
have permission to attend the meetings and deliberations 
of this body. 

William Wood 
Isaac Hiester 
John B. Otto 
John F. Baum 
Charles Baum 
William Cries 
Geo. N. Eckert 
Jacob Rodrock 

Bernard M'Neil (N. Y.) 
Jonathan F. Evans 
Enos Chichester 
Gerk G. Bischotz 
Edward Haydock 
August Klein 
C. L. Schlemim 
William J. C. Baum 

The charter was approved by Frederick Smith 
(of Reading), then attorney-general of Pennsyl- 
vania, on June 3, 1824 ; and by William Tilghman, 
John B. Gibson and Thomas Duncan, judges of 
the Supreme court, on June 4, 1824. 

Dr. Hiester, upon assuming the duties of the 
office to which he was unanimously chosen, deliv- 
ered an admirable address to the faculty. Among 
other things, he said that this organization was 
the first of the kind in Pennsylvania, excepting the 
College of Physicians and Medical Society of Phil- 

This society continued to exist, hold regular meet- 
ings and annually send representatives to the State 
Medical Society for a period of twenty years. On 
Feb. 23, 1850, the society was reorganized and the 
name changed to the "Medical Society of the City 
of Reading and the County of Berks," with the 
object of cultivating the science of medicine in all 
its collateral branches, to elevate and sustain medi- 
cal character, to encourage a system of profes- 
sional etiquette and to promote mutual improve- 
ment, social intercourse and good feeling among 
the members of the medical profession. No person 
could become a member of this society unless he 
were a graduate of some recognized medical col- 
lege. In 1866, the name was changed to Berks 
County Medical Society. In 1867 it "took the first 
steps toward establishing a public hospital at Read- 
ing, which eventually culminated in the Reading 

The society was disbanded in 1870, with a mem- 
ber.ship of thirty-seven. This dissolution grew out 



of a factional fight over an attempt to expel one 
of its prominent members. The one faction, num- 
bering twenty-two physicians, immediately after 
the dissolution, on the same day (Nov. 22, 1870), 
assembled at the office of Dr. John B. Brooke, 
No. 44 North Fourth street, Reading, and organ- 
ized another society entitled "Berks County Med- 
ical Association." The names of the organizers 
were as follows : 

J. S. Ammon 
J. Brobst 
Edward Brobst 
J. B. Brooke 
Geo. W. Byerle 
Joseph Coblentz 
A. B. Dundor 
J. S. Hunsberger 
S. L. Kurtz 
De B. Kuhn 
C. Kreye 

J. M. Matthews 
William Moore 
J. M. Newpher 
J. Y. Shearer 
J. K. Seaman 
J. B. Sterley 

C. Turner 

D. A. Ulrich 
Edward Wallace 
Charles Weber 

W. Murray Weidman 

After a temporary organization, a resolution was 
passed to the. effect that the new society be formed 
for mutual improvement in connection with the 
Pennsylvania State Medical Society and the Amer- 
ican Medical Association. . The constitution and by- 
laws were adopted at a meeting held Jan. 3, 1871 ; 
and a permanent organization was effected by elect- 
ing William Moore, president; J. S. Ammon and 
James M. Matthews, vice-presidents;' W. Murray 
Weidman, recording secretary; J. B. Brooke, cor- 
responding secretary; D. A. Ulrich, treasurer; Ed- 
ward Wallace, J. A. Brobst, De B. Kuhn, censors ; 
and Joseph Coblentz, curator. 

The name was then changed from the Berks 
County Medical Association to the Medical Society 
of the County of Berks ; and it was decided that the 
meetings be held bi-monthly and a business meeting 
should alternate with a meeting for the discussion 
of topics relating to the profession. 

At the meeting of the society held in Stauffer's 
Hall (the meeting place at that time and for several 
years afterward) March 7, 1871, Drs. S. L. Kurtz, 
D. A. Ulrich and Edward Wallace, a committee 
appointed to represent this society at the annual 
meeting of the State Medical Society at Philadel- 
phia, reported that they had gained recognition 
from that body, were admitted as members and the 
board of censors had approved of the society's con- 
stitution and by-laws. 

The first delegate election of this society for 
sending representatives to the American Medical 
Association was held on March 7, 1871, and Drs. 
Kuhn, Wily and Moore were selected for that pur- 

The Rocietv made its first annual visit to the 
Poor-House in March, 1871. 

In 1872, the subject of vaccination received the 
official indorsement of the society. 

In 1875, the place of meeting of the society was 
changed to the office of Dr. J. B. Brooke. 

In 1878, it favored the passage of a law by the 
State Legislature concerning "privileged communi- 
cations," so as to place physicians on an equality 

with other professions as witnesses in a court ot 
justice; and in that same year, the delegates to the 
State Society were instructed to favor a resolution, 
in connection with other county societies, that no 
member should admit into his office a student of 
medicine until he presented a certificate showing 
his educational qualifications; which the State So- 
ciety adopted. Shortly afterward, they encouraged 
the movement relating to the registration of all 
practising physicians, which culminated in the pas- 
sage of the Act of June 8, 1881, which required 
every practitioner to register his name and qualifi- 
cations in the prothonotary's office. 

In 1880, the society first started lectures on special 
topics, and on Sept. 7th, Dr. E. H. Coover, of Har- 
risburg, delivered a lecture on "spinal curvature." 

In 1881, the meeting place of the society was 
changed to the Reading Library, where it remained 
for several years, and then it was removed to the 
council chanibers temporarily. The stibject of per- 
manent quarters was then discussed and a commit- 
tee (consisting of Drs. Cleaver, Bachman and 
Keiser) was appointed to make the necessary in- 
quiries, not only for a meeting place but also for a 
"Medical Library," which had been earnestly advo- 
cated. In the course of their inquiries. Dr. John 
B. Raser, druggist, voluntarily offered a room in 
his store building at Sixth and Walnut streets, sec- 
ond story front, free of rent for an indefinite time, 
and this offer the society gratefully accepted. The 
quarters were then established in the Raser building 
and the meetings have been held there regularly 
ever since. Xhe membership in 1909 was 100. 

Immediately after its removal to this convenient 
place, Dr. W. Murray Weidman took a special in- 
terest in the establishment of a Medical Library 
and collected a large number of medical works as 
the foundation for its development, and this inter- 
est he continued with great earnestness until his 
decease in 1903, all the members of the society 
recognizing his services in that behalf. The library 
embraced a fine collection oi the best medical works 
and in 1909 numbered altogether about 1,375 

In 1883, the by-laws were amended, relating to 
the requirements of students and condemning the 
practice of copyrighting common pharmaceutical 
preparations under trade-marks; and in 1883, the 
society passed a resolution encouraging the estab- 
lishment of a suitable building at Washington for 
a National Medical Library and Surgical Museum. 

In 1884, the State delegates of the society were 
instructed to favor the creation of a State Board 
of Health ; which came to be established in 1885. 

In June, 1891, the Medical Society of the State 
held its forty-second annual convention at Reading. 
The proceedings were interesting and among the 
papers read there was one by Dr. Israel Cleaver, 
entitled the "History of the Medical Profession in 
Berks County." In that paper Dr. Cleaver stated 
that the State Society had been organized at Lan- 
caster in 1848, and its first annual convention had 



been held at Reading in 1849. Then the local so- 
ciety had a membership of twenty-six. 

Two of the presidents of the State Society had 
been selected from the Berks County Society: Dr. 
John P. Hiester, in 1853 ; and Dr. Edward Wallace, 
in 1862. 

Since the organization of the Society in 1870, the 
members have held annual banquets in January and 
outings in August, which have been distinguished 
for their literary excellence and true sociability. 

The membership in 1909 numbered 87. 

Reading Medpcal Association was organized 
May 27, 1850, with the following physicians as its 
first officers : 

President, William M. Gries ; vice-president, John 
P. Hiester; recording secretary, Edward Wallace; 
corresponding secretary, L. L. Stewart ; treasurer, 
Charles H. Hunter. 

The meetings were not held regularly until 1867 ; 
then, on July 30th, a third re-organization having 
been effected, a new constitution and by-laws were 
adopted. Its meetings have been held ever since 
at the same places as the county society. The mem- 
bers are practising allopathic physicians of Reading 
and the surrounding towns. Membership in 1909 
was 65. 

The Pathological Society was organized May 
10, 1871, with the following physicians as its first 
officers : 

President, D. L. Beaver; vice-presidents, Martin 
Luther, B. F Bunn ; secretary and treasurer, M. 
Albert Rhoads. 

The members constituted the other faction of 
physicians upon the disbanding of the "Berks 
County Medical Society," and they kept up its meet- 
ings for nearly twent)^ years. During this time, 
the bitter feeling, shown in such a marked manner 
in 1870, had entirely subsided and the surviving 
members had gradually identified themselves with 
the "Medical Society of Berks County." 

Allop.vthic Practitioners. — The names of the 
allopathic physicians of the county, with college 
and year of graduation, are presented herewith in 
alphabetical order; and they have been classified as 
at Reading, in the boroughs, and in the several 
sections of the county. [D indicates decease ; R, 
removed out of county.] 


Jacob S. Ammon, D U. of Pa., 1868 

George W. Ammon, D Jefferson, 1888 

Jacob D. Albright Phila. Med.-Chi., 1893 

Solomon G. Birch, D Jefferson, lS2o 

Joseph Brackbill U. of Pa., 1869 

George B. M. Bower Maryland Univ.. 1887 

Henry G. Baer Jefferson, 1888 

John L. Bower Jefferson, 1888 

Samuel R. Bricker Jefferson, 1889 

Francis H. Brobst Jefferson, 1888 

Daniel R, Brobst Jefferson, 189,5 

John M. Bertolet Jefferson, 1896 

Hiester Bucher XJ. of Pa., 1897 

Josiah T. Bunting, R U. of Pa., 1894 

Thomas C. Buchanan U. of Pa.. 1900 

Samuel G. Burkholder N. W. Univ., 1900 

John B. Brooke, D Jefferson, 1858 

D. Llewellvn Beaver, D Pa. College, 1841 

Daniel B. D. Beaver U, of Pa., 1871 

Charles W. Bachman Jefiferson, 1881 

Darius Z. Bowman, D Baltimore, 1880 

Jeremiah K. Bowers Phila. Amer. Univ., 1373 

John N. Becker Jefferson, 1882 

Frank W. Bucks Jefferson, 1886 

William S. Bertolet U. of Pa., 1900 

Henrv P. Brunner U. of Pa., 1908 

Joseph Coblentz, D U. of Pa., 1849 

Israel Cleaver U. of Pa., 1863 

Alfred J. Cressman, D U, of Pa., 1879 

Emma O. Cleaver Pa. Woman's, 1895 

Ferdinando Colletti Italy, 1896 

R. M. Culler Jefferson, 1901 

George Ray Curry Bait. Med. College, 1906 

Charles A. Deininger, D U. of P., 1855 

William N. Davis, D Jefferson, 1860 

Adam B. Dundor Jefferson, 1862 

W. N. Davis, D Jefferson, 1860 

Aaron C. Detweiler, D Jefferson, 1864 

Washington C. Detweiler, D Jefferson, 1877 

Thomas A. Dunkel, D Jefferson, 1865 

William B. Dewees, D U. of P., 1877 

Joseph C. Davis Jefferson. 1875 

C. A. F. Detweiler Phila. Med.-Chi., 1888 

Charles J. Dietrich U. of Pa., 1903 

George E. Dietrich Med.-Chi., 1906 

Samuel C. Ermentrout U. of Pa., 1866 

Jacob R. Esterly, R Jefferson, 1891 

Albert F. East Jefferson, 1893 

John V. Epler, D Pa. College 

Oliver H. Fisher U. of Pa., 1873 

James A. Fisher, D Pa. College, 1853 

Elias H. Frantz, D Jefferson, 1873 

F. W. Frankhauser Jefferson, 1880 

Oscar Edwin Fox U. of Pa.. 1906 

John F. Feick Jefferson, 1872 

John R. Faust Baltimore, 1886 

E. H. Fenstermaker Baltimore. 1898 

William E. Fisher U. of Pa., 1899 

Lloyd H. Feick Baltimore, 1903 

George S. Goodhart, D Pa. College. 1849 

Frank H. Good, D U. of Pa., 1878 

John B. Griesemer, D Jefferson, 1856 

Charles H. Gerhard U. of Pa., 190S 

W. H. Goodenough. D 1866 

Frederick Grander, R Jefferson, 1885 

David S. Grim Michigan Univ.. 1900 

James R. Gerhard U. of Pa., 1901 

Malcolm Z. Gearhart Jefferson. 1906 

Franklin J. Gable Jefferson, 1907 

Wellington D. Griesemer Jefferson, 1908 

Charles H. Hunter. D U. of Pa.. 1841 

Frank M. Hiester. D U. of Pa., 1852 

Samuel B. Heckman. D Jefferson! 1868 

J. S. Hinnershotz, D jj. of Pa., 1881 

Robert P. Huyett Tefferson! 1879 

James ]M, Hoffman, D Teffer^on 1858 

H. H. Herbst, R U. of Pa., 1881 

.Joseph H. Hagenman. D U. of Pa., 1871 

Charles Edward Hoffman, D 

Isaac Hiester, D .- . . U. of Pa., 

Tohn P. Hiester, D JJ. of Pa!i 

James M. Hoffman, D U. of Pa.! 

Henry Hagenman, D .' . 13,53 

Howard F. Hansell Jefferson, 1879 

Harry A. Hepler Jj. of Pa., 1888 

William T. Hoffman, D Jefferson, 1854 

Irvin H. Hartman Jj, of Pa.! 1895 

William A, J. Halbeisen Jefferson, 1897 

Oscar E. Hofmann "Jefferson, 1907 

Grace M. Harcourt, R Baltimore, 1901 

Ralph A, Harding Geo. Washinston Univ., 1908 

Erie G. Plawman U. of Pa., 1905 

John Y. Hoffman, D Jefferson, 1880 



Isaac B. Hacker Jefferson, 

Frank N. Irvin, R U. of Pa. 

George F. Johnson Jefferson 

Jacob R. Johns Jefferson 

Charles W. F. Kreye, D Germany, 

Samuel L. Kurtz Jefferson 

L. De B. Kuhn, R U. of Pa, 

Ellis J. Kurtz Jefferson 

James W. Keiser, D. U. of Pa. 

Thomas E. Krum Baltimore; 

Clarence M. Kurtz Jefferson, 

Ehzabeth Kendig, R Pa. Woman's 

Henry G. Krause : Phila. Med.-Chi 

Clifford L. Kaucher Med.-Chi., 

Franklin J. Kantner Jefferson 

Chester K. Kistler Jefferson, 

Elmer C. Kieffer Phila. Med.-Chi. 

Alvin J. ' Kistler Jefferson, 

J. W. Kaufman Jefferson 

Clara Shettef Keiser Pa. Woman's 

George W. Kehl Pa. W. Univ. 

Morris W. Koch, R JefferSbn 

Meyer J. Katz, R Jefferson, 

Martin Luther, D Jefferson, 

Henry Landis, D U. of Pa., 

E. J. Longhorn, R 

Charles G. Loose U. of Pa., 

Daniel G. Long ; U. of Pa 

James B. Lewis U. of Pa. 

Bernard R. Lee, R Jefferson 

Thomas H. Leidy Jefferson, 

Emil C. Luks Berlin 

Daniel Longaker Pa. W. Univ. 

John W. Luther, R U. of Pa. 

Israel J. K. Light, R U. of Pa. 

William W. Livingood Pa. W. Univ. 

George K. Levan Med.-Chi. 

Jacob Marshall, D U. of Pa. 

Miles F. McTaggart, R Pa. Eclectic, 

Isaac L. Mingle Jefferson 

James D. Y. Madeira Jefferson, 

Thomas B. Miller Baltimore, 

Edward G. Meter Phila. Med.-Chi, 

John E. Medley Phila. Med.-Chi 

Thomas H. Mackin Pa. W. Univ, 

William F. Muhlenberg U. of Pa 

James M. Matthews Jefferson 

Philip D. Marshall, D Jefferson 

Elija Martin 

Charles McDonough, D Pa. College, 

Henry C. Mohr, D..., Jefferson 

John C. McCoy N. Y. Univ. 

Matthias Mengel, Jr., R U. of Pa. 

Frederick LeRoy Mattern Jefferson 

Rudolph C. MoUmann U. of Pa., 

Hiester M. Nagle, D Jefferson 

William V. D. Nichols, R U. of Pa, 

Bodo Otto, D ■. Gottingen, 

John A. Otto, D 

John B. Otto, D U. of Pa., 

George W. Overholser Pa. W. Univ. 

John H. Orff Baltimore, 

Jonathan Potts, D Phila. Med. Inst. 

Theodore Pachla, D ' Germany, 

James B. R. Powell U. of Pa 

Louis W. Prevost 

Howard M. Parvin Baltimore, 

Ambrose Peffer, R Jefferson, 

Frank Rieser, Pa. College 

M. S. Reber U. of Pa. 

M. Albert Rhoads, D Jefferson 

Simon Reinbold Germany, 

A. S. Raudenbush Jefferson 

Walter S. Riegel, R U. of Pa. 

Harry F. Rentschler Jefferson, 

Howard S. Reeser Jefferson 

Wilson H. Rothermel Jefferson 

1879 Walter A. Rigg U. of Pa., 1895 

1893 Mayer Rosen Jefferson, 1897 

1887 Charles Roland U. of Pa., 1898 

1889 John H. Rorke U. of Pa., 1901 

1845 Homer J. Rhode -. Pa. W. Univ., 1901 

1854 Samuel B. Rigg U. of Pa., 1903 

1854 Frank G Runyeon U. of Pa., 1903 

1880 Charles T. Reber, D Jefferson, 1856 

1882 R. B. Rowe U. of Pa., 1885 

1886 C. W. G. Schlemm, D Pa. College, 1848 

1886 W. E. Schlemm, D U. of Pa., 1854 

1886 John Stephen, D U. of Pa., 1846 

,1887 C. E. Shoemaker, D Pa. College, 1860 

1907 John B. Sterley, D Phila. Med.-Chi., 1857 

1888 George W. Seip Jefferson, 1863 

1897 Adam Schoener, D Pa. College, 1840 

1899 Decatur G. Schoener, D Pa. College, 1853 

1902 Frederick Spang, D Jefferson, 1860 

1896 Charles J. Schulze, D Germany (1848), 1853 

1885 Erastus R. Scholl, D Pa. College, 1856 

1893 Aaron Smith, D N. Y. Med., 1854 

1896 Thomas A. Strasser U. of Pa., 1867 

1903 S. W. Sine U. of Pa., 1871 

1848 Ann Jane Schulze 1863 

1861 John Stolze, D Phila. Eclectic, 1865 

1871 Walker R. Stephen, D U. of Pa., 1872 

1868 L N. E. Shoemaker, D 1870 

1875 John Schoenfeld, D ; 1861 

1878 Stanley Smith Jefferson, 1868 

1879 John K. Seaman N. Y. Bellevue, 1869 

1869 Albert Simon, D 1870 

1853 Rudolph B. Schulze Jefferson, 1883 

1891 Albert W. Sovereen Ontario, 1870 

1899 Mary A. Swayze, R Pa. Woman's, 1873 

1899 Horace E. Schlemm Jefferson, 1886 

1899 John M. Stephen Jefferson, 1887 

1908 Eliza A. Shetter, R Pa. Woman's, 1886 

1810 [acob W. Seip Jefferson, 1883 

1865 ira G Shoemaker Phila. Med.-Chi., 1891 

1866 George R. Shenk .".Jefferson, 1889 

1883 William Seaman U. of Pa., 1892 

1896 John Shartle Jefferson, 1893 

1897 Edwin D. Schaeffer Baltimore, 1893 

1898 Seymour T. Schmehl Jefferson, 1891 

1900 Harry D. Stryker U. of Pa., 1893 

1868 Mary McD. Shick Pa. Woman's, 1895 

1840 Alvah A. Swayze Baltimore, 1897 

1852 Christopher Shearer U. of Pa., 1897 

1861 Albert N. Seidel Baltimore, 1901 

1848 Edwin Y. Seyler Baltimore, 1903 

1871 Amos B. Schnader, R Jefferson, 1903 

1879 Wayne L. Schearer U. of Pa., 1904 

1885 Charles K. Seidel Baltimore, 1904 

1903 Sidney J. Sondheim U. of Pa., 1907 

1908 Walter H. Scheehl Med.-Chi., 1907 

1857 Henry Tyson, D Pa. College, 1843 

1885 L. H. Thompson, D .' Jefferson, 1853 

1735 Oan J. Thompson Jefferson, 1895 

Louis L. Thompson Jefferson, 1896 

1808 Samuel B. Taylor Jefferson, 1895 

1902 Daniel A. Ulrich, D Jefferson, 1841 

1904 Alexander H. Witman, D U. of Pa., 

1768 Harrison T. Witman Jefferson, 1861 

1865 Edward Wallace, R U. of Pa., 

1878 W. Murray Weidman, D U. of Fa., 1860 

1886 M. LeRoy Wenger, D ' N. Y. Bellevue, 1874 

1887 Gershom Wenger U. of Pa., 1881 

1887 W. W. A. Wulfingh, D Amsterdam, 1876 

1852 Albert P. Walter Baltimore, 1884 

1863 Levi F. Wagner Phila. Med.-Chi., 1890 

1868 Victor W. Wickert Jefferson, 1891 

1863 William S. Wray, R U. of Pa., 1896 

1864 A. Wildberger r. . .U. of Pa., 1892 

1892 Abraham K. Wanner Jefferson, 1898 

1893 LeRoy J. C. Wenger N. Y. Univ., 1903 

1867 William C. Werts, R Baltimore, 1904 

1894 John G Wilson, R Phila. Med.-Chi.. 1904 



Raymond K. Weber Jefferson, 1905 

Jesse Levan Wagner U. of Pa., 1907 

Harry H. Wanner Jefferson, 1907 

Rex S. K. Wood U. of Mich, and Jeff., 1907 

Abel E. West Leonard Coll., N. C, 190S 

C. K. Young Baltimore, 1879 


Enoch Bricker, Bernville, D 

William S. Bieber, Kutztown 

Wellington G. Byerle, Bernville Jefferson, 1853 

John A. Brobst, Bernville U. of Pa., 1S67 

Edward Brobst, West Leesport, D Pa. College, 1853 

Martin L. Bertolette, Mt. Penn U. of Pa., 1878 

John S. Bowman, Boyertown U. of Pa., 1878 

Benjamin F. Bunn, Birdsboro, D Jefferson, 18-16 

Henry B. Brusstar, Birdsboro, R Jefferson, 1873 

John S. Borneman, Boyertown U. of Pa., 1878 

Daniel Deppen, Bernville, D 

James Donagan, Kutztown 

Darius D. Deppen, Bernville, D Pa. College, 1853 

Darius W. Dundor, Womelsdorf U. of Pa., 1881 

Frank P. Dundor, West Leesport Jefferson, 1870 

Charles B. Dotterer, Boyertown Med. -Chi., 1907 

C. F. DeLong. Bechtelsvi'lle. D N. Y. Univ., 1888 

N. Z. Dunkelberger, Kutztown Phila. Med.-Chi., 1890 

George N. Eckert, Womelsdorf, D 1824 

L. K. Francis, Boyertown U. of Pa., 1871 

A. M. Fretz, Fleetwood U. of Pa., 1803 

A. P. Fogleman, Womelsdorf U. of Pa., 1884 

George W. Fahrenbach, Bernville Baltimore, 1900 

William Gries, Womelsdorf, D ■ U. of Pa., 1823 

Charles A. Gerasch, Kutztown, D Germany 

Alexander S. Gillars, Birdsboro Jefferson, 1888 

Oscar T. Gehris, Fleetwood Boston Univ., 1898 

Reuben Haines, Kutztown 

W. H. J. Henkey, Boyertown Jefferson, 1879 

Edward Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson, 1853 

Edward L. Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson, 1886 

A. C. L. Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson, 1871 

William Harris, Hamburg, D Jefferson, 1869 

William J. Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson, 1889 

Eugene T. Hancock, Boyertown, R Jefferson, 1891 

A. S. C. Herman, Topton '.U. of Pa., 1881 

M. A. Hengst, Birdsboro, D Jefferson, 1878 

Charles A. Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson, 1895 

Aaron E. Hain, Birdsboro U. of South, 1895 

James A. Harris, Hamburg Jefferson, 1896 

Milton E. Hartman, Fleetwood Jefferson, 1902 

E. K. Hottenstein, Kutztown Jefferson, 1883 

George Hetrick, Birdsboro Jefferson, 1885 

Henry W. Johnson, Boyertown, D Jefferson, 1841 

Frederick S. Kaufman, Kutztown U.of Pa., 1891 

Isaac L Kalbach, Centreport Jefferson, 1893 

Oscar F, Kunkel, Lenhartsville Jefferson, 1903 

James C. Livingood, Womelsdorf, D 1841 

Louis Livingood, Womelsdorf, D Jefferson, 1854 

John Lesher, Womelsdorf 

John Livingood, Womelsdorf, D 

Horace F. Livingood, Womelsdorf Jefferson, 1882 

Charles E. Lerch. Womelsdorf Jefferson, 1905 

George H. Landis, Birdsboro, D 1859 

Caleb Liggett, Birdsboro, D 

James Lincoln, Birdsboro. D Jefferson, 1878 

Frank P. Lytle, Birdsboro Pa. W. Univ., 1894 

Rufus E. LeFevre, Boyertown, R Jefferson, 1900 

William Moore, Womelsdorf, D N. Y. Univ., 1836 

Joseph E. Miller, Kutztown Jefferson, 1886 

Joseph F. Merkel, Boyertown, R U. of Pa., 1894 

James G. Matterness, Centreport Jefferson, 1897 

Ira K. Moser, Birdsboro, D Jefferson, 1880 

William J. Martin, Hamburg Jefferson, 1881 

Franklin V. Nyce, Hamburg, D Jefferson, 1851 

Franklin M. Nyce, Hamburg Jefferson, 1870 

Benjamin Nyce, Hamburg, D Jefferson, 1878 

Henry G. Nyce, Hamburg Jefferson, 1883 

Howard Y. Neyman, Boyertown, R Jefferson, 1879 

Jonathan B. Potteiger, Hamburg Jefferson, 1859 

Walker S. Phillips, Womelsdorf : . . 1869 

George F. Potteiger, Hamburg Jefferson, 1890 

George H. Pflueger, Topton Baltimore, 1908 

Thomas J. B. Rhoads, Boyertown Baltimore, 1801 

Pius Rothermel, Birdsboro U. of Pa., 1889 

Reuben B. Rhoads, Boyertown Jefferson, 1857 

Clarence C. Rether, Centreport Jefferson, 1884 

Lewis P. Rothermel, Lenhartsville Med.-Chi., 1908 

Christian L. Schlemm. Kutztown, D, Gottingen Univ., 1798 

F, L. Sallade, Womelsdorf Jefferson, 1876 

John H. Spatz, Centreport Pa. College, 1848 

Samuel B. Swavely, Birdsboro, R Jefferson, 1877 

Henry H. Suavely, Bernville 1878 

Frank R. Sallade, Womelsdorf Jefferson, 1893 

Adam F. M. Stump, Fleetwood. .. .Phila. Med.-Chi., 1903 

Charles C. Stauffer, Boyertown, R U. of Pa., 1903 

Henry M. Saul, Kutztown Baltimore, 1894 

Charles E. Schlappig, Bernville Baltimore, 1908 

Jeremiah S. Trexler, Kutztown, D U. of Pa., 1853 

Samuel M. Todd, Boyertown, D U. of Pa., 1865 

W. D. Trexler, Topton N. Y. Bellevue, 1866 

John H. Todd, Boyertown, R U. of Pa., 1893 

Charles H. Wanner, Kutztown D 

William Woods, Womelsdorf, D 

Cvrus Wanner, Kutztown. D 1875 

John R. Wagner, Hamburg N. Y. Bellevue, 1886 

Charles D. Werley, Topton Jefferson, 1889 

Samuel E. Wertman, Bechtelsville, R Jefferson, 1889 

William S. Wolfe, Fleetwood Jefferson, 1897 

George White, Womelsdorf ... .Ky. School of Med., 1905 
George W. Ziegler, Lenhartsville,. . .Ky. Sch. of Med., 1887 


Charles Baum, Exeter, D 

Wm. J. C. Baum, Amity, D 

John C. Baum, Amity, D 

Peter G. Bertolet, Oley, D U. of Pa., 1845 

Oswin W. Berky, Washington Phila. ]\Ied.-Chi., 1901 

Walter M. Bertolet, Oley Jefferson, 1902 

Frank R. Brunner, Eshbach, D Jefferson, 1861 

Daniel W. Bortz, Esterly Baltimore, 1885 

Calvin K. Christman, Bally, D U. of Pa., 1869 

Monroe F. Clouser, Oley Med.-Chi., 1908 

George de Benneville, Oley, D France, 1745 

Mark Darrah, Amity, D 

George S. Engler, Temple, D U. of Pa., 1863 

J. Wilson Eckert, Temple Jefferson, 1894 

Ephraim H. Egolf, Amityville Jefferson, 1884 

Amandus N. Fegley, Spangsville Jefferson, 1870 

M. O. Greenewald. Shanesville, D U. of Pa., 1S73 

Alfred O. Gery, Herefordville Jefferson, 1893 

John C. Hersh, Herefordville U. of Pa., 1876 

Charles H. Hartline, Friedensburg Jefferson, 1892 

William Herbst, Pikeville, D Jefferson, 1825 

George E. M. Herbst, Oley Jefferson, 1878 

William F. Hertzog, New Jerusalem; L. Island Col., 1880 

J. A. Hatsfield, Oley, R U. of Pa., 1862 

Roswell F. Herman, Douglassville U. of Pa., 1870 

Warren E. G. High, Esterly, R U. of Pa., 1891 

John A. Jack, Oley, D U. of Pa., 1862 

Augustus Knoske, District, D 

Paul Kreye, Oley, D 1871 

Elias Kitchen, Amity, D Vermont College, 1850' 

Andrian Loewen, Friedensburg, D Prussia, 1825 

Jacob S. Ludwig, Amityville, R.... Phila. Med.-Chi.! 1903 

Ralph Y. Lechner, Hereford Jefferson, 1890 

James May, Amity, D 

Daniel McLean, Amity Jefferson, 1873 

Michael Ludwig, Amity, D U. of Pa., 1815 

Elam B. Mauger, Douglass, R Jefferson, 1875 

Jacob Plank, Oley, D Switzerland, 1700 

Milton W. Phillips, Eshbach Med.-Chi., 190S 

Jacob Rothrock, Ruscombmanor, D 

John A. Roth, Siesholtzville, R U. of Pa., 1875 


Joel Y. Schelley, Hereford, D Stephen W. Seyman, Wernersville. . Phila. Med.-Chi., 1899 

William S. Schantz, Huff's Church U. of Pa., 18S8 H. Forsythe Stapp, Bethel Bait. Umv., 1907 

Jacob A. Trexler, Pikeville,. R Jefferson, 1901 Michael Tryon, Rehrersburg, D 

Charles Weber, Pricetown, D Germany, 1848 Jacob Tryon, Rehrersburg, D 1821 

Isaac B. Yeakel, Bally U. of Pa., 1866 John S. Tryon, Rehrersburg, D. ...U. of Pa., 1857 

John A. Tenny, WernersVille, D.. Hygeo-Therap, N. Y., 1868 

ONTELAUNEE SECTION Reuben I. W/enrich, Wernersville U. of Pa., 1864 

Wilson D. DeLong, Blandon Vermont Univ., 1883 E. C L. Walter, Walter's Park, Hygeo-Ther?p N. Y., 1876 

Milton H. Fritch. VirginviUe Jefferson, 1871 ^?^<i^sWa'er^ Walter's Park. ... .Pa. Woman s, 1898 

Nicholas K. Fisher, ShoemakersviUe Jefferson 1883 J°hn H. Wahl, H.ester's Mills Indiana College, 1888 

W. E. Hunsberger, Maiden-creek Jefferson. 1864 ' ?T'S=. ^W^^ • TNa?^' Tl "^ vV' of P.' iQOfi 

Aj TtTt.ii'i. -crir. John A. Wcnnch, Wernersville U. ot ra., 190b 

Adam J. Heberly, Kempton . . . . . 1870 '^.^^.^^ ^ y^^^'^^ Strausstown Jefferson, 1893 

Ji",^;? ^- Huff, Kempton Vermont Univ., 1885 j^^^^^ ^^ina Wheeler, Wernersville. Women's Med. Col., 1907 

William F. Howerter, Kempton Phila. Med.-Chi., 1903 ' 

Henry H. Herb, Mertztown Phila. Med.-Chi., 1904 SCHUYLKILL SECTION 

William H. Hunsberger, 'Maiden-creek Jefferson, 1893 Eugene R. DeLong, Geiger's Mills Jefferson, 1891 

Morris H. Koch, Lyons N. Y. Bellevue, 1880 Tobias S. Gerhard, Beckersville U. of Pa., 1864 

Jesse G. Kistler, Albany Baltimore, 1888 F. R. Gerhard, Union U. of Pa., 1869 

M. S. Long, Longswamp, D U. of Pa., 1863 Isaac Halterman, Beckersville 1848 

John A. Long, Longswamp Baltimore, 1893 Martin L. Huyett, Shillington Pa. W. Univ., 1900 

Howard A. Long, Longswamp Baltimore, 1893 D. W. B. Kupp, Gibraltar - U. of Pa., 1883 

Howard U. Miller, Leesport Med.-Chi., 1908 Daniel W. Martin, Morgantown Jefferson, 1907 

Milton S. Richards, Maxatawny, D Jefferson, 1867 D. Heber Plank, Morgantown, D U. of Pa., 1867 

John D. Rupp, Richmond N. Y. Bellevue Hosp., 1877 Henry Palm-, Geigertown Pa. College, 1850 

H. W. Swenk, Krumsville N. Y. Bellevue, 1881 Jonathan Pounder, Morgantown, D 1830 

Wilson M. Snyder, Mohrsville Baltimore, 1883 Herbert L. Quickel Med.-Chi., 1909 

Henry M. Schall, ShoemakersviUe Jefferson, 1887 Conrad S. Reber, West Reading Jefferson, 1903 

James Smith, Maxatawny Jefferson, 1895 William Rollman, Geigertown Jefferson, 1857 

I. M. ShoUenberger, Lyons Baltimore, 1901 John Vaughan Smith, Joanna, D U. of Pa., 1829 

Owen H. Wily, Berkley, D Jefferson, 1831 J. Howard Smith, Joanna, D U. of Pa., 1838 

Penrose Wily, Leesport, D Jefferson, 1850 James Y. Shearer, Sinking Spring Jefferson, 1862 

James F. Wertz, Longswamp, D Pa. College, 1861 R. S. Schweitzer, Shillington Baltimore, 1881 

Peter W. Wertz, Longswamp, D U. > of Pa., 1864 John Schnader, Brecknock 1864 

Bartholomew Yeager. Lyons, D Germany, 1848 W. B. Schoener, Mohnsville U. of Pa., 18182 

Allison A. Stamm, Mohnsville Vermont Univ., 1883 

TULPEHOCKEN SECTION Frank W. Wiley, Mohnsville Jefferson, 1887 

Thomas M. Angstadt, Strausstown, Jefferson, 1890 William S. Yoder, Morgantown Phila. Med. -Chi., 1898 

William S. Buehler, Wernersville Jefferson, 1889 Joseph A. Zook U. of Pa., 1909 

Thomas G. Binkley, Sinking Spring Jefferson, 1888 

John M. Brause, Shartlesville Jefferson, 1873 

George A. Bickel, Rehrersburg, D Jefferson, 1878 HOMOEOPATHY 

Levi G Batdorff Mt. Aetna, D Pa College, 1856 The practice of the Homoeopathic school of med- 

Henry Batdorff, Millersburg, D U. of Pa., 1876 • • ^ i 4. j j. t) „j- ■ -lo/in u /- 

M. D M. Batdirff, Millersburg, D U. of Pa.! 1867 icmewas Started at Reading in 1840, by a German 

Daniel B. Brobst, Stouchsburg Jefferson, 1882 physician of distinction, named Adolph Lippe. He 

Henry L. Bollman, Robesonia Jefferson, 1884 practised here two years, then removed to Carlisle. 

John A- Conrad, Robesonia . . .Long Island Hospital 1867 jyj. John Henry Behne was a graduated allopathic ' 

jlmes^W^D^Sw^rn^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Physifn from Wuerzbnrg, in Bavaria, and emi- 

Jacob H. Drawbaugh, Robesonia Baltimore, 1886 grated to Pennsylvania in 1840, when forty years 

Thomas C. Fanning, Walter's Park, R...N. Y. Univ., 1861 old, locating at Reading. He became intimate with 

John W. Frankhouser Shartlesville,. Phila. Med.-Chi., 1889 Dr.' Lippe and through him was converted to the 

Cranio w'-G!y:''M^.'iTniV.V.-.V.VPhila.-Med°.-CH;; ^898 P-<^tice of homoeopathy. _ He was a man of fine 

David H. Hain, Wernersville Jefferson, 1881 hterary culture and superior character and had a 

Charles F. Hertzog, Mt. Aetna Phila. Med.-Chi., 1889 large and lucrative practice. He died at Reading 

John H. Home, Schaefferstown Jefferson, 1891 in 1876. 

Leonard G. Hain, Wernersville Jefferson, 1893 t>_ n^„^„„ -d cj.„-i,„ / c -mt ■ \ ii.i j 

•ChristianN. Hoffman, Sinking Spring, D... Jefferson; 1863 ^^l: ^^?'^§^,^f- Starkey (of Maine) settled at 

J. S. Herbein, Sinking Spring, D Jefferson, 1865 Reading in 1855 and practised homoeopathy for 

Isaac S. Herbein, Strausstown, D Jefferson, 1865 several years and then removed to Philadelphia. 

Oscar B Herbein Strausstown. . ■ J?*'^?"?"' I^!^^ He was followed by Dr. R. Sargent, who also prac- 

Samuel S. Hill, Wernersville Asylum.. Pa. W. Univ., 1894 j.- „j f„, „ r„ ,„„_„. „„ 1 j.t- t-i t> ■ ■ t. 

■T. B. Hossler, Upper Bern, D.... ..1865 ^'^^'^ ^^^^ ^ ^ • "^ 7„?o ' ' f""^ ^^i^ ^''- .Benjamm R. 

Warren F. Klein, Strausstown Jefferson, 1887 -oratt began in 1858, who continued in active and 

Alden B. MacDonald, Wernersville, R Jefferson, 1906 successful practice until his decease in 1873 By 

Isaac W. Newcomet, Stouchsburg. Pa. W. Univ., 1867 that time, homoeopathy had become thoroughly es- 

James S. Preston, L. Heidelberg. Hygeo-Therap, N. Y., 1873 i.^u:;^v,oA r,„A ;*. £„„ t= • j r n 

kbert P. Preston, L. Heidelberg. Jefferson! 1883 tab ished, and it has been carried on successfully 

Mary Preston, L. Heidelberg Pa. Woman's, 1884 and prominently untd now by a number of physi- 

Abram Ruth, Fritztown, D Pa. College, 1841 cians. 

■W F. Ross, Wernersville, R. Baltimore, 1881 Rey. John Helfrich became the first homoeopathic 

Adam Schoener, Rehrersburg, D U. of Pa.. 1820 u ■ ■ ■ ^u ^ j- ^ ■ , 1 ■ /^" "^^"t""-"»^ 

■C. B. Strohm, Shartlesville, D 1834 Physician in the country districts, having graduated 

Adam J. Schoener, Rehrersburg, D Pa. Coilege, 1860 in 1835 at Allentown and afterward settled at 

J. M. Strohm, Shartlesville N. Y. Univ., 1881 Kutztown. He was succeeded by his son, Dr. John 



Henry Helfrich, who practised at Kutztown from 
1866 to 1877 and then removed to Allentown. 

Dr. F. R. Krebs practised at Hamburg from 1857 
to 1894, when he removed to Reading; and he was 
succeeded by Dr. Frederick Isett, and Dr. Joseph 
Hatzfield, who had been students under him. 

The Hahnemann Medical Society of Reading 
was organized in 1882, in the office of Dr. Samuel 
R. Rittenhouse, at No. 38 South Fourth street, by 
eight homoeopathic physicians of Reading, and it 
had an active existence for about ten years. 

The Homoeopathic Practitioners Association 
OF Reading was organized in 1896 and it has come 
to be the representative society of the homoeopathic 
school of medicine in this vicinity. The meetings 
are held monthly for the discussion of scientific 
papers ; and the July or midsummer meeting is held 
at one of the mountain resorts near the city. The 
midsummer meeting is also attended by members 
of the homoeopathic county societies of eastern 

The following named homoeopathic physicians 
constitute its membership : 

W. F. Marks 

D. C. Kline 

H. F. Schantz 

Margaret Hassler Schantz 

C. R. Haman 

F. W. Seidel 

C. M. Richards 

M. L. Miller 

F. E. Howell 
J. E. Harner 

G. I. Keen 
W. A. Haman 

E. M. Deacon. 

F. F. Massey 

Homoeopathic Medical and Surgical Hospi- 
tal OF Reading. — During the summer of 1888, Dr. 
E. R. Scholl invited the homoeopathic physicians 
of Reading to assemble at his office, No. 517 Wal- 
nut street, to organize a Homoeopathic Dispensary 
Association, and an organization was then effected 
by the election of Dr. Scholl as president and Dr. 
D. C. Kline as secretary. They proceeded immedi- 
ately to open a dispensary at the corner of Franklin 
and Plum streets, and rendered much needed serv- 
ice to the poor of the city. Upon being incorpor- 
ated in 1891, a board of trustees was organized and 
the present property on North Sixth street, beyond 
Washington, was purchased through the generosity 
of friends and the public; and the trustees were 
enabled to open the hospital in July, 1891. 

Many ladies became interested in its welfare and 
they organized a "Ladies Auxiliary," which rend- 
ered valuable service in the maintenance of the 
hospital. Later a "Young Ladies Auxiliary" was 
organized " to supply flowers, delicacies and luxur- 
ies" to patients, and they raised funds at various 
times for the renovation of parts of the hospital, 
and the purchase of instruments and supplies. 

A training school for nurses has been conducted 
in the hospital from the beginning, proving of great 
benefit to the hospital in addition to the training of 
young women as nurses, in the community. 

From time to time various improvements were 
made to the building, fitting it more thoroughly for 
a hospital, until in 1905 the demand for rooms be- 

came so great that a new building was erected in 
the rear of the main building, increasing the capa- 
city to seventy-five beds in public and private wards 
and private rooms, and giving the city a modern 
and up-to-date hospital under homoeopathic man- 

The staff of the hospital is selected from the 
members of the "Homoeopathic Hospital and Dis- 
pensary Association," and while varying somewhat 
from time to time the following physicians consti- 
tuted the staff for ] 909 : W. F. Marks, S. L. Dreib- 
elbis, L. A. Shollenberger, D. C. Kline, H. F. 
Schantz, C. R. Haman, M. Hassler Schantz, L. M. 
Richards, F. E. Howell, and W. A. Haman. 

Homoeopathic Practitioners. — The names of 
the homoeopathic physicians are presented also in 
alphabetical order for the entire county on accotmt 
of the limited number in the districts out of 

H. M. Allen. Reading Phila. Med.-Chi., 1894 

George W. Crock, Reading Hahnemann, 188J> 

Samuel L. Dreibelbis, Reading Hahnemann, 1861 

D. Frank Dreibelbis, Reading, R Hahnemann, 1890 

Edward M. Deacon. Birdsboro Hahnemann, 1894 

C. A. F. Detweiler, Reading Med.-Chi., 1888 

Solomon L. Dreibelbis, Reading Hahnemann, 1907 

John Ege, Reading Hahnemann, 1883 

David W. Ensinger, Mt. Aetna Hahnemann, 1902 

J. G. Grosscup, Reading, D Hahnemann, 1873 

Paul H. Gerhardt, Reading Hahnemann, 1908 

William A. Haman, Reading Hahnemann, 1883 

Frederick E. Howell, Reading Hahnemann, 1900 

Charles R. Haman, Reading Hahnemann, 1891 

George W. Heck, Reading Hahnemann, 1907 

Charles T. Haines, Sinking Spring Hahnemann, 190S 

Joseph F.^ Isett, Hamburg Hahnemann, 1876 

John C. Knauer, Reading 

Col. of Phys. & Surg., Baltimore, 1886 

Chester B. Jennings, Reading Hahnemann, 1881 

L. J. Knerr, Reading, R Hahnemann, 1880 

D. C. Kline, Reading Hahnemann, 1883 

Calvin L. Klopp, Stouchsburg, D Hahnemann, 1S87 

George I. Keen, Reading Hahnemann, 189* 

Henry R. Klopp, Reading, R Hahnemann, 1894 

Egbert Leroy Klock, Reading Hahnemann, 1905 

Frank H. Lawrence, Reading Hahnemann, 1906 

Franklin F. Massey, Womelsdorf Hahnemann, 1903 

A. S. McDowell, Reading Hahnemann, 1896 

William F. Marks, Reading Hahnemann, 1869 

Alvm I. Miller, Reading, R Hahnemann, 1873 

Martin L. Miller. Mohnsville Hahnemann, 1898 

William E. IMorgan, Reading. R Hahnemann, 1900 

Theodore Pachali, Reading 

^led. Dept. U. of Kiel, Germany, 1869 

Isadore L. Peters, Kutztown Hahnemann, 1888 

John S. M. Pratt, Reading, R Hahnemann, 1903 

J. S. Rittenhouse, Reading Hahnemann, 18S.5 

Charles M. Richards, Reading Hahnemann, 1899 

J. C. Sanders, Reafling N. Y. Homoeopathic, 1900 

Francis R. Schnnicker, Reading D 

„ „ • ■, , ■ • N. Y. Homoeopathic, 1873 

E. Z. Schmucker, Reading, D Hahnemann, 1870 

T ■ V ■ ?*f Hf'' ,I"^"tztown Hahnemann, 1884 

T -%■ Schollenberger, Reading Hahnemann, 1884 

A. Cecil Stewart, Ridgewood, R 

,. ■•■;■;-■,■■■; N. Y. Homeopathic, 1887 

Horace J. Shmkle, Reading, R Hahnemann, ISSO 

Henry F Schantz, Reading Hahnemann, 1891 

Frank W. Seidel, Reading Hahnemann. 1S94 

M. Hassler Schantz, Reading 

Cleveland Homo. Med. Col., 1892' 



F. W. Sunandy, Hyde Park Hahnemann, 1897 

William L. Vaughn, Stouchsburg Hahnemann, 189^ 

Paul B. Waldman, Reading Hahnemann, 1884 

Robert L. Walter, Walter's Park ...Hahnemann, 1900 

Robert Walter, WaUer's Park 

.Hygeo-Therapeutic, N. Y., 1873. Hahnemann, 1888 
Joseph M. Walborn, Fleetwood Hahnemann, 1907 


A school of medical science whose therapeutic 
system constitutes a practice of treating disease in 
all forms without the aid of drugs was instituted 
in 1874 by Dr. A. T. Still, of Baldwin, Kans., who 
is known as the founder of the "School of Osteop- 

The first college was started in 1894 in Kirksville, 
Mo. Since that time other colleges have been es- 
tablished in the principal centers of the United 
States, and there are now osteopathic practitioners 
in all the large cities and most of the larger towns 
in the country. 

The practice of osteopathy has been legally ac- 
knowledged in thirty States; and in many States 
there is an independent examining and licensing 
board, or an osteopathic representative on the State 
Board of Health. 

A bill was laid before the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania at the session of 1904 for the purpose of 
legalizing the practice in Pennsylvania, but it was 
not passed. It was, however, recognized in 1909, 
the Act regulating the practice having been ap- 
proved March 9th. 

The osteopaths have been organized into State 
associations ; also one national, called "The Amer- 
ican Osteopathic Association." 

Osteopathy was first introduced into Reading in 
February, 1899, by Dr. Anna C. Towle, but owing 
to ill health after having practiced for nearly a 
year, she disposed of her practice to Dr. H. H. Wal- 
pole, and he continued it until 1908, when he left 
the city. Four practitioners -are now at Reading, 
namely : 

Laura De Long 

H. L. Maxwell and his wife 

H. J. Vastine 


The practice of dentistry was not carried on as a 
distinct profession in Berks county until about 1850. 
The first dental college was established at Balti- 
more shortly before that time, and the next was at 
Philadelphia in 1851. Theretofore regular physi- 
cians extracted teeth. Previously the repair of 
teeth and the supply of false teeth were rare, con- 
fined almost entirely to great cities and indulged in 
by people of means. 

About that time and for twenty years afterward 
the persons who were inclined to dentistry would 
spend several months with a recognized dentist and 
under him acquire some practical experience, then 
start out for themselves. The first graduated dent- 

al surgeons in Berks county from a college were 
Dr. William H. Scholl and Dr. John W. Clemson, 
both of Reading, who graduated from the Penn- 
sylvania Dental College at Philadelphia in 1865. 
Dr. Scholl has practised his profession at Reading 
ever since, but Dr. Clemson never practised here, 
having shortly afterward removed to Bordeaux, 
France, and there carried on (until now) the manu- 
facture of dental supplies. 

The earliest recognized dentists at Reading were 
John Piper, John Arnold, W. K. Breneizer, T. 
Yardly Brown, and Frank Hickman, the last two 
still surviving but residing out of the county. 

In 1876, an Act was passed— on April 17th— by 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania which required 
dental surgeons who practised in the State to be 
graduates of a reputable institution where this spe- 
cialty was taught, and to register their diplomas 
in the county where they resided. The diplomas 
were to be registered within three months after the 
passage of the Act. But the Act was not to apply 
to any surgeon who had practised dentistry for 
three years prior to its passage. The following 
statement shows the registered practitioners in the 
county, with college and year of graduation. 
Where no college is given, the year shows the time 
when the practitioner started. 

The Act of 1876 established a State Board of six 
examiners, who were to be selected by the State 
Dental Society, and this Board was to approve the 
diplomas before registration. This Act was amend- 
ed in 1897, and Dr. C. V. Kratzer, of Reading, was 
one of the members of the first Board under this 
amended Act, having been appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, but he served only several months, until the 
the appointment of a new Board by the succeeding 
Governor in January, 1898. 

Dr. Wilson D. Da Long, of Reading, was ap- 
pointed as one of the State examiners in September, 
1906, for the term of three years. 

The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the Lebanon 
Valley Dental Association was held at Reading, in 
the Masonic Temple, May 11, 1909. 


Morris R. Adam, Reading Pa. University, 1903 

Charles S. Bertolet, Reading Pa. University, 1900' 

Abram L. Bower, Boyertown Pa. University, 1901 

Samuel L. Bower, Boyertown Philadelphia, 1902- 

John T. Bair, Reading Pa. University, 1903' 

Joseph H. Borneman, Boyertown, D 1867 

Daniel B. Bower, Boyertown 186T 

N. S. Borneman, Boyertown, D 1881 

Joel B. Bower, Boyertown 1882 

Henry W. Bohn, Reading Pa. University, 

Daniel L. Bower, Boyertown, D Philadelphia, 1893 

Edward W. Bohn, Reading Pa. "University, 1897 

Ha;-ry L. Cleaver, Reading Pa. University, 1896 

Raymond S. De Long, Reading Pennsylvania, 1900 

George F. De Long, Reading Pa. University, 1903 

Frank L. DeGour, Reading Pennsylvania, 1870 

Arthur B. Davis, Reading, R Philadelphia, 1896 

Wilson D. DeLong, Reading Pa. University, 1897 

William G. Dusto, Reading Medico-Chi., 1906 

Charles S. Fry, Reading 1872 

Charles E. Grim, Reading Philadelphia, 1901 



Milton U. Gerhard, Reading Pa. University, 1903 

Jacob M. Gartman, Reading Pennsylvania, 1903 

Clarence B. Grim, Reading U. of Pa., 1907 

Walter S. Herr, Reading Pennsylvania, 1897 

Abram Herr, Reading 1869 

H. B. Hamaker, Womelsdorf 1867 

Kurtz D. Hill Pennsylvania, 1S84 

Glyndeur Hickman, Reading Philadelphia, 1886 

Ziba Hickman, Reading Philadelphia, 1888 

H. J. Hickey, Reading, R Baltimore, 1884 

Charles A. Hottenstein, Kutztown Pennsylvania, 1892 

Edwin E. Howerter, Reading Medico-Chi„ 1903 

Raymond L. Hamaker, Womelsdorf .. Pa. Dent. Col., 1908 

Abraham B. Johnson, Kutztown 1880 

Harry T. Johnson, Reading 1880 

Harvev C. Johnson, Reading Philadelphia, 1889 

J. F. Kinsey, Reading, D 1864 

William H. Kalbach, Hamburg 1863 

William H. Kilmer, Reading Pennsylvania, 1878 

Henry D. Kurtz, Reading, R Baltimore, 1881 

C. V. Kratzer, Reading Pennsylvania, 1897 

Frank P. Lewis, Reading Baltimore, 1880 

George M. Maxwell, Birdsboro Baltimore, 1898 

William Meter, Reading Phila. Med.-Chi., 1900 

Jonathan B. Miesse, Reading Philadelphia, 1872 

Peter S. Mogel, Reading Pa. University, 1889 

George S. Rothermel, Fleetwood Pa. University, 1900 

J. L. Ritter, Reading, R 1873 

G. H. P. Rabenhold, Hamburg Pennsylvania, 1890 

Levi H. Reinhart. Birdsboro, D Philadelphia, 1894 

George S. Schlegel, Reading Pa. University, 1900 

Otto J. Specker, Reading Pa. University, 1903 

Mvron B. Shuman, Reading Pa. University, 1903 

U. of Pa., 1905 

Eli Slegel, Reading, D 1855 ■ 

William PL Scholl, Reading Pennsylvania, 1865 

Joel E. Slegel, Reading, D Philadelphia, 1868 

Charles R. Scholl, Reading Philadelphia, 1888 

Calvin G. Shomo, Hamburg Pennsylvania, 1889 

Walter R. Slegel, Reading Philadelphia, 1891 

Elton Stimmel, Reading Pennsylvania, 1893 

D. Ambrose Stein. Reading, R Pa. University, 1894 

Samuel E. Slegel, Reading Philadelphia, 1897 

John F. Schoenberger, Reading Medico-Chi., 1905 

George Stimmel, Kutztown Pa. Dental College, 1905 

Carlos H. Thimme, Reading, R Philadelphia, 1870 

Jacob F. Thomas, Reading, R 1882 

Elwood Tate, Reading ; Pennsylvania, 1891 

S. Edmund Tate, Reading Pennsylvania, 1897 

Caleb D. Thomas. Reading Pa. Dental College, 1906 

Herman G. Wotherspoon, Reading U. of Pa., 1907 

Kensie N. Yoder, Wernersville Pa. University, 1903 

WiUiam L. Yocum, Reading, R Philadelphia, 1891 

Levi Zimmerman, Bethel, R Boston, 1877 

From the beginning of the first settlements nntil 
the year 1889, the practice of medicine and surgery 
in connection with domestic animals was carried on 
without any legal restrictions. Farmers and men 
of experience, who had become faniihar, through 
long observation, with animal sicknesses and dis- 
eases, prescribed and administered the necessary 
remedies, and in every section of the county there 
came to be men who were recognized for their skill 
in curing domestic animals of their various ail- 
ments. Then (April 11th) an Act of Assembly 
was passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania 
which related to the practice of veterinary medicine 
and surgery, and every practitioner of this particu- 
lar branch of the profession was obliged to be a 
graduate of a regularly chartered veterinary col- 

lege, and to register his qualifications in the pro- 
thonotary's office of the county where he practised ; 
but all those who had practised for five years before 
were allowed to register by filing the necessary 
affidavits, within six months after the passage of 
the Act. This legislation was brought about by 
the efforts of the Pennsylvania State Veterinary 
Association, which had been organized in 1883. 
The first president was James W. Sallade, then of 
Pottsville, but formerly of Berks county. In 1904 
and 1905 Dr. Otto G. Noack, of Reading, was the 
president. ]\Iembership in 1909 was two hundred; 
from Berks county, five. 

In 1895, a State Board of Veterinary Examiners 
was established by an Act passed on May 16th, and 
all practitioners after that date not theretofore reg- 
istered were obliged to secure a certificate from 
this State Board, which had to be filed in the pro- 
thonotary's office of the county where the practi- 
tioner resided ; but this Act was amended in 1905, 
which authorized the secretary of State to issue a 
license on the Board's certificate, and this license 
qualified the practitioner to practise anywhere in 
the State. 

This Board was created for the purpose of look- 
ing after the sanitary condition of the live stock 
in Pennsylvania. In 1907, Dr. Noack was appoint- 
ed agent for the entire State. Since the creation of 
this Board over four hundred cows in Berks county 
have been killed on account of tuberculosis. 

In 1908 there were five veterinary surgeons in 
Reading and thirty-four in Berks county. 

The following .statement shows the registered 
veterinarians of Berks county, with college and year 
of graduation. Where no college is given, an "affi- 
davit was filed without specifying thetime of start- 
ing practice. [D after name "incHcates deceased: C. 
ceased to practice; R, removed out of county.] 

Emanuel Althouse, Reading 

John Albright. Ontelaunee 

William Appel, Kutztown. R Xe^v York 

Joel Biehl. Moselem Springs 

John K. Biehl. Molltovv'n 

."".^"'s S Eorneman, Boyertown. ...■.■.■.■.'.'.'. ■.Ontario, 

William B, Blatt. Centreport. D 

Jonathan Blatt, Centre, D ['] 

Christian Baum. Hamburg 

Daniel L. Badgenstos, Strausstown 

Charles W. Brossman, Womelsdorf. ... " " Ontario' 

Samuel K. Biehl, Reading, C ....." .' ^"^^"°' 

Ulysses G. Bieber. Kutztown .'\merican (NY) 

A. F. Baver, Krumsville Chinc^n 

William U. Custer, Reading, D Pa.' Vet Assm: 

Owen E. Colhns, Mt. Pleasant D 

Charles 0_ Collins, West LeesportV. '.'.■.■.■.■.■.'. Ontario, 

Kilburn H. Cleaver. Reading Ontario 

Benjamin S.Clauser, Upper Tulpehocken...'.' ' ' 

George W. DeHard, Stonersville. D 

James B. Dry, Bowers, D 

Samuel DeW'ees, Fleetwood, D 

?7''^ . ■^;. Dreibelhis, Greenwich. '. '. '. '. '. '. ". '. " " ' Ontario 

John A. Dorward, Reading C Ontario, 

William Deck, Bethel ['.', 

James Dubson, Ruscombmanor 

George W. Dunlap, Birdsboro, R .".■;■.'. '. '. ' Ontario 

Martm D. DeTurk, Olev Chica-o Vet Co le^e" 

Daniel H. DeTurck, Birdsboro. .Chicago Vet. Colle|e; 






Reuben Ebert, Trexlers 1889 

Arthur C. Foos, Reading, R Ontario, 1887 

Elias GrofF, Jeflferson 1889 

William D. Gross, Kutztown Ontario, 1885 

Henry L. Gilbert, Colebrookdale 1889 

Samuel Goldsmithj Reading, R 1889 

Charles D. Gruber, Bernville Ontario, 1888 

Solomon K. Hoffman, Hamburg, C 1889 

Abraham Henrich, Colebrookdale 1889 

Benjamin Y. Heffner, Richmond 1889 

Frederick B. Hassler, Tilden 1889 

Walter G. Huyett, Wernersville Chicago, 1899 

William Jacoby, Lenhartsville 1889 

Jacob Kerchner, Windsor Castle _ 1889 

Peter I. Kershner, Fleetwood Ontario, 1891 

Allen Z. Keelor, Boyertown Ontario, 1891 

Elmer G. Kriebel, Hereford 1892 

Daniel R. Kohler, Boyertown Ontario, 1893 

John Lutz, Klopp's Store; D 1889 

Tobias E. Landis, Npjiierlinville 1889 

Nathaniel F. Lutz.-Jefferson 1889 

Henry R. Lutz, Jefferson, D 1889 

David B. Levan, Kutztown Chicago Vet. College, 1908 

Franklin W. Miller, Gouglersville 1889 

Pierce M. Miller. Gouglersville 1889 

Jared Miller, Jefferson 1889 

Henry B. Meyer, Hereford 1889 

Emendon Mogel,' Bernville 1889 

Henry A. Miller, Ruscombmanor 1889 

William H. Moyer, Womelsdorf, R Ontario, 1891 

Rudolf Mertz, Reading, R Ohio, 1894 

James W. McNeil, Reading Boston, 1894 

John P. Miller, Reading Pa. University, 1899 

Adam F. Noll, Reading 1889 

Otto G. Noack, Reading Berlin (Germany), 1890 

Walter S. Phillips, Reading Pa. Vet. Assn., 1886 

Samuel M. Petersheim, Caernarvon 1889 

Charles Phillips, Womelsdorf, D 1889 

John M. Richards, Reading, D 1889 

John L. Richards, Yellow House (Birdsboro) 1889 

Amos B. Roberts, Blandon, D 1889 

Jonathan Reber, Hiester's Mill 1889 

Owen B. Roberts, Blandon ' 1889- 

Henry K. Rentschler, Shartlesville 1889 

Robert O. Rothermel, Reading Pa. University, 1902 

John H. Shaffer, Mt. Aetna 1889 

William H. Seitzinger, Wernersville 1889 

William Schaeffer, Jefferson 1889 

George B. Sebastian, Rehrersburg 1889 

James D. Schaeffer, Fleetwood 1889 

Jared Spengler, Penn, D 1891 

Howard L. Stein, Friedensburg, D Ontario, 1893 

Albert H. Schmoyer, Boyertown Chicago, 1903 

Nicholas L. Schaeffer, Fleetwood Chicago, 1906 

Elias Troutman, Tulpehocken 1889 

Amos G. Weidenhammer, Richmond 1889 

Kerby D. Werley, Virginville Chicago, 1908 

Henry S. Yoder, Pleasantville ; . 1889 

Edwin C. Yoder, Kutztown Ontario, 1893 


From 1824 to 1869, all matters relating to the 
poor inhabitants of Berks county, who needed pub- 
lic assistance, were referred to the poor directors 
of the county; but by 1869 the institutions of a 
charitable, reformatory or correctional character in 
the State had assumed such proportions, and the 
number of inmates had become so large that the 
Legislature passed an Act of Assembly, establishing 
a State Board of Public Charities for the purpose 
of inquiring into the methods of instruction, gov- 
ernment of inmates, conduct of managers, condition 
of buildings, and all other matters pertaining to 
their usefulness and good management. 

In 1874, the Act of 1869 was amended, author- 
izing the State Board to appoint three or more per- 
sons in any county to act as visitors of the poor- 
houses and other institutions in such county as an 
aid to the State Board ; and to cause the removal 
of insane persons in the county almshouses to State 
Hospitals for proper treatment. The State Board 
appointed Sydenham E. Ancona, Charles Breneiser 
and George D. Stitzel as its representatives in Berks 
county and they have served (excepting Stitzel, 
who died Dec. 13, 1905, E. R. Gerber being ap- 
pointed in his place) gratuitously ever since, 
visiting the several institutions, penal and chari- 
table, and reporting to the State Board. 

A large three-story brick building was erected on 
the poor-house property from 1871 to 1874 for 
an "Insane Hospital" and the indigent insane peo- 
ple of the county have been cared for there, unless 
removed to the State Hospital at Harrisburg. 

The particulars relating to the poor-house and 
the prison are mentioned in connection with the 
county buildings in Chapter IV. 

Wernersville State Asylum. — In 1891, an Act 
was passed for the establishment of an Asylum for 
the Chronic Insane of Pennsylvania, and in this 
behalf, a commission was appointed by the Governor 
to select a site and erect the asylum. After exam- 
ining thirty-one sites, in nineteen counties of the 
State, they selected a site in Lower Heidelberg 
township, Berks county, a short distance west of 
Wernersville, as the one best adapted for the pur- 
pose designated. Several tracts of land, embracing 
540 acres, were purchased, and a superior, com- 
modious building was erected at a total cost of 
$500,000. The institution was dedicated in a for- 
mal manner on Sept. 5, 1894, with the Governor 
presiding over the exercises. Since 1905, two new 
buildings have been erected : an infirmary building, 
costing $30,000, and a building costing $35,000, the 
first floor to be used as an additional dining-room, 
the second floor as a sitting-room for women. Until 
the end of 1894 the total number admitted was 662; 
in 1895, 357; in 1896, 114; in 1897, 146; from 1898 
to 1900, 167; and from 1901 to 1904, 169. 

The average weekly cost of each patient has been 
less than $3. On Sept. 30, 1908, the total number 
of patients was 859; men, 652; women, 207. 

From the opening of the Asylum until Sept. 30, 
1905, there were 70 inmates from Berks county, 50 



men and 20 women. During the first year (Sept. 30, 
1893, to Sept. 30, 1894) there were 46 entered, 31 
men and 15 women. On Sept. 30, 1905, there were 
20 men and 9 women from Berks county ; Sept. 30, 
1906, 21 men and 9 women; Sept. 30, 1907, 28 men 
and 9 women; Sept. 30, 1908, 27 men and 10 

Henry M. Dechert, Esq. (formerly of Reading, 
but for nearly sixty years at Philadelphia) , has offi- 
ciated as president of the board of trustees since 
the opening of the Asylum, in a most creditable 

The following trustees from Reading have served 
on the board: George F. Baer, 1894 to 1897; 
Thomas P. Merritt, 1894 to 1899 (officiating as 
treasurer), and since 1903 ; William H. Schick, 1894 
to 1895; Thomas C. Zimmerman, since 1899. 

State Hospital. — Complete statement of the 
patients in the State Hospital at Harrisburg, from 
Berks county, from the time it was opened and the 
cost of their maintenance, which was paid by the 




















































































































































































Glen Mills Reformatory. — A reformatory for 
boys and girls was established at Glen Mills in Dela- 
ware county in 1827. The first inmate from Berks 
county was entered in 1842. Until 1850 there were 
altogether 6 ; and from 1851 to 1900, 190. In 1901, 
there were 7 ; in 1902, 11 ; in 1903, 21 ; and in 1904, 
9. The total admitted until Jan. 1, 1909, was 302 ; 
and the average cost per diem has been from 20 
to 25 cents. The cost for the county of this institu- 
tion from 1901 to Jan. 1, 1909, was about $11,000 to 
Oct. 1, 1905, and $11,337.62 from then until Jan. 1, 
1909, but only one-half was paid by the county, the 

other half being paid by the State. Previous to 
1901 the State paid the entire cost. 

Eastern State Penitentiary. — Previous to the 
year 1850, no data on the subject can be obtained. 
From 1850 to 1869 inclusive, 46 prisoners were re- 
ceived from Berks county. From 1870 to 1894 no 
prisoners from the county, were confined here. The 
following table shows the number from the county 
here each year from 1895 to 1908 inclusive. The 
average cost of each per diem was about 21 cents. 

Year No. of prisoners Year No. of prisoners 

1895 1 1903 32 

1896 11 1903 38 

1897 33 1904 43 

1898 53 1905 32 

1899 42 1906 36 

1900 31 1907 37 

1901 30 1908 68 

Huntingdon Reformatory. — This institution 
for the reformation of boys was established by the 
State of Pennsylvania and opened in 1889 ; and the 
first boy from Berks county was entered in 1894, 
who continued to be the only one during 1895 and 
1896; there was none received in 1897 and 1898; 
then the number began to increase as follows: 8 
in 1899; 11 in 1900; 17 in 1901; 24 in 1902; 43 
in 1903; 54 in 1904; 52 in 1905; 55 in 1906; 56 
in 1907; and 60 in 1908. 

The cost for 1904 to the county was $3,838.73; 
and the total cost for all the years named was 


There are a number of charitable institutions in 
the county, partly supported by appropriations from 
the public funds; which reflect the humane senti- 
ment and generous nature of our people in a most 
commendable manner. They are classified as Hos- 
pitals, Schools, and Widows' Home. 

Hospitals. — Three hospitals have been estab- 
lished at Reading, described with the Associations 
of Reading in Chapter X., namely: Reading, St. 
Joseph's and Homoeopathic. 

Homes. — The homes number seven: Bethany 
Orphans' Home, founded in 1867, in Heidelberg 
township, by the Reformed church. 

Topton Orphans' Home, founded in 1897, in 
Longswamp township, by the Lutheran church. 

St. Catharine's Female Orphans' Asylum, found- 
ed in 1871, at Reading, by Mrs. Catharine Madary, 
and devised by her to the Roman Catholic church ; 
by which it has since been enlarged, improved and 
successfully maintained. 

St. Paul's Orphans' Asylum for Boys, founded 
in 1889 at Reading, by the St. Paul's Roman Cath- 
olic church. It has been enlarged several times, 
evidencing its successful management. 

House of Good Shepherd, founded in 1889, at 
Reading, by the Roman Catholic church, and re- 
moved to Bern township in 1900. 

Home for Friendless Children, founded in 1888, 
at Reading, under the auspices of the Bureau of 
Employment (having been started in 1884) ; in 



which William D. Smith has shown special inter- 
est toward its enlargement and success. 

Widows' Home, founded in 1875 at Reading, by 
the Society of the "Home for Widows and Single 
Women" which became an incorporated body in 
1876. A superior, commodious structure was es- 

tablished by the society in 1886, at Sixteenth and 
Haak streets. 

The three hospitals, and Home for Friendless 
Children, and the Widows' Home have been aided 
and encouraged by State appropriations. 

The foregoing institutions are also mentioned in 
Chapter X., under the head of Associations. 


Cause of War. — Whilst, the Penns were endeav- 
oring to locate a town on the eastern bank of the 
Schuylkill river at the "Ford" (now Reading), war 
was being carried on between England and France, 
and the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was formed be- 
tween them in the same year in which the town was 
laid out (1748). But this treaty of peace did not 
settle the controversy between them in respect to 
territory on the American continent. The English 
Colonies were originally planted along the sea- 
coast, but they advanced westwardly, and therefore 
the English claimed the right to extend their set- 
'tlements across the continent from ocean to ocean. 
The French, however, had possessed Canada to the 
north, and Louisiana to the south, and they too 
claimed the intervening territory which lay along 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Both parties hav- 
ing claimed the same country, they, in order to 
maintain their respective rights, rushed into a fierce 
and bloody war for lands which belonged to neither 
of them, and which after the termination of hos- 
tilities passed away from both, and became vested 
in a new power whose national existence grew' out 
of their contentions. It was accelerated by a grant 
of six hundred thousand acres of land in that dis- 
puted territory by the English to certain persons 
who associated under the title of the "Ohio Com- 
pany," and the company having agitated a scheme 
for its settlement, the French became alarmed. Re- 
monstrances and complaints were fruitless and each 
party seized and plundered the subjects of the other, 
ending in hostilities which resulted in the defeat of 
Braddock in the western section of Pennsylvania 
in 1755. 

The Indians, having united with the French 
through misrepresentation and finding the frontier 
open, proceeded eastwardly* to repossess the terri- 
tory which had formerly been theirs and out of 
which they believed they had been swindled. On 
their way, they committed depredations and cruel- 
ties which resulted in a great loss of life and prop- 
erty; and notwithstanding forts were erected by 
the provincial government along the Blue Mountain, 
from the Delaware river to the Susquehanna river 
to afford protection to the settlers in the vicinity, 
and garrisoned with twenty-five companies, com- 
prising 1,400 men, they crossed the mountain and 

carried their arson and murder into the counties 
adjoining. Berks county was entered, and numer- 
ous persons (including men, women and children) 
were killed, and many dwellings and barns burned. 
This naturally spread consternation throughout the 
county, and the settlers along the mountain aban- 
doned home and property. The enemy soon extend- 
ed their incursions to a point near Reading, alarm- 
ing' the inhabitants of the town for their safety. In 
consequence of this, they armed and organized them- 
selves to defend the town, and marched to the 
mountain to assist in driving the cruel foe out of 
the county. Many letters have been published which 
describe the wretched state of the people who lived 
in the townships to the north and northwest of the 

The cruelties of the Indians and the unsettled 
condition of the inhabitants of the upper section 
of the county continued during 1755, 1756 and 1757. 
During that time, the English were unsuccessful in 
their campaigns against the French and Indians, and 
their affairs here were in an awful situation. Their 
efforts had produced only expense and disappoint- 
ment. But in -1758, the tide turned in their favor 
through the vigorous administration of ;a new leader, 
William Pitt. The Indians retreated and victory 
crowned the British armies everywhere during the 
succeeding years until 1760, when the French were 
dispossessed of all territories in dispute and forced 
to surrender Canada. Peace was declared in 1763. 

The town of Reading had just been fairly started 
when this terrible shock fell upon the inhabitants. 
Though discouraged they did not abandon their 
new settlement and its bright prospects, as the set- 
tlers were forced to do along the mountain. It 
is probable that the unsettled condition of affairs 
there during that period contributed much toward 
the rapid growth of the town. 

Troops in County. — The provincial military offi- 
cers of the county in 1754 were: Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, Conrad Weiser; Captains, Christian Busse (at 
Fort Henry), Frederick Smith, Jacob Orndt, and 
Jacob Morgan (at Fort Lebanon) ; Lieutenant, 
Philip Weiser; Ensigns, ^Harry (at Fort Leban- 
on) and Edward Biddle; Sergeant, Peter Smith; 
Corporal, Schaeffer. 


Weiser was lieutenant-colonel of the 2d Battalion habitants when danger was imminent. They were 
of the Pennsylvania Regiment, which consisted of erected hastily to serve a temporary purpose. Un- 
nine companies. This was a portion of the troops fortunately for the people, they were too few in 
ordered by the Governor to be raised for the pur- number and too far apart to serve the purpose for 
pose of repelling the invasion. The total force was vvhich they were intended, especially to those who 
to comprise twenty-five companies, numbering 1,400 ^^^ere somewhat removed. The Indians did not 
men. Of the nine companies under Weiser, one y^cii-ch over the mountain in large numbers together, 
and one-half companies were at Fort Henry, and ^^^j ^^^^ ^j^ ^^t^^l^ ^1^^ f^^^g^ They came quietly, 
one company was at Fort Williams. j^^ 3^.,^^^ ^^.^jg ^^^^ without warning they fell up- 

In March, IToG, an independent company of on the unprotected families like a tlnmderbolt ; and 
grenadiers m General Shirley s regiment, was sta- ^^^^^ niurdering men, women and children indis- 
tioned at Reading on duty. Upon receiving orders ■ • , , j ..^- /: ^ , n- , t, 

to march to New York, 25 men, under the cSmmand cnminately and setting fire to dwellings and barns, 
of a Heutenant, were ordered to Reading, to remain ^^^Y departed like a flash Their success in these 
on guard until further orders. In June, the town ^^"'^ked incursions was truly wonderful, 
was occupied by a company of men, under the I" I'^^S, the location of the forts and distances 
command of Conrad Weiser. It was composed of apart were reported as follows : 
two sergeants and 28 privates. The ammunition ^^.j^^ 

at Reading then consisted of 25 good muskets, 25 From Wind Gap to Doll's Blockhouse 20 

muskets out of repair, 11 broken muskets, 9 cart- Thence to Fort Lehigh 8 

ridge-boxes, 240 pounds of powder, (100 .pounds of ^^^"'^^ \° b?'"'i.^"^" ^° 

lead. In August, 1y5i, oO men from Cumru and Thence to Fort Everit .. .. lo 

other townships near Reading- set out in expecta- Thence to Fort WiUiams 12 

tion of bringing in some Indian scalps. Thence to Fort Henry 22 

In February, 1758, Fort ^^'illiams was garrisoned JJ?^"" 1° ^o" Swatara 14 

1. /^ 4. • -\/r 1 "■-> 1 r- i TT J hence to rort Hunter, on Susquehanna 24 

by Captain Morgan and o3 men; and Fort Henry ^ 

by Captain Busse with 89 men, and Captain Weiser Total distance 140 

with 105 men ; and Fort Augusta with eight com- 
panies, numbering 362 men. The whole number Forts in County. — The following forts were 
of men then receiving pay in the province was erected in the territory which was embraced in 
li^'^4. Berks countv, the first five having been along the 

In June, 1758, Berks county had in the service Blue Mountain, and the last at Shamokin (now 

56 good and strong wagons, each wagon furnished Sunbury) : Fort Henry, Fort Dietrich Snyder Fort 

with four horses and an expert driver. These wag- Northkill, Fort Lebanon, Fort Franklin and' Fort 

ons' were formed in two divisions, the first division A^o-usta 

containing 26 wagons, and the second 30. A depu- X j^^ h^.^^^ was built within the stockades, 

ty wagon-master was over each division. Their ^^^, -^ ^^.^^ ^^^^^^ uncomfortably by th^ 

names were John Lesher and Jacob Weaver, able „^- t,K^ • ■ i u-^ ^ ■ ..• r , ^ ^ ^I 

to speak the English and German languages and "fghbonng inhabitants in times of danger. The 

they understood smith and wheelwright work. stockades were logs about eighteen feet long, cut 

In the limits of Berks county, in 1758, there were !" ^^}^ ^^°°<^'s where the forts were built, and planted 

at Fort Henry two companies, comprising 105 men ; !" '"^, ground as closely as possible. They were 

at Fort William (Forks of Schuylkill), one com- '"tended to protect the_ house and prevent the 

pany of 53 men; and at Fort Augusta, eight com- Indians from shooting its occupants when they 

panies with 3G2 men. stepped outside. 

In 1761, the inhabitants of Tulpehocken and ^'"'^ Hcm-y was situated in Bethel township, in 

Heidelberg townships raised 159 men as rangers ^^^lat was, and still is, commonly known as "The 

to guard the county lines of Berks and Lancaster Hollow," about three miles north of the present 

counties. village of Millersburg, fifty yards to the east of 

Colonial Forts.— NA'hen the officials of the ^he "Old Shamokin Road," which leads over the 
provincial government learned that the In- mountain. The spot was elevated, to enable the 
dians and French had united for the pur- .?"ard to look out some distance in every direction, 
pose of cooperating against the English There_ is no particular mention of this fort in the 
on this continent, they decided to afford Colonial records, and this omission induces the 
protection to the settlements near the fron- belief that it was a fort erected by the people of 
tiers by the erection of forts ; and the number that vicinity for their protection. ' It was some- 
of settlers who had gone beyond the Blue Moun- times called "Dietrich Six's," doubtless because it 
tain till this time having been small, they deter- stood on the land of Dietrich Six. The records 
mined to locate these forts along this natural mention several times that the people fled to Diet- 
boundary line from the Delaware on the east to rich Six's, but the place was not indicated as a 
the Susquehanna on the west. The object of these military post. The field where it was situated has 
forts was simply for refuge— a retreat for the in- been under cultivation for many years, and not 



a single mark remains to indicate where it stood. 
It was erected some time before June, 1754. In 
the beginning of June, 1757, the Governor visited 
Fort Henry, having been escorted thither by sixty 
substantial freeholders of the county on horse- 
back, completely armed. They presented a very 
dutiful address to his honor, in which they ex- 
pressed the warmest loyalty to the King and the 
greatest zeal and alacrity to serve His Majesty in 
defense of their country. 

Fort Dietrich Snyder. — A fort was situated on 
the top of the mountain, north of Fort Northkill. 
It occupied one of the most prominent spots, and 
being within two miles of Fort Northkill, it is sup- 
posed that it was designed for an observatory or 

Fort Northkill was in Upper Tulpehocken town- 
ship, near the Northkill (a branch of the Tulpe- 
hocken creek) about two miles east of Strauss- 
town and a rnile south from the base of the Blue 
Mountain. It was built in the early part of 1754. 
As to the dimensions of the fort Commissary Young 
says, June 20, 1756 : "The fort is about nine miles 
to the westward of the Schuylkill, and stands in 
a very thick wood, on a small rising ground, half 
a mile from the middle of Northkill creek. It is 
intended for a square about thirty-two feet each 
way ; at each corner is a half-bastion of very little 
service to flank the curtains. The stockades were 
ill fixed in the ground, and open in many places. 
Within is a very bad log-house for the people; it 
has no chimney and can afford but little shelter in 
bad weather." 

There was an attack in the neighborhood of this 
fort on Oct. 1, 1757. Application was made to 
Conrad Weiser (then at Reading) for immediate 
assistance, and Captain Oswald (who commanded 
the guards about Reading) sent two lieutenants 
with forty men to the relief. 

Fort Lebanon was situated about six miles be- 
yond the Blue Mountain, a short distance east of 
the Schuylkill river. It was erected in the begin- 
ning of 1754. In 1758, it was known as "Fort 
Williams," and called sometimes "Fort Schuylkill." 
It is frequently mentioned in the Pennsylvania 
Archives. Two years after its erection, it was des- 
cribed as follows: "Fort Lebanon, about twenty- 
four miles from Gnadenhutten, in the line to 
Shamokin. — Fort, 100 feet square. Stockades, 14 
feet high. House within, built 30 by 20, with a 
large store-room. A spring within, and a maga- 
zine, 12 feet square. On a barren, not much timber 
on it; 100 families protected by it within the new 
purchase. No township. Built in three weeks. 
Something considered given by the neighbors to- 
wards it." 

Fort Franklin. — The fifth fort on the frontier 
of the county was several miles above the Blue 
Mountain, on Lizard creek. It was built about 
two years later than the other forts. It was some- 
times called Fort Allemaengel ("all wants"). 

Fort Augusta. — The first allusion to this fort is 
in a letter by Governor Morris, on Feb. 1, 1756, in 
which he -states that he proposed to build a fort 
at Shamokin, at the forks of the Susquehanna, a.5 
soon as the season would admit a passage of that 
river. And in a letter dated July 30th following, 
he stated that a fort was then building at Shamokin 
(where a camp was stationed for some time) by 
Colonel Clapham, who had five hundred men with 
him. Shortly afterward (Aug. 14) the Colonel ad- 
dressed a letter to the Governor dated at "Fort 
Augusta," in reference to a necessary supply of 
military stores. This fort was therefore built dur-- 
ing July and August, 1756. No dimensions are 
given. But it was large and commodious, affording 
room for many men and a large quantity of military 
stores. Frequent reports of the supplies on hand 
and of the forces stationed there appear in the 
Records and Archives; and cruelties by the Indians 
were committed in the vicinity. 

Premium for Scalps. — In pursuance of a resolu- 
tion for carrying on active measures against the 
Indians, the Board of Commissioners decided on 
April 9, 1756, to recommend to the Governor that 
bounties, or premiuins, be paid for prisoners and 
scalps : 

For every male Indian prisoner above ten years old, 
that shall be delivered at any of the government 
forts or towns $150 

For every female Indian prisoner or male prisoner, 
of ten years old and under, delivered as above 130 

For the scalp of every male Indian above ten years 
old 130 

For the scalp of every Indian woman, 50 

Peace Declared. — After the French had receded 
into Canada before the advancing army of English 
soldiers, the Indians naturally followed their allies. 
Hence the cruelties ■ here ceased after 1758 ; and 
when Canada was surrendered in 1760, the peace 
and safety of our community were assured. The 
declaration of peace was delayed for three years, 
and when it was published in 1763, only a few In- 
dians remained in the eastern section of Pennsyl- 
vania. A small settlement of them (who were 
friendly to the government and the inhabitants) re- 
mained at Shamokin ; and some families were scat- 
tered in different parts of the county, where they 
remained for many years afterward. 

Before the war, considerable trade had been car- 
ried on successfully between the settlers and the 
Indians, continuing without interruption from the 
time of the first settlements until 1744, and even a 
decade afterward. The relations had become so 
pleasant and firm that certain Indians remained 
in the county unmolested during the war, and car- 
ried on their peaceful vocations, such as basket- 
making, bead-work, etc., and after the war, travel- 
ing parties of them frequently visited the county 
and sold articles of their handiwork. 

Murdered and Captured. — During this war, the 
Indians killed about one hundred and fifty, and cap- 
tured thirty inhabitants of the county. Several of 



those who were taken captive returned after the 
war. Many persons were wounded and some of 
them died from their wounds. But, during these 
eight years, only four of the Indians were killed in 
the county, so far as ascertained. 

June, 1754 — Peter Geisinger, Tulpehocken. 
June, 1754 — Fred. Myers and wife. Tulpehocken. 
June, 1754 — Young girl, Tulpehocken. 
June, 1754 — Hostetter familj', Bern. 
June, 1754 — Sebastian Brosius, Bethel. 
October, 1755 — ^Henry Hartman, Bethel. 
October, 1755 — Two men (unknown). Bethel. 
October, 1755 — Odwaller and another unknown,' Bethel. 
November, 1755 — Thirteen persons, unknown. Bethel. 
November, 1755 — Child eight years old, daughter of a 
man named Cola, Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Cola's wife and two children older. 



-Philip , a shoemaker, 

-Casper Spring, Bethel. 
Beslinger,' Bethel. 



-Child of Jacob Wolf, Bethel. 
1755 — John Leinberger, Bethel. 
1755 — Rudolph Candel, Bethel. 
1755 — Sebastian Brosius, Bethel. 
1755 — Six men killed,' Bethel. 
1755 — Unknown man, a shoemaker 
Brown's house, Bethel. 

November, 1755 — A child scalped and died,' Bethel. 

November, 1755 — A woman° and male child, Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Fifteen persons (excluding five pre- 
ceding), Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Christopher Ury, Bethel. 

November, 1755 Youngman, Bethel. 

November, 1755 — Wife of Kobel." Bethel. 

February, 1756 — Two children of Frederick Reichelder- 
fer, Albany. 

February, 1756 — One man, two women and si.x children,' 

February, 1756 — George Zeisloff and wife, two boys and 
a girl, Albany. 

February, 1756 — Wife of Balser Neyfong, Albany. 

March, 1756 — Peter Kluck and family. Albany. 

March, 1756 — A woman at Linderman's house, xA.lban.y. 

March, 1756 — William Yeth, Hereford. 

March, 1756 — Wife of John Krausher, Hereford. 

October, 1756 — Two married women and two boys,' 

November, 1756 — Wife, daughter and son-in-law of 
Philip Culmore, .Albany. 

November, 1756 — Martin Fell, Albany. 

November, 1756 — Two old men,° Bethel. 

November, 1756 Stonebrook, Albany. 

June, 1757 — Man unknown, near Fort Henry, Bethel. 

June, 1757 — Two persons near Fort Northkill, Tulpe- 

June, 1757 — Adam Trump,"" Albany. 

June, 1757 — Peter Gersinger, Bethel. 

July, 1757— Three men and four children, " Bethel. 

I Possibly these two and the two immediately before are the same. 
^ Near by an Indian — of Delaware tribe — was found dead anrl 

scalped — «scalped by Frederick Weiser. .\nother was shot and 
scal]ied several weeks afterward. 

3 Supposed to have been soldiers. 

4 Two others also scalped. 

''» Under this woman, her babe onlj^ fourteen days old was found. 
It was alive, wrapped up in a little cushion. 

C Four of their children were scalped at the same time. They 
had eight children with them. Two probably died. The father 
was wounded^. 

"^ All killed at house of Jacob Gerliart, situate in the upper section 
ot the township, commonly known as the "Eck" (corner). Eight 
of them were burned. 

5 One of them reported as likely to die from scalping. 

Ten women and children were rescued at this place from the 
cellar of a burning building. 

10 Found with a knife and a spear (fixed to a pole four feet 
long) in bis body. 

II All murdered and scalped in one house. 

July, 1757 — Two children near Bickel's. 

July, 1757 — Martin Jaeger and wife,'" Greenwich. 

July, 1757 — Two children of John Krausher, Greenwich. 

July, 1757 — One child of A. Sechler, Greenwich. 

July, 1757 — One child of Philip Eshton, Greenwich. 

July, 1757 — Ten people." 

September, 1757 — A man shot in bed whilst sick. 

September. 1757 — Two families." 

April, 1758 — Jacob Lebenguth and Margaret his wife, 

April, 1758 — Wife and two children of Nicholas Geiger, 

April, 1758 — Wife of Michael Ditzeler, Tulpehocken. 

June, 1758 — Wife of John Frantz. Tulpehocken. 

June, 1758 — Son of John Snabele, Tulpehocken. 

October, 1758— A man. Bethel. 

September, 1763 — John Fincher, wife and two sons, 

September, 1763 — Four children at house of Nicholas 
Miller,'" Albany. 

September, 1763 — Two children of Frantz Hubler, Bern. 

November, 1763 — Three men near forks of Schuylkill." 


June, 1754 — Daughter of Balser Schmidt (fifteen years 
old), Tulpehocken. ' 

June, 1754 — Three children of Frederick Myers (two 
boys, 10 and 6 years old. and a girl 8 years old), Tulpe- 

June, 1754 — Son of Reichard (eight years old), 


February, 1756' — Son of Balser Neyfong, Albany. 

March, 1756 — Son of William Yeth, Hereford. 

November, 1756 — Girl named Stonebrook, Albany. 

June, 1757 — Son of Adam Trump, Albany. 

June, 1757 — Young woman from near Fort Henry, 

July, 1757 — Three children from near Bickel's. 

July, 1757 — Two children at same time. 

September, 1757 — Five children. 

June, 1758 — Three children of John Frantz, Tulpe- 

September, 1763 — Wife and three children of Frantz 
Hubler, Bern. 

November, 1756 — Wife and child of Martin Fell, Al- 

November, 1756 — A boy seven years old, Albany. 
October, irss — Three men missing. Bethel. 
September, 1763 — Daughter of John Fincher, Albany. 
September, 1763— Wife of Nicholas Miller, .Albanv.' 

Cause. — The Parliament of Great Britain passed 
an Act on j\Iarch 2-3, 176.5, which required all in- 
struments of writing, such as deeds, bonds and 
promissory notes, to be written on parchment or 
paper stamped with a specific duty, otherwise they 
were to have no legal effect; but this measure met 
with such general opposition in Great Britain and 
throughout the American Colonies, and was found 
to be so unpopular, that the Act was repealed in 

^ John Krausher's wife and child, Abraham Sechler's w-ife, and 
a child of .\dam Clauss were scalped at the same time and badly 

13 Alluded to in Weiser's letter. Probably he referred to party 
killed in Greenwich. 

i-t No number mentioned. 
■um' ^^™ °^ Miller's children were prisoners, but were rescued. 
When rescued they were tied together, in which manner they had 
been driven along. 

1" These are supposed to have been the last persons killed by 
the Indians at this time. But during the Rvolutionarv war, in 
August, 1780, John Negman ■and his two young children were 
cruelly murdered by the Indians thirty-three miles from Reading 
on road to Shamokin; and at the same time a little girl was carried 



the following year. The cheapest stamp was of the 
value of one shilling. The stamps on documents 
increased in value according to their importance. 
All the colonists manifested unbounded joy over 
the repeal of this odious law. 

This opposition, however, led Parliament to pass 
a declaratory Act (which accompanied the repeal- 
ing Act) asserting their power over the Colonies 
in all cases whatsoever. And in 1767, an Act was 
passed imposing certain duties on tea, glass, paper, 
and painters' colors that were imported into the 
Colonies. There was no representation in Parlia- 
ment from the several Colonies; and they, regard- 
ing taxation of this kind as unjust and tyrannical, 
held public meetings, formed associations to dis- 
courage, and even to prevent, the importation of 
British goods, and passed appropriate resolutions; 
which they forwarded to the King. His ministers, 
believing that a reduction of the tax would restore 
tranquility, ordered this law also to be repealed, 
saving only a tax of three pence per pound on tea ; 
and in 1770 an Act was passed accordingly. But 
even this was not satisfactory to them, and their 
recommendations to one another not to receive any 
tea were strictly carried out. 

In the meantime, the East India Company had 
accumulated seventeen million pounds of this article 
on hand, and fearing great losses, they led Parlia- 
ment to authorize the exportation of tea to any 
part of the world free of duty. With such encour- 
agement, the company in 1774 loaded several ships 
with tea and sent them to the American Colonies ; 
but the colonists were firm in their resolution and 
determined to obstruct the sale of it and to refuse 
to pay even so slight a tax as three pence per pound. 
When the ships arrived near Philadelphia and New 
York, the captains were warned not to land, and, 
fearing this warning, they returned to England. 
The tea sent to Charleston was landed, but it could 
not be sold, and after having been stored for a 
while in damp cellars it became a total loss to the 
company. And at Boston, while efforts were being 
made to land the tea, certain men in the disguise 
of Indians stole their way upon the vessels, broke 
open 342 chests of tea and threw the contents 

When Parliament heard of these proceedings, an 
Act was passed, called the "Boston Port Bill," di- 
recting the port of Boston to be closed and the 
custom house to be removed to Salem; and other 
humiliating Acts were also passed which were 
offensive to the people of Boston. Information 
about these Acts reached Boston on May 10th, and 
on the 13th, at a town meeting, the inhabitants 
resolved : 

That, if the other Colonies would unite with them to 
stop all importations from Great Britain and the West 
Indies until those Acts should be repealed, it would prove 
the salvation of North America and her liberties ; but if 
they should continue their exports and imports, there 
was reason to fear that fraud, power and the most odious 
oppression would triumph over justice, right, social happi- 
ness and freedom. 

Copies of this resolution were transmitted to all 
the other Colonies. It awakened not only a feeling 
of sympathy but a strong spirit of co-operation, 
and led them to concur in the propriety of calling 
a Provincial Congress. Public meetings were held 
at different places, such as county towns, and, be- 
sides discussing topics so important to liberty and 
the general welfare, committees of correspondence 
were appointed to communicate the actions of the 
several meetings to one another throughout the Col- 
onies. In this way, it was discovered that the same 
feeling prevailed everywhere, and naturally there 
came to be united efforts toward accomplishing a 
common result for the benefit of all. 

About this time the terms "Whigs" and "Tories" 
were introduced to designate either those who were 
arrayed on the side of the Colonies in sympathy 
with Boston, or those who were in sympathy with 
the policy of the British government. 

Meeting at Reading. — When the news reached 
Reading, in Berks county, the citizens manifested 
great excitement, and meetings were held at which 
the action of the British government was con- 
demned. These meetings were called by notices 
headed "Boston Port Bill," and posted throughout 
the town. 

At one of these meetings (which comprised a 
respectable body of inhabitants of the county) held 
in the Court-House at Reading, on July 2, 1774, 
Edward Biddle, Esq., in the chair, the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

This assembly, taking into their very serious considera- 
tion the present critical situation of American affairs, do 
unanimously resolve as follows, viz. : 

1. That the inhabitants of this county do owe, and will 
pay due allegiance to our rightful Sovereign, King George 
the Third. 

2. That the powers claimed, and now attempted to be 
put into execution by the British Parliament, are funda- 
mentally wrong, and cannot be admitted without the utter 
destruction of the liberties of America. 

3. That the Boston Port Bill is unjust and tyrannical in 
the extreme. And that the measures pursued against Bos- 
ton are intended to operate equally against the rights and 
liberties of the other colonies. 

4. That this assembly doth concur in opinion with their 
respective brethren of Philadelphia, that there is an abso- 
lute necessity for an immediate congress of the deputies 
of the several advices, in order to deliberate upon and pur- 
sue such measures as may radically heal our present un- 
happy disturbances, and settle with precision the rights 
and liberties of America. 

5. That the inhabitants of this county, confiding in the 
prudence and ability of the deputies intended to be chosen 
for the general congress, will cheerfully submit to any 
measures which may be found by the said congress best 
adapited for the restoration of harmony between the 
mother-country and the colonies, and for the security and 
firm establishment of the rights of America. 

6. That, as the people of Boston are now suffering in 
the grand and common cause of American liberty. 

Resolved, That it is the duty of all the inhabitants to 
• contribute to the support of the said sufferers, and that the 
committee hereafter named do open subscriptions for their 
relief. And further, that the said committee do lay out 
the amount of such subscriptions in purchasing flour and 
other provisions, to be sent by them to our said suffering 



7. That Edward Biddle, James Read, Daniel Brodhead, 
Henry Christ, Esqs., Christopher Schultz, Thomas Dundas 
and Jonathan Patts, gentlemen, be, and they are hereby 
appointed a committee to meet and correspond with the 
committees from the other counties of the Province. 

The committee raised money and forwarded 
flour and provisions to the suffering brethren at 
Boston soon after the meeting. Reading was a 
prominent center of trade in 1774, and the country 
round about possessed an abundance of grain and 
provisions. There were numerous gristmills within 
a radius of ten miles, and the collection of many 
barrels of flour was a comparatively easy matter 
for such a worthy cause, especially under the appeal 
of such influential men as composed the committee. 
Biddle and Read were attorneys; Christ an inn- 
keeper ; Potts a physician ; Dundas a merchant ; 
Brodhead a large miller of Pleidelberg; and Schultz 
a prosperous farmer of Hereford. 

From this meeting to the close of the Revolution, 
the people of Reading and of the county partici- 
pated actively in all the affairs of the province. 
Thev were represented by delegates at the several 
conferences ; and they contributed their quota of 
men, money and supplies in the successful prosecu- 
tion of the war. 

Lexington Awakens County. — The battle of 
Lexington was fought on April 19, 1775, and when 
the news of the battle reached Reading, about a 
week afterward, a company of men was formed, 
who wore crape for a cockade as a token of sorrow 
for the slaughter of their brethren ; and each town- 
ship in Berks county resolved to raise and discipline 
a company of soldiers. And the following extract 
of a letter from Reading, dated April 26, 1775, 
shows forcibly the feeling that prevailed : 

We liave raised in this town two companies of foot 
under proper officers : and such is the spirit of the people 
of this free county, that in three weeks time there is not 
a township in it that will not have a company raised and 
disciplined, ready to assert at the risk of their lives the 
freedom of America. 

The companies mentiO'Ued were commanded by 
Capt. George Nagel and Capt. John Spohn. 

First Officers From County. — The first meet- 
ing of the Committee of Safety at Philadelphia was 
on Jan. 2, 1776, which Edward Biddle attended. 
Congress had recommended that Pennsylvania fur- 
nish four battalions of troops ; and at this meeting 
the Committee were to agree upon the four colonels 
who were to be placed in command. On the 4th of 
January, they selected field officers, George Nagel, 
of Reading, being one of them. Then they also 
selected thirty-one captains for the four battalions, 
among those chosen being John Spohn, Peter Scull 
and Peter Decker, all of Reading, and on Jan. 6th, 
they selected thirt5r-two lieutenants, among them 
Daniel Brodhead of Reading. 

Germans to Rescue. — By looking over the 
names of the numerous men in Berks county who 
participated in the movement for independence, it 
will be found that they are almost entirely German. 

The population of the county was largely German 
and of German descent, and this preponderance of 
names over those of all other nationalities was to 
be expected. The proportion was fully nine-tenths. 
They used the German language in their daily 
affairs, excepting the transfer of title to real estate, 
which was required to be in the English language 
by a provincial law. The location of the English 
people in 1775 was mostly at Reading, and in Robe- 
son, Caernarvon, Union, Exeter, Oley, Maiden- 
creek and Richmond townships, or eight districts 
out of twenty-nine ; but the major part of the people 
in these districts also were German, excepting the 
southern section of the county. 

It can be stated that Berks count}' was then dis- 
tinctively the most German county of the eleven 
counties in the province. It was natural for the 
electors of the county to show a positive sympathy 
for this movement, because it was in accordance 
with their notions of political freedom. They had 
a firm belief in local government and desired to 
carry it on successfully without unnecessary re- 
strictions or burdens. Taxation without represen- 
tation was to them an unreasonable and unjust doc- 
trine, and they were not disposed to tolerate its 
continued enforcement. 

The system of militia, which had been provided 
by the Assembly, was appreciated by them, and they 
co-operated sincerely in its establishinent through- 
out the county. They effected an organization and 
responded to the call for troops in a willing and 
prompt manner. The militia returns of the county 
for 1775 show the organization of seven battalions; 
and by July there were at least forty companies 
ready to answer the call for military duty in actual 
warfare. Their zeal will be more fully appreciated 
when we understand that there was "^not a single 
post-office in the county, and that the only means'of 
dispatching- communications was by express riders. 

Associators.— At the inception o'f the Revolution, 
there were eleven counties in the province of Penn- 
sylvania : 







On June 30, 1775, the General Assembly ap- 
proved of "the Association entered into by the 
good people of this Colonv for the defense of their 
lives, liberties and properties"; decided to pay the 
necessary expenses of the officers and soldiers while 
m active service, repelling any hostile invasion of 
British or other troops : and recommended the coun- 
ty commissioners of the several counties to "im- 
mediately provide a proper number of good, new 
firelocks with bayonets fitted to them," cartridge 
boxes with twenty-three rounds of cartridges 'in 
every box, and knapsacks." The allotted number 
for Berks county was four hundred. 

Edward Biddle and Henrv Christ were then the 
representatives from Berks county ; and Biddle was 



selected by the Assembly as one of the Committee 
of Safety "for calling forth such and so many of 
the Associators into actual service when necessity 
requires." The committee consisted of twenty-five 

The preamble to the Articles of Association read 
as follows: 

We, the officers and soldiers, engaged in the present 
association for the defense of American liberty, being 
fully sensible that the strength and security of any body 
of men acting together consists in just regularity, due 
subordination, and exact obedience to command, without 
which no individual can have that confidence in the sup- 
port of those about him, that is so necessary to give firm- 
ness and resolution to the whole, do voluntarily and 
freely, after consideration of the following articles, 
adopt the same as the rules by which we agree and re- 
solve to be governed in all our military concerns and 
operations, until the same or any of them shall he 
changed or dissolved by the Assembly or Provincial Con- 
vention, or in their recess, by the Committee of Safety, 
or a happy reconciliation shall take place between Great 
Britain and the Colonies. 

There were thirty-two articles which provided for 
the regulation of military affairs, and these articles 
the Associators were expected to sign. The Com- 
mittee of Safety in Berks county recommended the 
adoption of the Articles. 

Recommendations for Companies. — On July 
28, 1775, the Assembly approved of the resolution 
of Congress, passed July 18th, which recommended: 

That all able-bodied men between sixteen and sixty 
years of age in each colony immediately form themselves 
into regular companies to consist of one captain, two 
lieutenants, one ensign, four sergeants, four corporals, a 
clerk, drummer and fifer, and sixty-eight privates. 

That the officers of each^ company be chosen by the 
respective comjJanies. 

That the companies be formed into Battalions, offi- 
cered with a Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel, two Majors, 
and an Adjutant or Quartermaster. 

That the officers above captain be appointed by the As- 
sembly or by the Committee of Safety. 

And that each soldier be furnished with a good musket 
that will carry an ounce ball, with a bayonet, steel ram- 
rod, worm priming wire with brush, fitted thereto, a cut- 
ting sword or tomahawk, a cartridge box that will con- 
tain twenty-three rounds of cartridges, 12 flints, and a 

The musket barrels were three feet eight inches 
long, and the bayonets sixteen inches long ; the bore 
of the barrels of sufficient size to carry seventeen 
balls to the pound. 

County Colonels. — Delegates from the eleven 
counties, numbering altogether fifty-three, assem- 
bled at Philadelphia on Aug. 19, 1775, for the pur- 
pose of adopting Articles of Association. They 
were colonels of the Associated Battalions, and the 
representatives from Berks county were: 

Edward Biddle 
Mark Bird 

Daniel Brodhead Christian Lower 
Balser Geehr 

of Independence, and directing it to be read on 
Monday, July 8th, at 12 o'clock noon, at the place 
where the election of delegates was to be held. 
This was done by Henry Vanderslice, the sheriff 
of the county, on that day at the Court-House, on 
Penn Square, the bell having been rung earnestly 
beforehand, as elsewhere, to call the people together 
so that they should learn the significance of that 
important piiblic document. 

Population and Districts. — In 1776, the terri- 
tory of Berks county included not only that part 
which lies within the present boundary lines to the 
south of the Blue Mountain, but also nearly the 
entire area of Schuylkill county to the north, the 
excepted portion being about one-sixth part at the 
eastern end. But that section beyond the mountain 
was sparsely settled, the resident taxables number- 
ing about one hundred and fifty, and the population 
about six hundred. The total population (as near 
as it can be estimated) was about twenty thousand ; 
and the taxables numbered about four thousand, the 
same number as those subject to military duty be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and fifty-three years. 
The estimated population of Pennsylvania then was 
three hundred thousand white people, and two thou- 
sand black. 

The townships or districts established in the 
county numbered twenty-nine. They were distrib- 
uted as follows: 


Manatawny Section 

Alsace Douglass Reading 

Amity Exeter Rockland 

Colebrookdale Hereford Ruscombmanor 

District Oley 

Ontelaunee Section 

Albany Maiden-creek Richmond 

Greenwich Maxatawny Windsor 



Schuylkill Section 

Declaration Read in County. — In pursuance of 

a resolution of Congress, the State Board of Safety 

addressed a letter to the Committee of Berks County 

on July 6, 1776, enclosing a copy of the Declaration 




Tulpehocken Section 

Bern Heidelberg 



Brunswick and Pine-Grove. 



The following companies from Berks county were 
in the Revolution from its inception in 1775 to its 
successful termination in 1783, so far as the com- 
piler has been able to ascertain them. This table 
is as complete as it can be made at this time and 
presents sufficient evidence to show the patriotic 
spirit of the people and the response they made to 
the government in its numerous calls for troops. 
The names of the colonels and captains only can 
be given. 




During the year 1775 

Company of Capt. George Nagel (Reading), 95 men, 
at Cambridge, Mass., from July, 1775, to March 1776. 
He subsequently became a Colonel. 

During the year 1776 

Company of Capt. Jonathan Jones (Caernarvon), 83 
men; at Montreal, Quebec, Ticonderoga, and Trenton 
from January, 1776, to January, 1777. 

Battalion of Col. Henry Haller (Reading), which com- 
prised eight companies commanded by the following 
captains : 

John Spohn (Reading), 78 men 
Peter Decker (Reading), 86 men 
Henry Christ (Reading), 87 men 
Joseph Hiester (Reading) 
Jacob Graul (Reading) 
Jacob Maurer (Maiden-creek) 
John Ludwig (Heidelberg) 
George Douglass (Amity) 

The total number of men was estimated at 666. They 
•were in active service at New York and Long Island 
from June, 1776, to January, 1777. Lieut.-Col. Nicholas 
Lotz was in command of the men, and he was among the 
prisoners taken at the Battle of Long Island. 

Also, in that vicinity dtiring August and September, 

1776, four companies, estimated at 300 men, commanded 
by the following captains : 

John Old (District) 
George Will (Reading), 72 men 
Daniel Deturck (Alsace), 72 men 
George May (Windsor) 

Also, in that vicinity (South Amboy) during the same 
time, four companies of the battalion of Col. John Pat- 
ton (Heidelberg), estimated at 300 men, commanded by 
the following captains : 

John Lesher (Tulpehocken) 
Michael Wolf (Bethel) 
George Miller (Tulpehocken) 
Michael Furrer (Tulpehocken) 

Also, in that vicinity during the same time, the 4th 
Battalion of Berks County Militia uder the command 
of Col. Balser Geehr (Bern). It arrived at Bethlehem 
on the way on Sept. 1st. The full battalion of six com- 
panies is supposed to have gone to the field, but the 
names of the captains and the number of men have not 
been as yet ascertained; men estimated at 300. 

Also, in that vicinity during the same time, the bat- 
talion of Col. Mark Bird (Union), which he equipped at 
his own expense. The names of the captains have not 
been ascertained but the number of men was said to have 
been about 300. 

The company of Capt. Benjamin Weiser (Heidel- 
berg), 53 men, was at Trenton in December, 1776, and at 
Princeton in January, 1777. 

The quota of 500 men from Berks county, made up 
from the battalions of Col. Henry Haller and Col. Daniel 
Hunter, were also in the vicinity of Trenton in Decem- 
ber, 1776, and at Newtown, Bucks county, in January, 

1777. Only five of the captains have been ascertained : 

In the Haller battalion, three captains — 

George Will (Reading), 40 men 

John Diehl (Reading), 29 men 

Nicholas Scheffer (Tulpehocken), 32 men 
And in the Hunter battalion, two captains — 

Conrad Eckert (Heidelberg) 


In February, a detachment of the company of Capt. 
Peter Nagel, 17 men, was detailed on duty to guard 
prisoners at Reading. 

In September, a detachment of the company of Capt. 
Conrad Geist, 39 men, was detailed on duty also to guard 
prisoners at Reading. 

Besides the captains mentioned, there is positive evi- 
dence that four additional captains were in the service 
in the summer: Jacob Moser (Reading), John Soder 

(Bern), Stephen Crumrine (Colebrookdale), and — 

Moyer, they having been paid by the Executive Council. 
Number of men estimated at 300. 

During the year 1777 
The companies commanded by the following captains 
were enlisted in the Continental Line — men estimated at 

3d Reg't, Peter Scull (Reading) 
4th " John Mears (Reading) 
6th " Jacob Moser (Reading), 67 men 
6th " Jacob Bower (Reading) 
11th " Samuel Dewees (Heidelberg) 
12th " Peter Withington (Reading) 
The battalion of Col. Daniel Hunter (Oley) was mus- 
tered into service on Aug. 7, 1777, with 365 men, and 
participated under General Washington in the campaigns 
round about Philadelphia from August to December, dur- 
ing which the battles of Brandywine and Germantown 
were fought. It comprised six companies, which were 
commanded by the following captains : 
Henry Knause (Colebrookdale) 
Charles Crouse (Longswamp) 
Jacob Whetstone (Brunswick) 
Conrad Geist (Reading) 
John McMurray (Robeson) 
John Lesher (Oley) 
The battalion of Col. Daniel Udree (Oley) was mus- 
tered in at the same time with 301 men, and was engaged 
in the same service. It comprised six companies with 
the following captains : 

Stephen Crumrine (Colebrookdale) 
Peter Smith (Reading) 
Conrad Minich (Brunswick) 
John Reitmyef (Reading) 
John Essington (Union) 
George Battorf (Bethel) 

The battalion of Col. Michael Lindenmuth (Bern) was 
mustered in on Sept. 27, 1777, with 286 men, and was en- 
gaged in service in the Schuylkill Valley from that time 
until Washington went into winter quarters at Valley 
Forge on Dec. 18th, when it is supposed the men returned 
to the county. It comprised six companies with the fol- 
lowing captains : 

Sebastian Lentz (Rockland) 

Jacob Rodarmel (Richmond) 

Francis Umbenhauer (Bern) 

Daniel Deturck (Alsace) 

John Wagner (Bern) 

Daniel Womelsdorf (Heidelberg) 

The battalion of Col. Joseph Hiester (Reading) was 
■mustered in at the same time with 263 men, and was en- 
gaged in the same service as the Lindenmuth battalion. It 
comprised six companies with the following captains: 

Jacob Roth (Amity) 
Jacob Dreibelbis (Greenwich) 
Sebastian Emrich (Bethel) 
Peter Nagel (Reading) 
John Graul (Reading) 
Conrad Weiser (Heidelberg) 

The battalion of Col. Henry Spyker (Tulpehocken) was 
mustered in on Nov. 9, 1777, and was engaged in the serv- 
ice for sixty days in the Schuylkill Valley, between Valley 
Forge and Germantown. It comprised seven companies 
and 367 men, with the following captains : 

Michael Voyge (Richmond) 
Jacob Shadel (Bern) 



George Riehm (Cumru) 

Jacob Rhoads (Amity) 

Michael Bretz (Pine Grove) 

Conrad Eckert (Heidelberg) 

Henry Weaver (Tulpehocken) 
The battalion of Col. Jacob Weaver (Amity) was mus- 
tered in on Dec. 13, 1777, and was also engaged in the 
service for sixty days in the same vicinity as the Spyker 
battalion. It comprised eight companies and 361 men, 
with the following captains : 

Daniel Reiff (Oley) 

Henry Egijer (Longswamp) 

Ferdinand Ritter (Albany) 

Sebastian Miller (Cumru) 

Philip Krick (Cumru) 

David Morgan (Caernarvon) 

Jacob Kreamer (Bethel) 

Philip Filbert (Heidelberg) 
The company of Capt. Charles Crouse (Longswamp), 
with 40 men, was on guard duty at the Windsor powder 
magazine for some time before Jan. 3, 1778. 

The company of Capt. Jacob Hill (Windsor), with 41 
men, was mustered into service on Oct. 25, 1777, and was 
also stationed at the same powder magazine for some time, 
doing guard duty. 

_ And two companies, each comprising 40 men, were sta- 
tioned at Reading in September, for the purpose of guard- 
ing the military stores — the names of the commanding 
officers not having been ascertained. 

During the year 1778 

In January, General Washington recommended that 
Capt.' Edward Scull (Reading) should recruit 150 men 
in Berks county for the Battalion of the State in the 
Continental Army, which was done. , 

A company, commanded by Lieut. Joseph Talbot 
(Caernarvon), with 54 men, was mustered into service on 
Jan. 5th, and detailed for guard duty at Reading. 

In April, 200 men were ordered on guard duty at Read- 
ing, and 10 men on guard duty at Boone's Mill (supposed 
to have been in Exeter). 

During the middle of this year, 16 men were enlisted 
at Reading to make up the company of Capt. Bartholomew 
Von Heer, for the purpose of performing provost duty. 
They were mounted and accoutered as Light Dragoons, 
to apprehend deserters, rioters and stragglers. 

Col. Jacob Morgan reported in August that he had for- 
warded 180 men to Sunbury, and 133 men to Easton to 
render frontier service against the Indians. 

Two battalions, the quota ordered from Berks county, 
were sent to Philadelphia in October, to serve under Gen- 
eral Armstrong, in anticipation of an invasion by the Brit- 
ish, the number of men being estimated at 500. 

During the year 1779 
No evidence of the enlistment ^of men from Berks coun- 
ty during this year has been discovered, nor any orders 
from the Executive Council to the lieutenant of the 
county for men. 

During the year 1780 

In May, one class of men, numbering 60 men, was 
taken from the battalion of Col. Michael Lindenmuth 
(Bern) for frontier service. 

In June, a company of 53 men was raised as volun- 
teers in Berks county and sent to Philadelphia under the 
command of Major Edward Scull. 

In August, 130 men were sent to Brunswick township 
from the county to render frontier service. 

In August, the 6th Battalion of County Militia, under 
the command, of Col. Joseph Hiester, joined the army of 
Gen. Joseph Reed in New Jersey, near Camden, in pur- 
suance of an order to supply 600 men, who were to co- 
operate with the main army near Philadelphia. It Nvas 
in service for thirty days from Aug. 10th. The names 
of 437 men have been ascertained of this quota. There 
were six companies, commanded by the following captains : 

Charles Gobin (Reading) 
Ferdinand Ritter (Albany) 
Conrad Sherman (Tulpehocken) 
John Ludwig (Heidelberg) 
Jacob Baldy (Maxatawny) 
Henry Strouch (Ruscombmanor) 

In September, two companies, numbering 130 men, from 
the battalion of Col. Samuel Ely, were sent from the 
county to perform frontier service against the Indians. 

During the year 178 1 

In May, one class of the battalion of Col. Michael 
Lindenmuth, numbering 64 men, was forwarded from 
county to render frontier service. 

In June, two classes of the 6th Battalion of Militia, 
commanded by Col. Joseph Hiester, numbering 138 men, 
were placed under the command of Maj. Bayley, to guard 
the encampment of German prisoners at Reading. 

In August, a detachment of Lieut. Daniel Stroud's com- 
pany, numbering 40 men, was ordered on guard duty, and 
it served during August and September. 

A detachment of Capt. Charles Grouse's company, num- 
bering 36 men, was on duty at Reading guarding pris- 
oners from Aug. 16th to Oct. 16th. 

In September, there were 153 men recruited at Reading 
and forwarded. 

Three classes of Col. Samuel Ely's Battalion, numbering 
300 men, were in service at Newtown from Oct. 1st to 
Oct. l&th. Two of the companies are believed to have 
been commanded by 

John Robinson (Caernarvon), 56 men 
Jacob Ladich (Brunswick) 

The other companies have not been discovered. 

Three other companies, about the same number of men, 
were also organized in the county, but on account of the 
want of arms the lieutenant of the county (then Col. Val- 
entine Eckert), could not then forward them. 

In October, a company of riflemen, numbering 83 men, 
was organized in the western end of the county, and in 
service under the command of Capt. Jacob Livingood 
(Heidelberg) until Jan. 1, 1782. The place of service has 
not been ascertained, but the men were paid on Jan. 
16, 1782. 

Militia from Greenwich and Maxatawny townships, 
numberi^jg 120 men, were on a tour of duty. 

Detachments from the 2d and 6th Battalions of Militia, 
numbering 169 men, were on duty at Reading guarding 

During the year 1782 

In February, the company of Capt. John Robinson, 
numbering 60 men, was in service at Northumberland. 

In February, the first class of militia, numbering 40 
men,' was in service at Reading guarding prisoners.' 

In August, there were two detachments of militia, one 
numbering 27 men, and the other 50 men, who rendered 
frontier service in the county. 

In September, 125 men were sent from the county to 
render frontier service in Northumberland county. 

In September, a detachment of Capt. Peter Nagel's com- 
pany, numbering 40 men, was detailed to guard prisoners 
who were sent from Reading to Philadelphia. 


For the year 1775 95 

For the year 1776 2,858 

For the year 1777 2,404 

For the year 1778 1,233 

For the year 1779 

For the year 1780 ' 952 

For the year 1781 1,093 

For the year 1782 343 




Miscellaneous enlistments ascertained not included 

in above statement 56 

Total estimated 9,033 

The number of men for the years 1776 and 1777 
appears incredible, but the reader will take into 
consideration that the men for each year were not 
all in service at one time. Taking the reports of 
men in service that have been given in detail, and 
understanding that it was not possible to discover 
all the men that were enlisted, it can be said that 
the estimated total, as arranged, is not above, but 
rather below, the real number supplied by the coun- 
ty during the Revolution. 

The system of supplying men was simple, and 
it was carried on in such a manner as to render as- 
sistance to the government with as little injury as 
possible to the several districts from which the men 
were called. The number demanded at one time 
was not extraordinary, compared with the total 
number subject to military duty, and the term of 
service was limited to such a period that the busi- 
ness interests of the people should not suffer seri- 
ous losses. In this way it was possible to have at 
least several hundred men from a county in service 
all the time. 


Mark Bird 
Daniel Brodhead 
Valentine Eckert 
Samuel Ely 
Balser Geehr 
Henry Haller 
Joseph Hiester 
Daniel Hunter 
Michael Lindenmuth 

Nicholas Lotz 
Jacob Morgan 
Jacob Morgan, 
George Nagel 
John Patton 
Henry Spyker 
Daniel Udree 
Jacob Weaver 



Jacob Baldy 
George Battorf 
George Beaver 
Jacob Bower 
Michael Bretz 
Henry Christ 
Charles Crouse 
Stephen Crumrine 
Peter Decker 
Daniel Deturck 
Samuel Dewees 
John Diehl 
Jacob Dreibelbis 
Conrad Eckert 
Henry Egner 
Sebastian Emrich 
John Essington 
Philip Filbert 


George Focht 
Conrad Geist 
Charles Gobin 
Jacob Graul 
John Graul 
Thomas Herbert 
Joseph Hiester 
Jacob Hill 
Jonathan Jones 
George Kemp 
Henry Knause 
Philip Kreamer 

Philip Krick 
Jacob Ladich 
Sebastian Lentz 
John Lesher 
Jacob Livingood 
John Ludwig 
Jacob Maurer 
George May 
John McMurray 
John Mears 
George Miller 
Sebastian Miller 
Conrad Minich 
David Morgan 
Jacob Moser 


George Nagel 
Peter Nagel 
John Old 

Dirck Pennybacker 
Daniel Reiff 
John Reitmyer 
Jacob Richstein 
George Riehm 
Ferdinand Ritter 
John Robinson 
Jacob Roth (Rhoads) 
Jacob Rothermel 
Nicholas Scheffer 
Edward Scull 
Peter Scull 

Francis Umbenhauer 
Bartholomew Von Heer 
Peter Wanner 
John Wagner 
Benjamin Weiser 
Conrad Weiser 
Henry Weaver 
Jacob Whetstone 
Matthias Wick 
George Will 
Daniel Womelsdorf 

William Scull 
Jacob Shadel 
Henry Shepler 
Conrad Sherman 
Casper Smeck 
Peter Smith 
John Soder 


John Spohn 
Leonard Stone 
Henry Strauch 
Joseph Talbot 

Army Supplies from County. — During the 
Revolution, many army supplies were either manu- 
factured or produced in the county of Berks, more 
especially in the years 1775, 1776 and 1777; and 
these were collected from the several districts and 
deposited at Reading, for the purpose of enabling 
the Commissioners of Forage to fill the propor- 
tional allotments of the districts with reasonable 
dispatch. They consisted of grain, flour, hay, pow- 
der, clothing, accoutrements, horses and wagons. 

The superior geographical situation of Reading 
led Congress to select the place as a general depot 
for storing supplies of all kinds. It was far enough 
from Philadelphia that General Howe could not 
entertain any thoughts of capturing the stores with 
safety to his army, and yet it was near enough to 
enable the storekeeper to fill orders made upon him 

Store House at Reading. — In a letter of CoL 
Jacob Morgan to the Executive Council, dated Sept. 
18, 1777, he stated as follows: 

There is at present a great quantity of powder and 
other stores belonging to the State in this town [Read- 
ing] and there are two companies now out of said classes 
mounting guard over said stores. The people of the town 
are vastly uneasy at having so much powder here, and, 
unless it be very well guarded, that uneasiness will in- 
crease to a great degree, as fire happening to the house 
where the powder is lodged would tear the town to pieces 
and destroy the whole body of inhabitants. Many persons 
of the town, above 53 years of age, would make part 
of a guard if taken into pay, which would render it easy 
to send so many more of the militia as would otherwise 
be requisite for such guard. The Continental Press and 
Medicinal store also require some guard. 

By a letter of the same day from Christ and Shoe- 
maker [Justices] to the Council it would appear 
that they had called two companies of militia to 
guard the said stores — "not forgetting the Conti- 
nental Treasurer." The stores included a "vast 
number of ammunition in the town, or near it." 

Lotz Receipt Book. — In 1893, the compiler saw 
the receipt book of Col. Nicholas Lotz in which re- 
ceipts were taken for moneys paid from Aug. 13, 
1780, to Dec. 5, 1781. The total amount was $202,- 
033. Some of the items were reckoned in pounds, 
shillings and pence, but the most of them were in 
dollars. A great part of the amount was paid to 
him in currency, which was never redeemed, 
whereby he and others suffered great losses. 

Iron Industries. — Thirteen prominent iron in- 
dustries were carried on successfully in the county 
during the Revolution. They were situated in the 



four sections of the county, along strong streams 
of water, as follows: 


Oley, in Oley, on Manatawny creek. 

Mt. Pleasamt, in Colebrookdale, on West Branch of 

Hereford, in Hereford, on West Branch of Perkiomen. 

Hopewell, in Union, on French creek. 

Berkshire, in Heidelberg on tributary of Tulpehocken 

Pine, Spring and Oley, in Douglass, District, and Oley, 
on Manatawny creek. 

Mi. Pleasant, in Colebrookdale, on West Branch. 
Bird's, in Robeson, on Hay creek. 
Gibraltar, in Robeson, on Allegheny creek. 
Moselem, in Richmond, on Ontelaunee creek. 
Charming, in Tulpehocken, on Tulpehocken creek. 

Ironmasters. — The ironmasters, the proprietors 
■ of the foregoing industries, were Mark Bird, John 
Patton, John Lesher, David Potts, John Old, Thom- 
as Mayberry, Daniel Udree, George Ege and Chris- 
tian Lower. The assessed value of the property 
of these men in the different sections of the county 
amounted to a very large sum in the aggregate, 
showing that they were in a situation to contribute 
a strong influence toward the successful prosecu- 
tion of the war. They supplied the Continental 
Government with cannon-balls, cast-iron and 
wrought-iron in various shapes, and they cooper- 
ated heartily in the great social movement for rep- 
resentative government. Their assistance was of 
the greatest consequence and cannot be overesti- 
mated. We can take great pride in the fact that 
the county then possessed such enterprising, pub- 
lic-spirited and patriotic men. 

Other Industries.— ^There were other indus- 
tries which are equally worthy of mention, such as 
numerous grist-mills, saw-mills, gun factories, 
wheelwright shops and blacksmith shops. These 
were also situated along the strong streams in dif- 
ferent sections of the county and they rendered 
great assistance to Congress and the Council. 
Nicholas Lotz, Sebastian Levan, and Daniel B rod- 
head were three extensive millers, and Valentine 
Eckert and Christian Lower were two influential 
blacksmiths, who identified themselves prominently 
with public affairs at that time. Knapsacks and 
gun-barrels were made in different parts of the 
county. And numerous energetic, hopeful and per- 
sistent farmers constituted the very foundation of 
the public welfare. 

During the progress of the Revolution, the gov- 
ernment was compelled to resort to the emission 
of "bills of credit" with which to purchase army 
supplies, etc., and to satisfy the demands of carry- 
ing on the war. Gold and silver were not then 
known to exist in the country in any quantity equal 
to the demands of the war, nor could they be pro- 
cured. Direct taxation, though practicable, was 
deemed impolitic. The only plausible expedient in 

the power of Congress was the emission of these 
bills. Congress therefore resolved in June, 1775, to 
emit such bills to the amount of two millions of 
dollars; in July, ordered a million more; and in 
November, three millions more; and for their re- 
demption, pledged the Confederated Colonies. Sub- 
sequently, other emissions were made; and such 
was the animation of the times that these several 
emissions, amounting to twenty millions, circulated 
for some time without any depreciation, and com- 
manded the resources of the country for public 
service equally with gold or silver. But there 
was a point both in time and quantity beyond which 
this process ceased to operate ; that time was about 
eighteen months from the date of first emission 
and that quantity twenty millions. The rulers 
thought it still premature to urge taxation, and 
they, therefore, resorted to the expedient of fur- 
ther emissions. The ease with which the means 
of procuring supplies were furnished^ by simply 
striking off bills of credit, and the readiness with 
which the people received them, prompted Con- 
gress to multiply them beyond the limits of pru- 
dence, and a depreciation of their value was the un- 
avoidable consequence. 

At first, this depreciation was scarcely percepti- 
ble, but it increased daily, till finally the currency 
became worthless. It began at different peridds 
in different States ; but in general about the middle 
of the year 1777, and then increased progressively 
for several years. In the latter part of 1777 it was 
two dollars in currency for one in specie ; in 1778, 
five for one; in 1779, twenty-seven for one; in 
1780, fifty for one. After 1780, the circulation was 
limited to certain localities ; but where the currency 
passed, it depreciated to one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars for one. In Pennsylvania, the Executive Coun- 
cil resolved, as late as Feb. 1, 1781, that Continen- 
tal money should be received for public dues at 
the exchange of seventy-five dollars in currency for 
one in specie. But an Act. provided that after June 
1st following, only specie or equivalent bills of cred- 
it should be received for taxes or other public 
dues; and this rendered the currency worthless in 
the State. This extraordinary depreciation brought 
great loss to many of the people who had aided 
the government in the grand struggle for freedom. 
In this respect, the soldiers suffered most. The 
people of Reading, and especially of the county, 
met with considerable losses thereby. Some of 
them had large quantities which were transmitted 
for some time until lost or destroyed. It was not 


The following men from Berks county occupied 
the positions named, for the time stated, during the 
Revolution : 


Delegate in Continental Congress 
Edward Biddle, 1774-75; 1775-76; 1778-79. 



Secretary of Board of War 
Edward Scull, May 16, 1778. 

Dr. Jonathan Potts Dr. Bodo Otto 

Surveying Department 
William Scull, January, 1778, to September, 1779. 

Deputy Quartermaster-General 
Jacob Morgan, Jr., April, 1778, to 1783. 


Delegates to Provincial Conference, June i8, 1776 

Jacob Morgan 
Henry Haller 
Mark Bird 
Bodo Otto 
Benjamin Spyker 

Daniel Hunter 
Valentine Eckert 
Nicholas Lotz 
Joseph Hiester 
Charles Shoemaker 

Delegates to Constitutional Convention, July 15, 1776 

Jacob Morgan 
Gabriel Hiester 
John Lesher 
Benjamin Spyker 

Daniel Hunter 
Valentine Eckert 
Charles Shoemaker 
Thomas Jones, Jr. 

Wagon Masters General 

Henry Haller, June, 1779, to Aug. 14, 1780. 
Jacob Morgan, Jr., Aug. 14, 1780, to 1783. 

Superintendent of Commissioners of Purchases 

Jacob Morgan, Jr., Aug. 14, 1780, to 1783. 

Register of Court' of Admiralty 
James Read, June 5, 1781. 

Prothonotary of Supreme Court 

Edward Burd, Esq., appointed Aug. 12, 1778; he con- 
tinued until Jan. 26, 1786, when he was re-appointed. 

Committee on Correspondence, July 2, J774 

Edward Biddle Christopher Schultz 

James Read Thomas Dundas 

Daniel Brodhead Jonathan Potts 
Henry Christ 

Committee on Observation, Dec. 5, 1774 

Members of Assembly 

Edward Biddle. 


Henry Christ 1774 

Henry Haller 

John Lesher 

James Read 

Benjamin Spyker 
Sebastian Levan. . , 

Daniel Hunter 

Balser Geehr 


Jonathan Potts 

Mark Bird 1778 

Gabriel Hiester 


1774 Valentine Eckert 1779 

'78 Christian Lower 1779 

'7.5 '82, '83 

1776 George Ege 1779 

1776 '80, '82 

1777 Jonathan Jones 1779 

1777 John Fatten 1780 'S3 

1777 Thomas Mifflin 1780 

79 Joseph Hiester 1780. '81 

1777 Benjamin Weiser 1781 

'81 John Bishop 1781 

1777 Daniel Clvmer 17S3, 'S3 

'81 .\braham Lincoln. .1782, S3 

1778 Nicholas Lotz 1782, 'S3 

, '80 

1775 John Ludwig 1732 

81 John Rice 1783 

Edward Biddle 
Christopher Schultz 
Jonathan Potts 
William Reeser 
Balser Geehr 
Michael Bright 
John Patton 
Mark Bird 

Edward Biddle was Speaker of the Assembly for the 
year 1774-7.'i. 

The representation of the county was as follows : Two 
for the years 1774 and 1775, and six for the remaining 

The foregoing Representatives were elected the several 
years named for the term of one year. 

Executive Councillors 

Richard Tea (ironmaster of Flereford township) was 
a councillor for a time. He was elected in 1776, and served 
until April, 1777, when he resigned. 

Jacob Morgan, Jr., was qualified on Sept. 3, 1777. He 
resigned April 4, 1778, upon accepting the appointment of 
D. Q. M. General. On May 25, 1778, an order was drawn 
to him for £301, 5s., for attending Council 180 days, in- 
cluding mileage. 

James Read succeeded him, and was qualified on June 
30, 1778. On Dec. 1, 177S, he received one vote for Pres- 
ident of the Executive Council. He resigned June 4, 17S1, 
and on the 5th, was elected Register of the Court of Ad- 
miralty of Pennsylvania. 

Sebastian Levan, of Maxataw.ny, was also a councillor, 
and officiated from Oct. 31, 1781, to Oct. 15, 1784. 

John Jones 
John pid 
Sebastian Levan 
George Nagel 
Christopher Witman 
Jacob Shoemaker 
James Lewis 

Colonels of Associated Battalions, 177s 

Edward Biddle 
Mark Bird 
Daniel Brodhead 

Balser Geehr 
Christian Lower 

Standing Committee, 1775 

Edward Biddle 
Mark Bird 
Jonathan Potts 
Daniel Brodhead 
Balser Geehr 

CoUinson Read, Sec. 
Valentine Eckert 
Nicholas Lotz, Chairman 
Sebastian Levan 
Richard Tea 

Lieutenants of County 

Jacob Morgan, June 9, 1777, to 1780; Valentine Eckert, 
Jan. 8, 17S1, to 1783. 


Henry Shoemaker 
Christian Lower, Jr 
Valentine Eckert 

Daniel Udree 
Jacob Swcyer 
John Mears 

PayuMsfcrs of County I[[ilitia 

Daniel Hunter, 1776, to Aug. 25, 1777; Henry Spyker, 
Aug. 26, 1777, to 17S;!. 

Superintendent of Purchases 

John Patton, 1778. 

Commissioners of Forage 

Valentine Eckert 177S Nicholas Lotz. .1780 to 1783 

John Lesher 1778 

In October, 1779, Col. IMichael Lindenmuth was ap- 
pointed Commissioner to purchase flour for the French 

Collectors of E.vcisc 

John Biddle 1774 John Witman 1780-81 

Daniel Levan 1779-80 Conrad Foos 1782-83 




Henry Haller, 1778 to 1783 

Jacob Morgan, Jr., 1778 

Storekeeper at Reading 
Joseph Cowperthwaite, 1778 

Local Committees 

Owing to the aid given by divers inhabitants to the 
enemy, the Council in September, 1777, appointed com- 
mittees to dispose of the property of such offenders and 
make return of their proceedings under oath. The fol- 
lowing committee was appointed for Berks county: 

County Commissioners 

Samuel Hoch 1775-76 

Michael Bright 1775-77 

Abraham Lincoln. . .1775-78 
Christian Lower .... 1777-79 

John Kerlin 1778-80 

Adam Witman 1779-81 


Thomas Parry 
David Morgan 
Peter Nagel 
Henry Haller 

Daniel Udree 
Henry Spyker 
Joseph Hiester 

This committee appointed two persons in each district 
to make provision for distressed families whose husbands 
and fathers were in service. The appointees for Reading 
were Henry Hahn and Peter Feather. 

On Nov. 8th, the Council also appointed committees to 
collect arras, clothing, etc., from the inhabitants who did 
not take the oath of allegiance, or who aided the enemy, 
and to deliver them to the clothier-general. The com- 
mittee in Berks county was : 

Henry Christ 
Henry Haller 
Thomas Parry 
Daniel Udree 
Philip Miller 

Nathan Lewis 
John Lower 
Godfrey Riehm 
Jacob Seltzer 
Nicholas Scheffer 

Committee on Attainder and Vesting Forfeited Estates, lyyS 

Thomas Parry 
Henry Haller 

David Morgan 

Auditing Committee 

Francis Richardson, Reynold Keene, Collinson Read, 
James Biddle and Henry Haller were appointed Jan. 23, 
1777, commissioners for the county, to audit and settle 
the accounts for arms and accoutrements purchased, the 
property of persons lost in actual service, and of those 
who were killed, died in service, or were made prisoners. 


Peter Spycker 1775-83 

George Douglass . . . 1775-83 

Balser Geehr 1775-83 

John Patton 1775-77 

Jacob Morgan 1775-77 

Mark Bird 1775-76 

Jonathan Potts 1776-77 

Daniel Levan 1777 

Sebastian Zimmerman .... 


William Reeser 1778-83 

Peter Spycker was appointed president judge of all the 
courts on Nov. 18, 1780. 

Justices of the Peace 

1777 — Henry Christ, Reading; Jacob Shoemaker, Wind- 
sor; James Read, Reading; Daniel Hiester, Heidelberg; 
Peter Spycker, Tulpehocken ; Jacob Weaver, John Old, 
Amity; John Ludwig, Exeter; Benj. Shott;_ Christopher 
Schultz, Hereford ; Samuel Ely, Richmond ; "Jacob Wag- 
oner, Bern; Daniel Rothermel, Maiden-creek; Charles 
Shoemaker, Windsor; Egedius Meyer, Jacob Morgan, 
Caernarvon; Thomas Parry, Union. 

1778 — Benjamin Weiser, Heidelberg; Michael Linden- 
muth, Bern; Gabriel Hiester, Bern. 

1780— John Guldin, Oley. 

Thomas Jones 1780-83 

Thomas Parry 1781-83 

Daniel Messersmith 


Michael Furrer 1783 

. y ■ 1 ;■ . lA . . , iJ-; 


George Nagel 1775 

Henry Vanderslice. .1776-77 
Daniel Levan 1778-79 

Henry Hoffa 1780-81 

Philip Kraemer 1783-83 


Christopher Witman 1775-79 Daniel Levan 1780-83 


The assessors appointed by the county commissioners 
for the years named were : 

1776— Vernor Stamm, Michael Furrer, Paul Geiger, 
John Spohn, John Kerlin, John Egner. 

1777 — John Hartman, Michael Furrer, John Robinson, 
John Egner, George Kelchner, Joseph Sands. 


The surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown 
on Oct. 19, 1781, was virtually the end of the war 
between Great Britain , and America. The news 
of the surrender reached London on the 35th of 
November, following.- Several months -afterward, 
the warfare in the American Colonies was discussed 
and its continuance discouraged in the House of 
Commons. These discussions were continued with 
earnestness till they culminated in a preliminary 
treaty of peace on Nov. 30, 1782. In the first arti- 
cle of this treaty, "the independence of the thirteen 
United States of America" was recognized. The 
treaty was not made final then, owing to the three 
allied powers — Great Britain, France and Spain — 
having been pledged to one another not to conclude 
a treaty except by common consent. The final 
treaty was concluded at Paris on Sept. 3, 1783, and 
thereby the United States was acknowledged to be 
"free, sovereign and independent." 

During these two years of negotiation and de- 
lay, there were no general military operations. But 
great anxiety was felt over the prospects for a per- 
manent peace. Through the inactivity of the army, 
the officers and soldiers became restless ; also dis- 
contented, because they were not rewarded for 
their patriotic services. An attempt was made 
by anonymous and seditious publications to inflame 
their minds and to induce them to unite in redress- 
ing their grievances whilst they had arms in their 
hands. But Washington succeeded in quieting 
them. His wisdom and eloquence elicited from the 
officers the unanimous adoption of a resolution by 
which they declared "that no circumstances of dis- 
tress or danger should induce a conduct that might 
tend to sully the reputation and glpry they had ac- 
quired; that the army continued to have unshaken 
confidence in the justice of Congress and their 
country ; and that they viewed with abhorrence and 



rejected with disdain the infamous proposition in 
the late anonymous address to the officers of the 

Return of Soldiers. — In order to avoid the in- 
conveniences of dismissing a great number of sol- 
diers in a body, furloughs were freely granted. In 
this way, a great part of the unpaid army was dis- 
banded and dispersed over the States without tu- 
mult or disorder. As they had been easily and 
speedily formed out of farmers, mechanics and la- 
borers in 1775, so with equal facility did they throw 
ofif their military character and resume their for- 
mer occupations. They had taken up arms earn- 
estly for political freedom, but when these were no 
longer necessary, they laid them down peaceably 
to become again good citizens, as they had been 
for eight years patriotic soldiers. 


Cause. — As early as 1756, the province of Penn- 
sylvania had looked to excise on ardent spirits for 
the means of sustaining its bills of credit. The 
original law was limited to a period of ten years; 
but it was extended from time to time as necessi- 
ties pressed upon the treasury. During the Revo- 
lution, the law was generally evaded in the west- 
ern part of the State by considering all spirits as 
for domestic use, such having been excepted from 
excise. But, when the debts of the Revolution be- 
gan to press upon. the States, the government offi- 
cials became more vigilant in the enforcement of 
the law and Congress, after a long debate, passed 
an Act in March, 1791, increasing the duty on im- 
ported spirits and levying a tax of four pence per 
gallon on all distilled spirits, which went into opera- 
tion in July following. The Legislature had in- 
structed their representatives in Congress to vote 
against the law. 

Opposition arose at once in the western counties 
of the State, and resolutions were adopted at pub- 
lic meetings demanding an unconditional appeal. 
Liberty-poles were erected, and people even as- 
sembled in arms to resist officers in the enforce- 
ment of the law. Various public excitements con- 
tinued until 1794, when an insurrection ensued. 
Governor Mifflin declined to call out the militia to 
suppress the insurrection, and, as a consequence, 
the spirit extended into contiguous States. 

President Washington called on Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia for fifteen 
thousand men, and sent commissioners to the scene 
of the disturbance in Washington county, with 
power to arrange for peaceful submission any time 
before Sept. 14, 1794. But the commissioners re- 
turned to Philadelphia ten days after that date 
without a settlement. The troops were promptly 
put in motion, the governors of the several States 
named commanding their respective quotas. Gover- 
nor Lee, of Virginia, had chief command of the 

army. On the appearance of the troops m Novem- 
ber the insurrection subsided. There was no oppo- 
sition and no bloodshed. Among the Pennsylvania 
troops, there was a company from Reading, under 
the command of Capt. Daniel De B. Keim. This 
company was formed from certain survivors of 
the Continental army, which had been commanded 
by Lieut.-Col. Nicholas Lotz, and was called the 
•■Reading Union Volunteers." It was afterward 
known as the "Reading Artillerists." This insur- 
rection cost the government $1,100,000. 

Troops from County.— The proportion of troops 
which was to be supplied by Berks county toward 
the quota of Pennsylvania militia under the requi- 
sition of the President of the United States, was 
434 officers and privates, and 26 cavalry. The 434 
men were placed under the command of Brig.-Gen. 
Francis Murray, in the 2d Brigade. The Adjutant- 
General of the State issued an order on Sept. 11, 
1794, requiring the quota for the counties of Bucks, 
Northampton and Berks to assemble at Reading, 
receive arms, equipments and camp equipage, and 
march thence by way of Harrisburg to Carlisle. _ 

The Quartermaster-General of Pennsylvania, 
Clement Biddle, arrived at Reading on Sunday 
evening, Sept. 38, 1794. In a letter by him to Gov- 
ernor Mifflin dated the day following, he remarked 
about the Berks county troops : "Colonel Cowperth- 
waite had collected four hundred men in the en- 
campment at Peters's farm, who were fully fur- 
nished with everything they required. The drafts 
from the county continued to come in and he pro- 
posed marching tomorrow." And he reported that 
Captain Forrest's troops had moved from Read- 
ing on Saturday (27th) ; that he expected the 
Bucks County Militia here on 30th ; and that the 
Militia of Berks County would assemble on Oct. 
1st; also that the rear of the Jersey troops would 
march from here on the 30th under General 

Washington at Reading. — In another letter to 
Governor Mifflin, dated at Reading, Oct. 2, 1794, 
he stated that — "The President was here last night, 
and went on this morning to Carlisle." He also re- 
ported then that "the cavalry of this county [Berks] 
are by this time at Carlisle. Captain Spayd has a 
fine company of infantry ready to march, and I shall 
hasten the drafts from the county off to-morrow." 
The cavalry mentioned was Moore's. 

Cause. — During the early part of Adams's ad- 
ministration. Congress passed an Act requiring a 
direct tax to be levied upon houses. This tax was 
called the "house-tax," also "window-tax." The 
Federal government, in collecting it in the eastern 
counties of Pennsylvania, caused considerable ex- 
citement and opposition, which eventually broke out 
in an insurrection in 1799. The leader was John 
Fries, of Bucks county, who was tried and convicted 
of high treason and sentenced to be hanged, but 
President Adams, against the advice of his cab- 
inet pardoned him, and also issued a general am- 



nesty for all the offenders. The excitement extend- 
ed into the northeastern border of Berks county. 

Excitement at Reading. — The insurrection was 
indirectly the cause of a considerable commotion at 
Reading. Certain troops were called out to sup- 
pi-ess the insurrection; and among- them was Cap- 
tain Montgomery's company of Light Dragoons 
from Lancaster. Their way to the scene of excite- 
ment was through Reading. Upon arriving here 
they cut down certain "Liberty-poles," insulted the 
people, etc.; and these unwarranted performances 
induced the Adler to publish a letter, criticising 
their conduct. This appeared whilst the company 
was on the way to Northampton county. But upon 
their return they heard of it, and this naturally 
developed in them as soldiers a spirit of revenge. 
So they went to Jacob Schneider, the senior pro- 
prietor of the Adler, and demanded from him the 
name of the person who had written the letter con- 
demning and ridiculing them. But he refused to 
comply and his refusal led the soldiers to spend 
their anger on him by taking him forcibly to the 
market-house and giving him a certain number of 

Mr. Schneider made complaint before a justice 
■of the peace and caused the criminals to be arrested, 
but Captain Montgomery denied the authority to 
make the arrest, and the matter was referred to 
General Macpherson, who said he would look into 
it. By the time Montgomery's troops returned to 
Heading on their way home, Strohecker had erected 
a liberty-pole in the place of the one erected by' his 
children. Hearing this, the soldiers went to Stro- 
hecker's place and attempted to compel a common 
laborer to cut down the "offensive wood," notwith- 
standing he protested against doing so. They suc- 
ceeded in divesting the pole, and with it as a trophy 
they rode through the streets of Reading to their 
quarters. In a few days they left, but on the 24th 
of April an army, under Gen. Macpherson, arrived 
at Reading. They apprehended some of the insur- 
rectionists, who were afterward tried ; some of them 
were found guilty, some fined and imprisoned, and 
others condemned to be capitally punished; but 
none atoned with their lives — they were pardoned 
through executive clemency. 

Keim's Company Complimented. — Upon the 
breaking-up of the headquarters at Reading, on 
April 22, 1799, General Macpherson addressed the 
following interesting letter to Capt. Daniel Keim: 

While I congratulate you and the company you com- 
mand on their return home, I take an additional pleasure in 
expressing my complete satisfaction with every part of 
their steady and soldier-like conduct during a very fa- 
tiguing though short expedition. It is much to be re- 
gretted that in a country blessed as this is, by an excellent 
constitution faithfully administered, there should be found 
any portion of its inhabitants so ignorant, or so wicked, 
as to oppose laws peculiarly adapted to the ease of the 
mass of the people, since the burden falls immediately 
upon the opulent. But it is a great consolation to see 
gentlemen, such as compose your company, come forward 
and brave fatigue and danger in support of the honor 
and happiness of their country. Accept, sir, my sincere 

thanks for this instance of your patriotism and be pleased 
to convey to every individual my particular acknowledg- 
ments, best wishes and affectionate farewell. 

Congress passed an Act on Dec. 22, 1807, laying 
an embargo on all the ships and vessels in the ports 
and harbors of the United States in pursuance of 
a recommendation of President Jefferson. It pro- 
hibited the departure of all American vessels and 
all foreign vessels, except those in ballast. No 
merchandise whatever was to be exported. The 
Act was not simply to save American ships from 
danger, as Jefferson suggested in his message, but 
it was a measure of aggression against England. 
It was unpopular in proportion as men were or 
were not engaged in commerce. The maritime 
States thought that the agricultural States took a 
special satisfaction in a qtia^ war, of which all the 
burden fell at first upon commerce ; but the burden 
at length became universal. The men whose to- 
bacco, corn- and cotton could not be sent to market 
soon learned that they also, as well as the carriers 
of those products, were paying a heavy tax by this 
interdiction of commerce. Under the pressure of 
public opinion, this Act was repealed on March 1, 
1809, and another Act was then substituted which 
interdicted the commercial intercourse between the 
United States, Great Britain and France, and 
forbade imports from Europe. From this policy of 
non-intercourse and from other difficulties, which in 
a state of war hindered importations from Europe, 
there was born unexpectedly that gigantic system 
under which the United States has become a great 
manufacturing nation. 

During this interdiction, the people of Berks 
county began to feel the evil effects of this policy 
of non-intercourse. A number of millers and other 
citizens met at Reading on April 11, 1812, "for the 
purpose of taking into consideration the late meas- 
ures of Congress, the perilous situation of our com- 
mon country, and of consulting and devising such 
means or measures as may tend to relieve us from 
the distress which impends over us" ; and passed res- 
olutions disapproving of the action of Congress. 

ENGLISH WAR, 1812-15 
Cause. — The Revolution was carried to a suc- 
cessful termination, and Independence, which the 
Colonies had declared in 1776, was thereby estab- 
lished. But though peace was declared to exist be- 
tween the two nations, the British government con- 
ducted itself persistently in an offensive manner 
toward the people of the United States, their com- 
merce, etc., and to their great injury for thirty 
years. The United States government passed natur- 
alization laws whereby foreigners could be natur- 
alized and become citizens, but the British govern- 
ment contended that a British subject could not be 
naturalized, and claimed the right of stopping 
United States vessels, searching for seamen of Eng- 
lish birth, and impressing them into their service. 



In exercising this right, they stationed ships at 
harbors of the United States and searched every 
departing and arriving vessel. They were so vigi- 
lant that within a period of eight years they cap- 
tured nine hundred vessels and impressed over six 
thousand seamen into their navy. All this humilia- 
tion was borne with patience, but finally the com- 
plaints became too loud, and the injuries too griev- 
ous to be endured any longer, and President Madi- 
son made them the subject of a message to Con- 
gress on June 1, 1812, which ended in a declaration 
of war on June 19, 1812. 

Anticipating this Declaration of War, Governor 
Snyder issued an Order on May 12th, requiring the 
quota of troops from Pennsylvania, fourteen thous- 
and, to be promptly raised and formed into two 
divisions. The first division included the troops 
from Berks county and was placed under the com- 
mand of Maj.-Gen. Isaac Worrell. A noble res- 
ponse was made to this call ; for the troops tendered 
exceeded three times the quota requested. 

The naval battle on Lake Erie was fought on 
Sept. 10, 1813, with brilliant success. Commodore 
Perry then sent his famous despatch to General 
Harrison: "We have met the enemy, and they our 
ours." The news reached Reading on the 27th of 
September following, and a grand illumination of 
the town took place in the evening from 7 till 10 
o'clock, to signalize the glorious event. 

Families from Philadelphia. — During this 
period a number of English families, resident at 
Philadelphia, left the city for the interior parts of 
the country owing to a law which required them 
to move away from the sea-coast and ports at least 
fifty miles. Some of these families went to Read- 
ing, and took quarters at the "Tyson Inn," at the 
head of Franklin street (where the Park public 
school is situated). Whilst here (in August, 1814) 
the city of Washington was captured by the English, 
who wantonly destroyed the government buildings, 
excepting the patent office. This news caused 
these families to rejoice; and, to express their joy, 
they carried on dancing with the assistance of 
music; but they misconceived the temper of the 
German people of this inland borough, and soon 
found that their conduct wounded their national 
pride. In the midst of their demonstrations, they 
were suddenly attacked by a party of citizens, and 
the attack was made so earnestly as to require the 
building to be closed and the performance to be 

This destruction of the Capitol and public build- 
ings at Washington, and the threatened attack on 
Baltimore by the enemy shortly afterward, brought 
the war near to Pennsylvania. The march of the 
enemy toward the interior by way of the Potomac 
river and Chesapeake bay naturally stimulated the 
military spirit of the State and a great number of 
men rallied in her defense. When the news reached 
Reading this spirit became thoroughly aroused in 
the entire county. 

George Ritter 
Henry Willotz 
Jonathan Jones 
George Zieber 

Companies from County. — There were eleven 
companies enhsted in this war from Berks county, 
classified with the 2d Brigade, under the command 
of Maj.-Gen. Daniel Udree, of Oley, in two regi- 
ments: the 1st Regiment, commanded by Lieut.- 
Col. Jeremiah Shappell, of Windsor, and the 2d, 
by Lieut.-Col. John Lotz, of Reading. 

Eight of the companies in the 1st Regiment were 
commanded by the following captains: 

John May 
John Mauger 
Jacob Marshall 
George Marx 

And three of the companies in the 2d, by the fol- 
lowing captains : 

Thomas Moore Gabriel Old 

John Christman 

These eleven companies were stationed at 
York, Pennsylvania, from September, 1814, to 
March, 1815. 

There was a twelfth company from the county, 
the Reading Washington Guards, commanded by 
Capt. Daniel De B. Keim. It rendered service at 
Wilmington, Delaware, in the latter part of Sep- 
tember, 1814; and afterward it was attached to the 
"Advance Light Brigade" as the 11th Company in 
the 1st Regiment of the Penna. Volunteer Infantry, 
commanded by General Cadwalader, with which it 
continued until the close of the war. 

Peace Declared. — Peace was concluded at Ghent 
on Dec. 24, 1814, but it was not till Feb. 22, 1815, 
that the event became known at Reading. During 
that day, the citizens of the borough signalized it 
by shooting off cannon, and at night by a grand 
illumination in which sixteen hundred pounds of 
candles were consumed. 

MEXICAN WAR, 1846 to 1848 
Cause. — The Mexican war arose out of the ques- 
tion relating to the annexation of Texas to the 
United States. The constitution of Mexico prohib- 
ited slavery in Texas, and this provision was a suffi- 
cient reason why the Southern States should wish 
to control it. President Adams and also President 
Jackson had made fruitless efforts to buy the prov- 
ince ; and subsequently for some vears the scheme 
of annexation was considered. One of the last acts 
of Jackson's official life was the appointment of an 
official agent to Texas, thereby acknowledging the 
independence of the province. This was looked 
upon as the first step toward obtaining possession 
of territory large enough for five new slave States. 
Plenceforward, the project was urged with persist- 
ence, but little success till about 1842, when Presi- 
dent Tyler gave it his encouragement. It was ar- 
gued that if slavery were abolished in Texas, the 
ruin of the Southern States was inevitable, but if 
the province were annexed to the Union, the future 
of the slave States would be brilliant. 

In 1844, Calhoun became Secretary of State, and 
he "believed in annexation at any cost," and Presv- 



dent Tyler justified Calhoun's invitation to Texas 
to join the United States because he thought Great 
Britain was engaged in a diplomatic intrigue to 
abolish slavery in Texas. Calhoun then made a 
treaty with Texas in reference to annexation with- 
out the consent of Mexico, but offered Mexico $10,- 
000,000 as an indemnity. At the close of Tyler's 
administration, a joint resolution was passed annex- 
ing Texas; and Tyler acting under this resolution, 
the annexation was carried. But as Tyler went out 
of office with the scheme carried through Congress, 
Polk came into office with the certainty of war with 
Mexico. In the beginning of May, 1846, the regu- 
lar troops under General Taylor were intercepted 
along the Rio Grande by the Mexican troops under 
General Arista, and the battles of Palo Alto and 
Resaca de la Palma ensued. Before the news of 
these events reached Washington, Congress had de- 
clared war on the 13th of May, and authorized the 
President to call for fifty thousand volunteers for 
one year. After carrying on war for nearly two 
years, the Mexicans were conquered, and a treaty 
of peace was signed in February, 1848, at the City 
of Mexico, whereby the United States acquired nOt 
only Texas, but also Arizona, New Mexico and 

Reading Artillerists. — During the excitement, 
a great patriotic feeling was developed at Reading, 
and on May 20, 1846, a large town meeting was 
held, presided over by Chief Burgess William Betz ; 
at which the national government was sustained. 
A second meeting was held on the next day, at 
which appropriate resolutions were adopted, ap- 
proving the course of President Polk. A prominent 
prevailing sentiment was — "Our country, our whole 
country, our country right or wrong." And dur- 
ing that week the volunteer companies of Reading, 
— Reading Artillerists, Washington Grays, and 
National Grays — tendered their services to the 
President. -The first company, commanded by Capt. 
Thomas S. Leoser, was accepted. 

A town-meeting was held in the Court-House on 
Dec. 19, 1846, for the purpose of devising means 
to aid the volunteers and a committee of prominent 
citizens was appointed to escort the company to 
Philadelphia. The meeting recomfnended to town 
council that one thousand dollars be appropriated 
toward the comfort of the soldiers and the relief 
of such of their famiHes as needed assistance, and 
subsequently a loan for this amount was authorized. 
. A similar appropriation was recommended by the 
grand jury of the county on the 5th of January, 
following, to be made by the county commissioners. 

Departure for Mexico. — The company left 
Reading for Philadelphia on Dec. 26th, and arrived 
on the afternoon of the same day. After their ex- 
amination, the United States Surgeon pronounced 
them the finest body of men he had yet passed into 
the service. On the day previous to their depar- 
ture, the officers were the recipients of numerous 
testimonials of regard, the workmen of the railroad 

company's shops distinguishing themselves in this 
respect. The Captain and the Second and Third 
Lieutenants were in the company's employ. The 
officers were presented with swords. Sergeant Mc- 
Michael was presented an elegant sword, revolver, 
sash, belt and accoutrements by his friends and 
shopmates engaged at Johnston's foundry. And 
numerous pistols and Bibles were also presented. 

The Artillerists left Philadelphia by railroad on 
Monday morning, December 28th, and arrived at 
Harrisburg in the afternoon. They proceeded by 
railroad to Carlisle and Chambersburg, where they 
arrived on Tuesday morning, at 2 o'clock. After 
breakfast, they immediately proceeded afoot on 
their way to Pittsburgh. That day they walked to 
McConriellsburg, twenty-two miles, and Wednesday 
they walked to Bloody Run, twenty-six miles. The 
distance was arranged that Pittsburgh might be 
reached by Tuesday, Jan. 4th. • Three large • six- 
horse baggage teams accompanied them, having 
been supplied by Joel Ritter, who was sent by the 
citizens of Reading to pay their expenses to Pitts- 
burgh. They arrived on Jan. 5th. On the same 
day, the company were mustered into the service 
of the United States, as Company A, in the 2d 
Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, under the 
command of Col. William B. Roberts. 

Battles Engaged in. — The company, with other 
companies, left Pittsburgh on the 8th of January, 
in the boat "Anthony Wayne," and proceeded by 
way of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to New 
Orleans, arriving there on the 15th. It served with 
distinction throughout the war and was particularly 
recognized for its bravery. It was engaged in the 
following battles : Vera Cruz, March 19th to 28th ; 
Cerro Gordo, April 18th; Chapultepec, Sept. 12th; 
Belen Gate, Sept. 13th. 

Return of Company. — The City of Mexico was 
taken on the 14th of September, the Mexicans hav- 
ing evacuated the capital during the previous night, 
owing. to the capture of the San Cosmo Causeway 
and the Belen Road. The troops, including Com- 
pany A, were stationed in this famous city till the 
18th of December, when they were removed to San 
Angel, at which place they continued till peace was 
declared. They were ordered home in June, 1848, 
and then marched to Vera Cruz (consuming about 
a month in the march) -where they took transporta- 
tion for New Orleans. Thence they proceeded up 
the Mississippi and Ohio rivers to Pittsburgh, and 
were there mustered out of service on the 21st of 
July. They then took packets and traveled by canal 
to Harrisburg, and thence by railroad to Phila- 
delphia and Reading. Some of the men went by 
stage directly to Reading. Upon their arrival, on 
the 29th of July, they were given a brilliant military 
reception. Numerous buildings and streets were 
handsomely decorated with flags and wreaths. 

CIVIL WAR, 1861 TO 1865 
CAUSE.^:rThe Civil war broke out in April, 1861. 
The direct cause was the agitation of the subject 



■which related to slavery. After 1850, the extension 
of slavery on the one hand, and its restriction on 
the other, became thoroughly national questions and 
their animated discussion resulted in a severe 
.struggle for the supremacy. Till this time, the 
South had control of political affairs through lead- 
ership and legislation, but the Southern statesmen 
then savvr that their political power was in reality 
passing away through the wonderful growth of 
the North in population and wealth, and in political 
representation in the national government. A sim- 
ilar growth could not be effected in the South; so 
its leaders desired to extend the rights of slavery. 
This was particularly apparent upon the admission 
of Kansas as a State. 

The Republican party, the exponent of restrict- 
ing slavery to territory then occupied, became an 
active political factor in the country in 1856 ; but 
its Presidential candidate was defeated. Threats 
of secession by the Southern States had been made 
about that time, and it was thought that if the Re- 
publican party had been successful, secession would 
have been attempted. For four years this question 
was prominent above all other questions. Buchanan 
preserved the peace during his administration, but 
he could not preserve the balance of power. Pub- 
lic opinion grew more favorable toward the Re- 
publican party, and in 1860 this party appeared be- 
fore the people with renewed strength. During 
that time the Democratic party agitated the question 
of slavery to such an extent that two branches of 
the party were created, one, the Douglas branch, 
for submitting the question to the people of a new 
State upon its erection, and the other, the Brecken- 
ridge branch, for submitting it to the Supreme court 
for adjudication under the national Constitution ; 
and in the Presidential campaign of 1860 their poH- 
tical power was divided. The party was still strong- 
enough, as a whole, to elect a candidate; but it 
was not strong enough to bear a division, especially 
such a division as Douglas was able to create by 
the support which he had won through public dis- 

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, was elected. 
From the sentiments of his party, especially from 
the sentiments of its ultra-leaders, who were styled 
"Abolitionists," the Southern leaders felt con- 
strained to take earnest steps toward secession, and 
these were taken between the day of the election in 
November and the day of Lincoln's inauguration in 
March, not only vigorously but successfully without 
the slightest hindrance on the part of the national 
government. Prominent cabinet officials, senators 
and representatives withdrew from their respective 
positions and caused their several States to pass 
ordinances of secession, declaring the contract be- 
tween them and the national government broken. 

When Lincoln took possession of the government, 
the status was not only discouraging but alarming. 
In his inaugural address he stated that apprehen- 
sion seemed to exist among the people of the 
Southern States that, h\, the accession of a Republi- 

can administration, their property, peace and per- 
sonal security were to be endangered, but that there 
never had been any reasonable cause for such ap- 
prehension; and he declared that he had no pur- 
pose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the in- 
stitution of slavery in the States where it existed; 
he had no inclination to do so on the one hand, and 
on the other he had no lawful right, and those who 
had elected him did so with the full knowledge that 
he had made these declarations, which he had never 
recanted. Notwithstanding his plain and direct lan- 
guage to perform the duties of his office according 
to the Constitution and laws, without any mental 
reservations or any purposes to construe them by 
hypercritical rules ; and his expressed sentiments for 
peace and inseparable union of the States, the 
Southern leaders persisted in secession and dis- 

Call for Troops. — On the morning of the 12th 
of April, 1861, the military forces of South Carol- 
ina, under the leadership of Gen. Robert Beaure- 
gard, began to fire upon Fort Sumter, which was 
under the command of Maj. Robert Anderson. 
The President, finding the laws of the country 
opposed and the execution thereof obstructed in 
seven Southern States (South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tex- 
as) "by combinations too powerful to be suppressed 
by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings or by 
the powers vested in the marshals by law," issued 
a proclamation on the 15th day of April, calHng 
for seventy-five thousand militia of the several 
States of the Union, "to suppress said combina- 
tions and to cause the laws to b^ duly executed"; 
and he appealed "to all loyal citizens to favor, facil- 
itate and aid this effort to maintain the honor, in- 
tegrity and existence of our national Union, and 
the perpetuity of popular government, and to re- 
dress the wrongs already long enough endured." 
A requisition was made on Pennsylvania for six- 
teen regiments, two being wanted within three days, 
inasmuch as the city of Washington was entirely 
unprotected and a sudden dash upon it was strongly 

The national government had not before done 
anything to cause the South to feel alarmed, and 
it was hoped that this simple manifestation of ex- 
ecutive authority would restore peace, but the or- 
ganization at the South was too thorough, and its 
purpose to establish a confederation by itself too 
premeditated. Men therefore rushed to arms; call 
after call for troops was made; thousands of lives 
were sacrificed ; and millions of dollars were ex- 
pended, in the two sections, for a right which each 
claimed, the one to establish a confederation and 
the other to maintain constituted authority ; and 
this terrible contest continued four years before 
peace was restored. 

Patriotism of County. — The feeling in the 
county for maintaining the Union and "upholding 
the constitution was strong and continuous during 
the entire period from the beginning to the close 



of the war; and this was exhibited by Democrats 
and RepubHcans alike. Breckenridge had received 
a majority over Lincoln, exceeding two thousand 
votes, but the sentiment for the Union was general 
in all the districts, especially at Reading. Com- 
panies were raised rapidly and mustered into ser- 
vice, altogether 104, almost entirely enlisted in and 
from the county, and they went to the rescue 
freely, moved by the highest patriotic impulse. Pub- 
lic meetings were iiumerous and earnest sympathy 
for the cause was manifested at all of them. The 
prominent men took the lead. Our judges, law- 
yers, merchants and business men generally, with- 
out respect to party affiliations, united to encourage 
and sustain the national administration. Their pro- 
nounced opinion in the matter created and pre- 
served a proper spirit in the community. The 
county and city governments were constantly liberal 
in appropriations of money toward encouraging 
volunteer enlistments. 

The county contained a large majority of people 
who were against the war, if we interpret their 
opinion from the exercise of their political suffrage 
at elections; but they were submissive and they 
caused no trouble, no riotous demonstration. They 
went to the war by the thousand; they endured 
conscription without opposition ; and they permitted 
the assessment of burdensome taxation. They en- 
couraged appropriations of money, amounting to 
nearly a million of dollars, expressly for the enlist- 
ment of men; and they invested large sums of 
money in the national securities. These, taken to- 
gether, truly constitute significant evidence of de- 
votion to their country and to the administration 
of its affairs by an opposite party, a party whose 
principles were not only different from theirs, but 
in fact objectionable, if not repulsive, to them. 
Their general co-operation under such circumstan- 
ces is therefore commendable. 

Capt. James McKnight offered his company of 
Ringgold Light Artillery, and it was the first mili- 
tary organization that responded to the call for 
troops by the President and moved to the defense 
of the country. This historical .fact is worthy of 
especial mention, for in it our people take a just, 
patriotic pride; and it is a distinction in this great 
crisis of our country which no other community 
enjoys. Hon. William M. Hiester prepared a 
paper to establish the fact beyond question, and 
read it before the Historical Society of Berks 
County on June 14, 1870. 

During this period, the excitement throughout 
the county was ever active, and several times when 
the State was invaded by the Rebels, and our own 
county was threatened with the horrors of war, it 
became alarming. This was particularly the case 
at Reading. Penn Square was daily, more or less, 
in commotion with the enlistment of men, the for- 
mation and exercise of companies and their depart- 
ure to the seat of war or their return from it. The 
music of fife and drum and the marching of men 
(fathers, husbands, brothers and sons) thrilled the 

entire community time and again. These were, in- 
deed, events that made a lasting impression upon 
that generation. 

The encampments (one in the northern part of 
Reading in 1862, and another in the eastern part 
in 1863) attracted much attention. They afforded 
the people an opportunity of forming a proper con- 
ception of camp life and military discipline. If 
our peaceful inhabitants did not realize the actual 
terrors and horrors of warfare by the 'booming of 
cannon, the explosion of shells and the destruction 
of property; if they did not see blood and death 
in their highways and upon their fields as the 
evidence of bitter apposition and revenge; they 
saw officers and soldiers in uniforms and witnessed' 
military exercises with the weapons of war, and. 
they knew by their own personal observations that 
earnest preparations were made for encounters- 
with the enemy. 

How they looked at these military cities, with 
tents and streets under strict regulation! how they 
watched the men in drill, by platoons and com- 
panies and battalions ! how they pointed out gen- 
erals and colonels and captains as the men who- , 
had been in war and passed safely through the 
jaws of death! But when the wounded, the dying- 
and the dead were brought home to them, then 
they felt that the curse of rebellion was in the- 

The "Union League," a Republican association 
at Reading, organized after the great "Union- 
League" at Philadelphia, was very active in en- 
listing men for military service; and so were the- 
various secret societies, especially the "Junior Sons 
of America." 

In the midst of the great excitement incident to- 
the general feeling for war and the necessary 
preparations to carry it on successfully, our locat 
energy displayed itself to a remarkable degree in 
every 4epartment of business. Trade was active 
and profitable, and it stimulated various enter- 
prises. Railroads were projected and substantial 
improvements were made in every section of the 
county, especially at Reading; and matters per- 
taining to education and religion were directed 
with earnestness and success. The prices of all 
kinds of material were high ; but money was 
abundant and a spirit of increased liberality kept 
it moving about actively from hand to hand, from- 
store to store, from bank to bank, and from place 
to place. 

War Meetings. — After the election of Lin- 
coln, a sentiment of fear for the preservation of 
the Union developed more and more rapidly with 
each passing day. This was more especially 
caused by the action of certain Southern States on 
the subject of secession. This fear obtained at 
Reading; and in order to express the opinion of 
this community on the subject of "preserving the 
integrity of the Union," a large meeting, including- 
prominent men of both political parties, was held 
in the Court-House on Dec. 13, 1860. Appropriate 



resolutions were adopted, favorable to the Union, 
but particularly reconnmending non-interference 
with the rights of property in slaves guaranteed 
by the Constitution to the Southern States. 

On the 10th day of December (three days be- 
fore) the; Democratic City Club had met and re- 
ported a "Memorial to Congress on the State of 
the Union," prepared by a committee of thirty- 
three prominent Democrats, in which similar senti- 
ments of non-interference and compromise had 
been expressed. 

In July, 1862, when there was a threatened in- 
vasion of Pennsylvania, our people became 
much alarmed for the safety of their lives and 
property. Large and enthusiastic meetings were 
held in the Court-House to devise means for pro- 
tection. They included all the prominent and in- 
fluential citizens of Reading. Their public ex- 
pressions were thoroughly patriotic; and in pur- 
suance of their earnest recommendation the county 
commissioners offered a bounty of fifty dollars to 
every officer and private mustered into the service 
from the county. In September following, the 
commissioners again offered the same bounty for 
every volunteer soldier; and the city councils ap- 
propriated ten thousand dollars additional for this 
purpose of encouraging volunteer enlistments. In 
June, 1863, similar meetings were held. 

Appropriations. — The city of Reading appro- 
priated altogether for war purposes, in bounties, 
relief, etc., $373,179 and the county of Berks, the 
sum of $452,389. The boroughs likewise appro- 
priated moneys for these purposes and displayed 
the same patriotic spirit. 

L.^DiEs' Aid Society. — The women are also 
worthy of mention for their patriotism. They did 
not enlist in practical military service ; but they 
gave the national administration a moral support 
which is truly praiseworthy. Just as the "Ring- 
gold Light Artillery" were preparing to take the 
railroad train on the afternoon of April 16, 1861, 
to proceed to Harrisburg in answer to the Presi- 
dent's call for troops, certain influential ladies of 
Reading assembled in the parlor of Mrs. Dr. Dil- 
ler Luther, at No. 530 Penn street, and formed a 
society which they entitled "Ladies' Aid Society." 
Its object was to supply the soldiers with clothing 
and materials useful whilst in military service 
away from home. It was actively engaged dur- 
ing the entire period of the war, collecting and 
forwarding tons of materials. A "depot" was es- 
tablished at Reading, to which all the goods were 
carried and from which they were consigned. The 
country districts co-operated in this work and the 
women responded nobly by forwarding many ma- 
terials to Reading. 

This was the first society of the kind organized 
in the country; and as we take a just pride in hay- 
ing furnished the military company which was the 
first to respond to the call for troops and to report 
at Harrisburg for service, so do we take a similar 
pride in having organized this Ladies' Aid Society, 

which was the first to take active and successful 
steps toward providing for the comfort and wel- 
fare of the soldiers. 

This society participated actively in the matters 
pertaining to the Sanitary Commission at Phila- 
delphia; and it was represented by a number of 
ladies at the "Sanitary Fair," which was held in 
that city for the purpose of raising funds to re- 
lieve the wants of the soldiers. 

Reading Hospital. — A "MiHtary Hospital" was 
fitted up at Reading during the middle of June, 
1862, in the main exhibition building of the Agri- 
cultural Society on the "Fair Ground," with cots 
suffi-cient to accommodate 130 patients, and suc- 
cessfully conducted till the spring of 1863. The 
"Ladies' Aid Society" of Reading took an active 
interest in the welfare of the sick and wounded 
soldiers, and performed admirable service during 
the continuance of the hospital. The regularly 
commissioned surgeons in attendance were Dr. 
Martin Luther and Dr. John B. Brooke. 

Draft and Quotas of Berks County. — Dur- 
ing the progress of the war, requisitions for troops 
became so frequent that the government was com- 
pelled to resort to the conscription of men so as to 
prosecute the war with success. Though numer- 
ous volunteers enlisted from Berks county, and the 
citizens of this district responded nobly to the sev- 
eral calls for troops, here, as elsewhere, the draft 
had to be made. There were four drafts, one in 
each of the years 1862, 1863, 1864 and 1865. The 
provost marshals of this district were, in succes- 
sion, Henry I. Kupp, Jacob C. Hoff and George 
W. Durell. 

The first draft was conducted in October, 1862. 
The total enrollment of men in the county num- 
bered 17,809 ; the volunteers, 3,186 ; and the quota, 
2,719. The number of men who volunteered in 
lieu of draft was 345 ; and the substitutes who en- 
listed for three years numbered 146. The total 
number of men drafted in the county was 1,242. 
These men were encamped on the "Hiester Farm," 
adjoining the Evans' cemetery on the north, formed 
into companies, and placed under the command of 
Col. Charles Knoderer; and they were mustered 
into service as the 167th Regiment. 

A second draft was made August 56-29, 1863. 
The quota of men from the county was 1,554 — 
this number having been fifty per cent in excess, 
to provide against exemptions. 

The third draft proposed in March, 1864, for 
Berks county, was postponed for a time. The 
quota in the call for two hundred thousand men 
was 767 ; the deficiency of the county under former 
drafts was 298; total number required, 1,065; and 
the credit of the county on April 15, 1864, for men 
supplied to the government, 1,036. Tliis deficiency 
of 29 men was more than supplied by re-enlisted 
veterans. Subsequently, however, in j\Iay, a draft 
was ordered, upon finding a deficiency in certain 
sub-districts in the county and each' sub-district 



was required to fill its own quota. The total num- 
ber drawn was 173. 

A call for five hundred thousand men was made 
on July 18, 1864. The quota for Berks county was 
1,887; for Reading, 450. On Aug. 1st, the defi- 
ciency in the county was 1,635; in Reading 313. 
A draft was made on Sept. 33d, but only for 
one sub-district — Ruscombmanor, 53 men, all the 
other sub-districts having supplied itheir deficiencies. 
A fourth draft was made Feb. 33-35, 1865. Reading, 
Upper Bern, Bernville, Cumru, Douglass, Spring, 
Upper Tulpehocken, and Womelsdorf had suppHed 
their quota of men by volunteers. The call was 
made in December, 1864, for three hundred thou- 
sand; the quota for Pennsylvania was 49,563, and 
Berks county, 1,560. 

Northern Men in Service. — The aggregate 
number of men furnished by Pennsylvania was 
366,336; reduced to three years' standard, 367,558. 

It is estimated that during the war fifty-six thou- 
sand soldiers were killed in battle; about thirty- 
five thousand died of wounds in hospitals, and one 
hundred and eighty-four thousand by disease. The 
total casualties, if we include those who died sub- 
sequent to their discharge, were about three hun- 
dred thousand. The loss of the Confederates was 
less in battle, owing to the defensive character of 
their struggle; but they lost more from wounds 
and by disease, on account of inferior sanitary ar- 
rangements. The total loss of life caused by the 
Rebellion exceeded half a million men, and nearly 
as many more were disabled. 

Summary of Battles. — In the four years of 
service, the armies of the Union (counting every 
form of conflict, great and small) had been in 3,- 
265 engagements with the Confederate troops. 
From the time when active hostilities began until 
the last gun of the war was fired, a fight of some 
kind (a raid, a skirmish or a pitched battle) oc- 
curred at some point on our widely-extended front 
nearly eleven times a week upon an average. 
Counting only those engagements in which the 
Union loss, in killed, wounded and missing, ex- 
ceeded one hundred, the total number was 330. 
From the northernmost point of contact to the 
southernmost, the distance by any practicable line 
of communication was more than two thousand 
miles. From east to west, the extremes were fif- 
teen hundred miles apart. During the first year of 
hostilities (one of preparation on both sides) the 
battles were naturally fewer in number and less de- 
cisive in character than afterward, when discipline 
had been imparted to the troops by drill, and when 
the materiel of war had been collected and stored 
for prolonged campaigns. The engagements of all 
kinds in 1861 were thirty-five in number, of which 
the most serious was at Bull Run. In 1863, the 
war had greatly increased in magnitude and inten- 
sity, as is shown by the eighty-four engagements 
between the armies. The net result of the .year's 
operations was highly favorable to the Rebellion. 
In 1863 the battles were one hundred and ten in 

number, among them some of the most significant 
and important victories for the Union. In 1864, 
there were seventy-three engagements ; and in the 
winter and early spring of 1865 there were twenty- 

Paper Money. — Before the Civil war, it had 
been the uniform practice of the different States to 
allow banks to be established for the issue of notes, 
payable in specie on demand, and the liability of 
the shareholders was limited. Banking then was 
quite free, and all individuals could carry it on 
provided they observed the requirements of the 
law. But under this system there was great fluctu- 
atioii in ^ value, which produced much bankruptcy 
and ruin. Between 1811 and 1820, many banks 
became bankrupt; and twenty years afterward, 
another financial panic occurred. The inflation of 
the banknotes was wonderful between 1830 and 
1837; but just as the amount had been increased, 
so it decreased during the following six years till 
1843; and this caused the ruin of many moneyed 
institutions among them the Bank of the United 
States, the renewal of whose charter had been 
denied by President Jackson. 

At the beginning of the war, the paper money 
in circulation amounted to $300,000,000; of which 
three-fourths had been issued in the Northern 
States; and the coin amounted to $275,000,000. 
The early necessities of the national treasury in 
this trying period compelled the government to 
borrow money, and in February, 1862, Congress 
authorized the issue of treasury notes amounting 
to $150,000,000, declaring them to be legal tender 
except for customs duties and interest on the na- 
tional debt. 

A premium on gold naturally followed, causing 
it to be drawn entirely from circulation, and this 
increased as the treasury notes multiplied. Then 
the National Banking System came to be intro- 
duced to supply a circulating medium, having been 
created on Feb. 25, 1863, and amended on June 3, 
1864. A Bureau was established in the Treasury 
Department, with power to authorize- banking as- 
sociations, under certain provisions for public -se- 
curity, and the State banks were rapidly trans- 
formed into national banks. The currency of the 
country in this manner came to consist of treasury 
demand notes (which in 1865 amounted to $450,- 
000,000) and of national bank-notes (which' ap- 
proached the limit' of $300,000,000). The latter 
circulated as freely as the former, because their 
ultimate redemption was assured by the deposit of 
an adequate amount in United States bonds at the 
national treasury. This system was found supe- 
rior in the protection which it afforded; but it 
could not prevent a financial crisis from sweeping 
over the country, especially when other causes, such 
as excessive manufactures and enormous losses 
from fire, contributed greatly toward the result. 
Congress also authorized small notes for five, 
ten, twenty-five and fifty cents to be issued for 
the purpose of supplying the loss of the small de- 



nominations of coin money from circulation. This '^^e'' 
was commonly known as "currency," and it was 
all redeemed after the war. 

During this period, our merchants at Reading 
issued and circulated for a time their own fraction- 
al demand notes for the purpose of encouraging 
trade in the community and it was gradually re- 
deemed as the national currency was supplied. 

The following 104 companies of men were enlisted 
from Berks county and mustered into the service 
of the national government in the Civil war. 
Twelve of the companies included men accredited 
to other counties. Reckoning all the men in the 
companies named and those found in different 
companies not classified, it can be asserted that 
about ten thousand men of our county were en- 
gaged in the great struggle for the preservation of 
the Union. 


Three months' service, 1861 738 

Three years' service, 1861-64 3,657 

Nine months' service, 1862-63 1,003 

Volunteer militia of 1862 543 

Drafted militia of 1862 1,263 

Emergency troops of 1863 1,438 

One hundred days' service, 1864 357 

One year's service, 1864-65> 895 

Miscellaneous enlistment in Regular U. S. service, 

etc , 250 

The detailed statement,"' showing the several regiments 
and companies, the number of men in each company, 
and the names of the captains, is as follows : 

Three Months' Service — l86l 








James McKnight 




Geo. W. Alexander 




Frank M. Cooley 




E. Ermentrout, Leader 




Isaac Schroeder 




Geo. S. Herbst 




A. F. Rightmyer 




David A. Griffith 




John C. Shearer 




Henry Nagle 




John A. Hoch, Leader 

Three Y 

'cars' Service — 1861-64 








Henry Grime, Leader 




Jacob Lenhart, Jr. 




Wm. Briner 




Wash. Richards 




Joseph G. Holmes (Berks and 
Lebanon counties) 




R. B. Rickets, 1st Artillery 




J. C. A. Hoffeditz 




Thos. S. Richards 




Cornelius Wise 




R. J. Stanley 




Daniel Nagle 




Hervey Herman 




Wm. H. Diehl 




Thos. S. Brenholtz 




Wm. S. Potts 

* Prepared by the compiler of this history for the Historical Society 
of Berks County, and read at a regular meeting on Feb. 14, 1903. 








John C. Shearer 




Stephen H. Edgett 




Geo. E. Clymer, 6th Cavalry 




Wm. J. Bart (Berks and 

Adams counties)' 




C. C. McCormick (Berks and 
Northumberland counties) 




Geo. W. Knabb 




Henry A. Myers 




David A. Griffith 




E. Ermentrout, Leader (Ring- 




John E. Arthur 




A. C. Maitland 




David C. Keller 




Jas. M. Douden 




Jacob W. Glase 




Wm. F. Walter 



Geo. W. Durrell, Ind. Battery- 




Henry Ungerer 




A. M. Halberstadt 




Geo. F. Cooke, 21st Cavalry 


ine Months' Service — 1862-63 








L. Heber Smith 




Wm. McNall 




Wm. H. Andrews 




John Kennedy 




Richard H. Jones 




Geo. Newkirk 




Jacob S. Graff 




Levi M. Gerhart 




Wm. K. Boltz 




Wm. L. Gray. 




Jas. W. Weida 


- Militia of 1862 








F. S. Bickley 




Chas. H. Hunter 




N. M. Eisenhower 




Wm. Geiger 




Samuel Harner 




Frederick S. Boas 



Samuel L. Young 

Drafted Mi'itia of 1862— g nxis. 








Jonathan See 




Chas. Melcher 




Peter Y. Edelman 




Samuel A. Haines 




H. H. Miller 




Josiah Groh 




William A. Schall 




A. H. Schaeflfer 




J. M. ShoUenberger 




Edw. F. Reed 




Amos Drenkel 




John B. Wagoner 

Emergency Troops — 1863 








David A. Griffith 




Wm. F. Walter 




Samuel Harner 




John E. Arthur 




Wm. D. Smith 




Jno. McKnight 




Bently H. Smith 




Samuel A. Haines 




John Obold 





Edw. Bailey 










Jacob Deppen 




Jos. G. Holmes 




Aug. C. Greth 




R. L. Jones 




Jacob Lehman 




W. C Ermentrout 

One Hundred 

Days' Service — 1S64 








H. E. Quimby 




H. D. Markley 




H. Maltzberger 




G. S. Rowbotham 

One Year\ 

J Service — 1864-6$ 








R. W. McCartney (Berks and 
Dauphin counties) 




John Teed 




H. D. Markley 




Isaac Schroeder 




Wm. L. Guinther 




Jos. G. Holmes 




Wm. F. Walter 




F. Schmehl 




J. W. Kennedy 

patch announcing the attack on Fort Sumter found 
the company at drill at some distance from the 
city.* The effect was electrical, and all were impa- 
tient to move at once to the defense of the flag-. 

Surgeons from County in Civil War 
The following medical practitioners of Berks county 
were engaged in the Civil war, and the statement shows 
the regiment with which they were connected and the 
district of the county where they resided. 
33d Regt. — Dr. Johnt B. Griesemer, Exeter, Surgeon 
34th Regt.— Dr. Harrison T. Witman, Reading, Asst. 

Surgeon , 

47th Regt. — Dr. John H. Sheetz, Reading, Asst. Surgeon 
48th Regt. — Dr. Charles T. Reber, Reading, Asst. Sur- 
73d Regt. — Dr. Jeremiah S. Trexler, Kutztown, Asst. 

75th Regt. — Dr. Manoah S. Long, Longswamp, Asst. 

76th Regt. — Dr. Erasmus R. Scholl, Reading, Surgeon 
108th Regt. — Dr. Hiester M. Nagle, Reading, Surgeon 
141st Regt. — Dr. Wellington G. Byerle, Bernville, Asst. 

154th Regt. — Dr. John M. Hoffman, Spring, Surgeon 
154th Regt. — Dr. Elias C. Kitchen, Amity, Surgeon 
166th Regt.— Dr. Alexander H. Witman, Reading, Asst. 

167th Regt.— Dr. Daniel T. Batdorf, Bethel, Asst. Surgeon 
U. S. Navy — Dr. Jonathan Bertolette, Surgeon 

Ringgold Light Artillery. — The first troops 
to respond to the President's call were the Ring- 
gold Light Artillery of Reading ; the Logan Guards 
of Lewistown ; the Washington Artillery and the 
National Light Infantry of PottsvilJe; and the 
Allen Rifles of Allentown. 

On Jan. 21, 1861, Maj.-Gen. William H. Keim 
(then Surveyor-General of Pennsylvania, from 
Reading) ,. with characteristic sagacity, had advised 
Captain McKnight that the services of his company 
would probably soon be needed, and counseled him 
to hold them in readiness for immediate service. 
From that time till April 16th, almost daily drills 
were practised. On the 22d of February, they were 
in- readiness to obey marching orders. The dis- 

*Ind. Artillery 


On the morning of the 16th of April, marching 
orders were received from Governor Curtin; and, 
on the afternoon of that day, the company was 
taken on the Lebanon Valley railroad to Harris- 
burg, where it arrived at 8 o'clock in the evening. 
The company numbered 108 men, fully armed and 
equipped as light artillery. On reporting at the 
Executive Office, the Secretary of War telegraphed 
that the company be forwarded by the earliest 
train, but this order was countermanded by the Sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth later in the day. 

The five companies named were mustered into 
the service of the United States at Harrisburg for 
three months, and departed for Washington by rail- 
road on the 18th of April, at 9 o'clock a. m. They 
arrived at Baltimore at 1 o'clock p. m., being under 
the necessity of marching two miles through the 
city, from Bolton to Camden station. On leaving 
the cars, a battalion was formed in the following 
order: 4th Artillery (regulars); Logan Guards; 
Allen Rifles, of Allentown ; Washington Artillery 
and National Light Infantry, of Pottsville ; with 
the Ringgold Artillery bringing up the rear. As 
the column was forming near Bolton station, the 
police of Baltimore appeared in large force, headed 
by Marshal Kane, and followed by a mob which 
at once commenced an attack upon the volunteers, 
countenanced by a portion of the police, who had 
been sent to give safe conduct through the city. 
Orders were given to the men to preserve their 
temper and make no reply to anything that should 
be said to them. At the command "forward," the 
mob commenced hooting, jeering and yelling, and 
proclaimed, with oaths, that the troops should not 
pass through their city to fight the South. 

* Poor-house Farm in Sliillington. 



Arriving near the center of the city, certain reg- 
ular troops filed off toward Fort McHenry, leaving 
the volunteers to pursue their way through 
the city as well as they could. At this juncture, 
the mob were excited to a perfect frenzy, breaking 
the line of the police, and pushing through the files 
of men, in an attempt to break the column. Every 
insult that could be heaped upon the troops was 
offered, but no word of reply was elicited. The 
officers and men marched steadily on toward Cam- 
den station. At every step, the mob increased till 
it numbered thousands of most determined and des- 
perate men. 

As the volunteers were boarding the train at the 
station, the angry mob hurled a shower of bricks, 
stones and clubs into their disorganized ranks, for- 
tunately, however, inflicting only slight injuries. In 
the midst of the confusion, an attempt was made 
to detach the engine from the train and run it 
away, but this was prevented by the determined 
character of the engineer and his assistants, who 
drew revolvers and threatened to shoot any who 
dared to do so. At length, amidst the demoniac yells 
of the crowd, the train moved off, carrying the vol- 
unteers safely beyond the reach of their desperate 
assailants. They arrived in Washington at 7 o'clock 
in the evening. Arms, ammunition and equipments 
were furnished and the work of barricading the 
Capitol was commenced immediately. Squads of 
the Rebel soldiers were then drilling on the opposite 
. side of the Potomac river in full view of the Capi- 
tol. It having been ascertained on the 33d of April 
that an attempt would be made to capture Wash- 
ington by way of the arsenal and the navy-yard, 
the "Ringgold Artillerists" were ordered to report 
to Captain Dahlgreen at the navy-yard, and three 
twelve-pound howitzers were assigned to them. 
Excepting a detachment of twelve men, detailed to 
guard the "Short Bridge," the entire command was 
required to man these guns. On the 25th, a ser- 
geant and six men were detailed to serve as a 
guard on the steamer "Powhatan," which was dis- 
patched to make a reconnoissance down the Poto- 
mac for the purpose of searching for obstructions 
and of ascertaining if forts were being erected along 
the river. On the 36th, the company were ordered 
to duty at the Capitol ; and on the 15th of May, the 
Secretary of War assigned them to duty at the 
Washington Arsenal, where they remained till the 
expiration of their term of service, excepting a 
short interval, when they were detailed to mount 
guns in the forts about Washington. They were 
mustered out at Harrisburg. They had been class- 
ified as Company A, of the 35th Regiment. Edward 
P. Pearson, Esq., of Reading, was Adjutant of the 
Regiment ; he subsequently became an officer in the 
regular army and served for many years with 
great distinction. 

Col. A. C. Buell, in his book, entitled "The Can- 
noneer, Recollections of Service in the Army of the 
Potomac by a detached volunteer in the Regular 

Army," published the following interesting infor- 
mation about this distinguished company: 

Speaking of the "Stolidity of the Pennsylvania Dutch," 
history records some manifestations of it that are admir- 
able. For example, there was a battery in the Civil war 
which entered the Union service as "The Ringgold Artil- 
lery of Reading" and its commander was Capt. James 
McKnight. It was the first volunteer artillery organiza- 
tion to reach Washington in April, 1861. At the end of 
its three months' service, it re-enlisted in a body for 
three years and was mustered into the regular army as 
Battery M, 5th U. S. Artillery, being the only volunteer 
organization transferred bodily to the regular army in 
all our history. Its composition may be inferred from 
the names of its sergeants in 1864 when I was personally 
acquainted with it. They were as follows : Daniel Yoder, 
Philip Weidner, William Beckhardt, Joseph Gerhardt and 
Frederick Volkman. Of its 107 enlisted men in the Valley 
Campaign of 1864, 84 were Pennsylvania Dutchrnen from 
Berks, Schuylkill and Lehigh — all native Americans — 12 
Americans of Enghsh descent, and 11 Irishmen, one of 
whom, Patrick Flynn Hunt, late of Templemore, County 
Tipperary, was acting sergeant on temporary detail from 
Battery E. Battery M served all through the war in the 
6th Corps. At Cedar Creek it was in line with Getty's 
(2d) Division of that Corps and took the butt end of the 
Confederate attack in the first attempt of the Union forces 
to stop the rout in the early stages of that dramatic battle. 
In its first position it lost one gun, a lieutenant and 9 
men, the gun however being retaken by the 10th Vermont 
Infantry. In its second position the whole battery was 
taken by Kershaw's South Carolina Brigade and almost 
instantly retaken by part of the Old Vermont Brigade in 
a rough-and-tumble, which resulted among other things 
in the killing or disabling of 19 men with the bayonet 
alone, few shots being fired. Out of this last motion, 
Battery M emerged with 2 guns and 27 men fit for duty 
who at once resumed their fire with double canister. This 
remnant was commanded by Sergeant Daniel Yoder, Cap- 
tain McKnight being at that moment acting Chief of Ar- 
tillery of the Corps, and the remaining lieutenant (Henry 
M. Baldwin) having been killed in the previous struggle. 
After the battle, Gen. Horatio Wright complimented Cap- 
tain McKnight on the behavior of his battery in the pres- 
ence of the few men that remaitied. Said he, "Your Penn- 
sylvania Dutchmen don't seem to know when they are 
whipped." To which the Captain replied, "Don't know 
when they are whipped? By God, General, most of them 
don't know when they are killed." 

All the losses of Battery M at Cedar Creek were 
either killed or wounded, none were missing. Buell 
was a private when this happened, but he became 
a colonel afterward. 

1st Regiment. — The 1st Regiment was organ- 
ized at Harrisburg on April 20th. In pursuance of 
orders, it performed duty at several places in Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland and Virginia till July 23d, when 
it returned to Harrisburg, and was there honorably 
discharged on the 37th. During its service it did 
not participate in any battles; but it accomplished 
much good by checking any movement on the part 
of the Rebels in arms along the borders. It in- 
cluded Company G, which was recruited at Read- 
ing, and mustered into service on April 20, 1861. 

5th Regiment.— The 5th Regiment was organ- 
ized at Camp Curtin (Harrisburg) on April 21st. 
It performed guard duty mostly at Baltimore, 
Washington and Alexandria. It was at the latter 
place during the disastrous battle of Bull Run, in 
which the brigade (to which it had been trans- 



ferred) participated. It was discharged at Harris- 
burg on July 25th. 

Company H was recruited at Reading. It was 
mustered into service on April 20, 1861. Dr. E. R. 
Scholl, of Reading, was the regimental surgeon. 

Reading City Band was attached to this regi- 
ment. It comprised sixteen men (six from Leb- 
anon), with Emanuel Ermentrout as leader. Left 
Reading on May 22, 1861, for Washington, via Har- 
risburg and Baltimore, and was mustered in there 
on the 23d. Remained there until the 29th and 
then went to Alexandria, where it was in active 
service until July 21st. Then it was ordered to 
Harrisburg and there mustered out on July 26th. 
The members from Reading returned home. 

7th Regiment. — The Tth Regiment was organ- 
ized and mustered into service at Camp Cur- 
tin on April 22d. It was encamped over a 
month at Chambersburg. On June 8th it moved 
southwardly. It was stationed at Williams- 
port on the 19th. On July 2d, it began the march 
to Martinsburg. On the way, it confiscated the 
contents of an extensive flour-mill (a large amount 
of grain and flour and one hundred and fifty barrels 
of whiskey), the owner having been a captain in 
the Rebel army. Shortly afterward, it was en- 
camped at Charlestown, where it remained until 
ordered to Harrisburg, and it was mustered out of 
service on July 29th. Three companies were re- 
cruited in Berks county, C, G, and D; the first at 
Friedensburg; the second at Pleasantville ; and the 
third at Reading. 

14th Regiment. — The 14th Regiment was or- 
ganized at Camp Curtin on April 30th. Richards 
McMichael was elected lieutenant-colonel, and 
Joseph A. McLean major. Both were from Read- 
ing. It was encamped at Camp Johnston, in Lan- 
caster, till June 3d, and subsequently it marched 
to Chambersburg, Hagerstown, Sharpsburg, Mar- 
tinsburg, Bunker's Hill and Harper's Ferry, doing 
picket and guard duty, and making various expedi- 
tions to encounter the enemy. Whilst at the latter 
place, the term of enlistment expired and it was 
ordered to Harrisburg. On its way, it encamped 
and remained two weeks at Carlisle, where it was 
mustered out of service Aug. 7th. It included two 
companies from Berks county: A, recruited at 
Reading and mustered in on April 27th; and E, 
recruited at Womelsdorf, and mustered in on 
April 24th. 

25th Regiment. — Company C of Reading was 
also in the 25th Regiment, in the three months' 
service with Company A. It was recruited at Read- 
ing out of the surplus men of the Ringgold Light 
Artillery and seventeen men of the National Light 
Infantry of Pottsville, and mustered into service 
on April 18, 1861. The regiment had been organ- 
ized at Harrisburg. It was mustered out of service 
on Aug. 1st. 

Regimental Band. — The regimental band of the 
25th Regiment was engaged in the three months' 
service, having been mustered in at Washington, 

in April, 1861, and mustered out at Harrisburg, 
in July, 1861. It comprised sixteen members 
under the leadership of John A. Hoch, fourteen 
of them taken from the Ringgold Band. The other 
two were from Pottstown. 


The insurrection having become too powerful to 
be suppressed by the first display of military au- 
thority, the President issued a second proclamation, 
calling upon the States to furnish two hundred 
thousand men who were to be enlisted for three 
years. The quota of men from Pennsylvania was 
soon filled by the patriotic impulses of her people. 
Companies from Berks county were in the follow- 
ing regiments : 

26th Regiment. — The Bernville Band with 
Henry Grime as leader, and numbering thirteen 
men, was mustered into the service at Bladens- 
burg, Md., on Sept. 16, 1861, as regimen- 
tal band of the 26th Regiment of Peain- 
sylvania Volunteers, and attached to Hooker's 1st 
Brigade. It remained in camp at Bladensburg 
about two months; then it moved to Budd's Ferry, 
in Lower Potomac, on Maryland Shore, and con- 
tinued there all winter. During the latter part of 
April, it joined McClellan's army at Fortress Mon- 
roe, and was engaged in the Penmsular campaign, 
commencing at Yorktown and ending at Harrison's 
Landing. It was mustered out of service at Har- 
rison's Landing on Aug. 8, 1862, by reason of an 
Act of Congress passed to disp-ense with regimen- 
tal bands. The men returned to Philadelphia, 
where they were paid off and sent home. 

32d Regiment.- — The 32d Regiment included 
companies A, D and F from Berks county, and 
was mustered into service at Harrisburg on July 
27, 1861, after having remained at Easton in camp 
for two months. The regiment was at Washington, 
Tennallytown, and Langley until March 10, 1862, 
when it joined the Army of the Potomac. It par- 
ticipated in its marches to and from Richmond until 
February, 1863, having been engaged in the battles 
of Gaines' Mill, Hall's Hill, Antietam and Freder- 

Then it was transferred to the defenses of Wash- 
ington and became a part of the 22d Army Corps, 
where it remained until January, 1864, when it was 
ordered to duty in West Virginia under General 
Sickd. Afterward it was at Martinsburg and 
Harper's Ferry until April, then proceeded to the 
Kanawha Valley and participated in the engage- 
ments at Princetown and Meadow Bluff. On May 
22d, it marched to Millville. While there its term 
of service expired, and then it proceeded to Phila- 
delphia, via Pittsburg, where it was mustered out 
of service on June 17, 1864. 

36th Regiment. — The 36th Regiment was com- 
posed of companies recruited in several counties 
east of the Alleghany Mountains. Company I was 
made up of men recruited in Berks and Lebanon 
counties. The men from Berks county numbered 



thirty-three, and were recruited at Reading. The 
regiment was mustered into service July '27, 1861. 
It was not in any fighting until the latter part of 
June, 1862, when it was engaged in the battle of 
Gaines' Mill, occupying the left of the line. Its 
next engagement was at Charles City Cross Roads, 
June 30, 1862. It passed through seven days of 
fighting, and upon mustering the regiment only 
two hundred men were present to answer to their 
names. It was also engaged in the battles of An- 
tietam, Fredericksburg and the Wilderness. Nearly 
the entire regiment was captured in the last battle, 
and the men were imprisoned at Andersonville. 
The regiment was mustered out of service June 16, 
1864, at Philadelphia. 

43d Regiment. — In Battery F, of the 43d Regi- 
ment of Pennsylvania Volunteers (1st Artillery), 
recruited in Schuylkill county, there were included 
thirty-eight men from Berks county. It was organ- 
ized at Philadelphia in June, 18G1, for three years' 
service, and mustered out at Harrisburg on 
June 9, 1865. 

The Battery participated in the following battles : 
Winchester, second Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bris- 
toe Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
North Anna, Tolopotomoy, Cold Harbor, Peters- 
burg, and Deep Bottom. 

44th Regiment. — The 44th Regiment (1st Cav- 
alry) was recruited in a numher of counties, Com- 
pany L from men of Berks, Lebanon and Lancaster 
counties, and Company M from men of Berks coun- 
ty. Both were recruited at Reading. 

Company L was mustered into service as an inde- 
pendent company on July 30, 1861, and stationed at 
Baltimore for five months ; and Company M on Aug. 
5, 1861, and stationed at same place until Oct. 3d. 
On Jan. 7th, these companies joined their regiment 
and moved with the army toward Manassas. They 
were eng'aged in the battles of Strasburg, Wood- 
stock, Harrisonburg and Fredericksburg during the 
year 1862; and in 1863, in the battle's of Brandy 
Station, Beverly Ford and Aldie. They were con- 
cerned in Sheridan's raid upon Richmond, during 
the spring of 1864, in which they encountered the 
enemy in a number of engagements, and in the fol-- 
lowing summer they were engaged in fighting the 
enemy at Saint Mary's Church, Malvern Hill, 
Gravel Hill, and Ream's Station. On Aug. 29th 
they were encamped on the Jerusalem Plank Road, 
near the left of the army. Their term of service 
having expired, they withdrew from the front on 
Sept. 1st, and proceeded to Philadelphia where they 
were mustered out of service Sept. 9, 1864. 

46th Regiment. — The 46th Regiment was or- 
ganized at Harrisburg on Sept. 1, ISfil, and in- 
cluded Company E, recruited at Reading. It was 
ordered to Plarper's Ferry and placed under the 
command of General Banks. Its first conflict was 
at Winchester, where for five hours it held its po- 
sition with great coolness and bravery whilst re- 
treating toward the Potomac before Gen. Stonewall 

Jackson. On Aug. 8, 1862, it was in the battle of 
Cedar i\Iountain, and on Sept. 17th in the battle of 
Antietam. In May, 1863, it participated in a fierce 
engagement near Chancellorsville; and in July it 
took a prominent part in the 'battle of Gettysburg,, 
occupying the extreme right of the line on the 3d. 

After the withdrawal of Lee from Pennsylvania, 
the regiment was attached to the Army of the Ten- 
nessee under General Rosecrans. In January, 1864,. 
it proceeded to Pennsylvania on a veteran furlough,- 
and the greater part of the officers and men re- 
enlisted for three years. 

Among the re-enlisted men in the regiment, there 
was a young man, Henry Weidensaul, a native of 
Morgantown, in Berks county. He entered the 
regiment when fourteen years old and participated' 
in the battles of Winchester, Cedar Mountain, Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw 
Mountain and Peach Tree Creek. He was wounded 
at Cedar Mountain, taken prisoner, and confined 
in Libby Prison for five weeks. He was also- 
wounded at Peach Tree Creek and Atlanta. On. 
July 1, 1863, he was seventeen years old, and the 
Keystone State claimed him to be the youngest 
veteran soldier in the service. 

Upon recruiting its ranks, the regiment rejoined 
the army at Chattanooga, and participated in the 
Atlanta campaign under General Sherman in his 
great march to the sea. After nearly four years of 
faithful service, it was mustered out on July 16, 
1865, near Alexandria, Virginia. 

Birdsboro' Band. — This band was mustered into- 
service for three years on Aug. 27, ,1861, as the 
regimental band of the regiment ; but discharged on 
Aug. 16, 1SG2, in pursuance of an order dispensing 
with regimental bands. 

48th Regiment — Company D of this regiment 
was recruited at Pottsville, in Schuylkill county,, 
mustered into service in October, 1861, and mus- 
tered out July 17, 1865. Forty of the men were 
from Plamburg, in Berks county. The regiment 
was in the battles of Antietam and Second Bull 
Run. It was prominent in the Petersburg cam- 
paign, having exploded the great mine. 

The Port Clinton Artillery was connected with 
this regiment. Included with the battery there were 
twenty-five men from Reading and Leesport, ac- 
credited to Schuvlkill countv. "it was mustered in 
May, 1861. 

John D. Bertolette, of Reading, was the adjutant; 
and Dr. Charles T. Reber, surgeon. 

50th Regiment.— The 50th Regiment included 
three companies from Berks county, B, E and H, 
which were recruited at Reading. It was organ- 
ized at Harrisburg on Sept. "35, 1861. Capt. 
Thomas Brenholtz, of Companv H, was selected as 
lieutenant-colonel. The regiment proceeded to 
Washington on Oct. 2d, and on the 9th to .A.nnap- 
olis, where it was assigned to Stevens' Brigade, 
which was then fitting out for an expedition to 
South Carolina. On Oct. 19th, the regiment em- 
barked upon transports. Companies B and E on the 



■"Winfield Scott" and Company H on the "Ocean 
>Queen." On the night of Nov. 1st, a heavy gale 
was encountered off Cape Hatteras, and the "Win- 
field Scott," an unseaworthy craft, was in imminent 
peril. Her masts were cut away, the freight and 
camp equipage were thrown overboard, a portion 
of her officers and crew deserted her and every- 
thing was given up for lost. She was finally saved 
■through the superhuman efforts of the soldiers, 
who had been left to their fate without food or 
water. The regiment went into camp on the island 
.at Hilton Head and was employed in building forti- 
fications. On Dec. 6th, it proceeded to Beaufort 
and there experienced its first skirmish with the 
•enemy. It participated in the battle of Coosaw on 
Jan. 1, 1863. In General Hunter's demonstration 
against Charleston, Lieutenant-Colonel Brenholtz 
and six companies took a prominent part, driving 
"the enemy from a railroad bridge which spanned 
.a stream near Pocotaligo. 

The regiment remained near Beaufort till July 
12th; then proceeded to Fortress Monroe. Subse- 
quently it was engaged in the first and second 
■days' fights at Bull Run. Brenholtz commanded 
the regiment. He was one of the wounded in 
the second day's fight. On Aug. 1st, it participat- 
ed in the battle of Chantilly, and several weeks 
later in the battle of Antietam. Subsequently 
it was moved to Kentucky and participated in 
the siege of Vicksburg. There Brenholtz, whilst 
gallantly leading his m.en before the enemy's works, 
was mortally wounded. His fall was greatly la- 
mented at Reading, where he had been a success- 
ful teacher in the public schools. Much of the 
•credit which the organization had acquired was 
due to his excellent qualities as a soldier. No 
l)raver man ever led in battle, and upon his 
death the service lost one of its most valued lead- 
ers. In August, only eighty of the regiment were 
present for duty, and nearly all had chills and 
fever. The other men of the regiment were in 
hospitals suffering from wounds or malaria. In 
October and November, 1863, it took part in en- 
gagements, at Blue Springs, Lenoir Station, and 

Nearly the entire regiment re-enlisted on Jan- 
uary 1, 1864. During January it was marched to 
Nicholasville, a distance of two hundred miles, 
in ten days. Many of the men were barefooted 
and walked through the snow. In February, they 
proceeded to Harrisburg on a veteran furlough, 
and visited their homes. In March, the regiment 
encamped at Annapolis. On May 6th, it was en- 
gaged in the battle of the Wilderness, and on the 
. 9th, in the battle near Spottsylvania Court-House. 
Among the killed was Captain Cleveland, of Com- 
pany H. Three days afterward the regiment had 
another desperate encounter, in which the men had 
a struggle hand to hand. Adjutant Kendall, three 
-sergeants and twenty-five privates were taken pris- 
oners. From the- Ny river to the North Anna, 
.and thence to Cold Harbor, the regiment was en- 

gaged almost daily. At Cold Harbor, on June 
2, 1864, it occupied the front line and suffered 
severely. Shortly afterward, it lay in line before 
Petersburg. On June 18th, Captain Lantz, of Com- 
pany E, and several men were killed. It then per- 
formed picket duty during July and participated 
in the siege and great explosion of the mine. 
During August it was eng-aged in almost contin- 
uous fighting. It remained at the front during 
September, October and November, when it went 
into winter quarters immediately before ■ Peters- 

The Union lines began to close in on the Rebel 
works on April 1, 1865. The regiment was en- 
gaged during the operations of the 2d and 3d, and 
it was among the first of the regiments to enter 
Petersburg upon its fall. It moved to City Point 
on April 15th, and thence by boat to Washington, 
where it remained till June 30th. Upon the re- 
commendation of Lieutenant-General Grant, this 
regiment was ordered to represent the infantry of 
the army upon the occasion of laying the corner- 
stone of the national monument at Gettysburg on 
July 4, 1865. From Gettysburg it went into camp 
near Georgetown, where it was mustered out of 
service on July 31st. 

Henry T. Kendall, who was Adjutant, became 
Captain of Company H in January, 1865. 

53d Regiment. — Company B of this regiment 
included twenty-three men from Birdsboro; and 
Company A, four men from Boyertown. It par- 
ticipated in many battles. 

55th Regiment. — The 55th Regiment was re- 
cruited during the summer and autumn of 1861, 
and included Company B from Berks county, re- 
cruited at Robesonia. It was organized at Harris- 
burg, and in November proceeded to Fortress 
Monroe. It experienced some service near Framp- 
ton in October, 1862. For a year afterward, it 
performed picket duty at Port Royal Ferry. On 
Jan. 1, 1864, the major part of the men re-enlisted 
for three years, and were given a furlough. In 
March, the regiment returned to South Carolina, 
and in April was stationed at Gloucester Point, op- 
posite Yorktown. Here it was assigned to the 3d 
Brigade, 3d Division, lObh Corps, Army of the 
James, arnd participated in the movements and en- 
gagements of this corps under the command of 
General Butler. It reached Richmond on April 
25th, and encamped near by, ' performing fatigue 
and guard duty till the latter part of July; then 
it was stationed at different points surrounding 
Petersburg till it was mustered out of service on 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

William G. Moore, of Woraelsdorf, was Cap- 
tain of Company D in this Regmient, from July 
13, 1864, to June 10, 1865. 

59th Regiment.— The 59th Regiment (2d Cav- 
alry) included thirty-three men who were recruit- 
ed at Reading, in March, 1862, and became part of 
Company K, under command of Captain Chauncey. 
It experienced much severe marching and partici- 



pated in a number of battles, prominent among them 
being Bull Run, Chautilly, Gettysburg, and the Wil- 
derness campaign. It was present at the surrender 
at Appomattox and participated in the grand re- 
view at Washington on May 23, 1865. It was 
mustered out of service at Cloud's Mill, Va., on 
July 13, 1865. 

William F. Dougherty, of Berks county, was 
captain for a time; and Stephen H. Edgett from 
March, 1865, to June, 1865. 

70th Regiment. — The 70th Regiment (6th 
Cavalry) was composed of Philadelphia men, ex- 
cepting Company G, which was recruited at Read- 
ing, in July, 1861, under command of Capt. George 
E. Clymer. It participated in the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and in various engagements, the most prom- 
inent being Antietam and Gettysburg. Subse- 
quently it took part in the Virginia campaign, and 
in the famous raid by General Sheridan. It was 
also present at the surrender at Appomattox, and 
participated in the grand review at Washington. 
It was mustered out of service at Louisville, Ky., 
Aug. 7, 1865. 

There were twenty men from the county 
in other companies of this regiment : twelve in 
Company F ; one in Company H ; four in Com- 
pany I ; two in Company K ; and one in Company M. 

Dr. G. S. Engler, of Muhlenberg township, was 
the regimental assistant surgeon. 

74th Regiment. — Company G, of this regi- 
ment, was composed of men recruited in Berks 
and Adams counties, during Fehruary, 1865, for 
a service of one year. It was attached in March 
to this regiment, originally organized in 1861. It 
was engaged in guard duty at Beverly, Clarksburg 
and Parkersburg, from April to August 29th, when 
it was mustered out of service at Clarksburg. It 
was disbanded at Pittsburg. 

80th Regiment. — The 80th Regiment (7th 
Cavalry) included some men who were recruited in 
Berks county, and mustered into service with Com- 
pany L. It participated in various engagements 
with the Army of the Tennessee, where it had 
been ordered to service. In March, 1865, it march- 
ed under General Wilson across the Gulf States. 
and in the beginning of April participated in the 
battles of Plantersville and Selma, Ala. At the 
latter place, the regiment led in the assault upon 
the works and the conduct of the men was highly 
meritorious. Its last engagement was near Col- 
umbus, on April 16, 1865. It was then stationed 
at Macon, Ga., from April 20th to August 13th, 
when it was mustered out of service. This company 
was recruited in Berks and Northumberland coun- 
ties, and was mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. 

88th Regiment. — This regiment included three 
companies, recruited in Berks county, A, B, and 
H. It was mustered into service at Philadelphia 
in October, 1861, and then ordered to Washington. 
It performed guard duty in that vicinity until May, 
1862. Subseauently, it participated in the follow- 
ing battles : Thoroughfare Gap, Bull Run, Antie- 

tam, Fredericksburg, Cedar Mountain, Second 
Bull Run, Chantilly, Gettysburg, South Mountain, 
Gainesville, Wilderness, Chancellorsville, North 
Anna, Tolopotomoy, Mine Run, Petersburg, Wel- 
don Railroad, Spottsylvania and Bethesda Church. 
It continued in active operations until General 
Lee surrendered, when it proceeded to Washing- 
ton, where it was mustered out of service on June 
30, 1865. 

David A. Griffith, of Reading, was major of 
the regiment from September to December, 
1862. . 

Joseph A. McLean, of Reading, was the lieuten- 
ant-colonel until he was killed at the battle of 
Bull Run on Aug. 30, 1862. JNIcLean Post, No. 
16, G. A. R., of Reading, was named after him 
in 1866. 

Ringgold Band. — The regimental band of the 
88th Regiment was the "Ringgokl" from Reading, 
with Emanuel Ermentrout, as leader, and twenty 
men. It was mustered into service at Philadel- 
phia on Aug. 30, 1861, and mustered out at Man- 
assas Junction on June 21, 1862, pursuant to a 
general order dispensing with the services of bands 
of music. 

93d Regiment. — This regiment was organized 
at Lebanon, Pa., in October, 1861, and included 
two companies, B and G, and part of Company K, 
from Berks county. It proceeded to Virginia and 
participated in the following battles : Williiams- 
burg, Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Malvern Hill, Fred- 
ericksburg, Marye's Heights, Gettysburg, Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Op- 
equan, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek. After the 
surrender of General Lee, it marched to Danville 
to co-operate with Sherman for the defeat of Gen- 
eral Johnston. After remaining in camp there 
for several weeks, it proceeded to Washington, 
and was mustered out of service on ijune 27, 

John E. Arthur, of Reading, was lieutenant- 
colonel from July to November, 1863; David C. 
Keller, major, from September, 1864, to December, 
1864, when he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and 
on April 2, 1865, brevet colonel. 

W. A. H. Lewis was adjutant from October 
1861, to August, 1862 ; and John B. Dewees from 
March to June 27, 1865, when mustered out as 

96th Regiment.— The 96th Regiment was re- 
cruited mostly in Schuylkill county. Some men 
frorn Hamburg and of Berks county were includ- 
ed in Company G. It was mustered into service 
on Sept. 23, 1861, at Pottsville, and participated in 
various engagements in the Peninsula, at Gettys- • 
burg, in the Wilderness campaign, and in the 
Shenandoah Valley. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice in West Philadelphia on Oct. 21, 1864. 

104th Regiment. — The greater part of Com- 
panies B, and H in this regiment consisted of men 
from Berks county; and among the field officers 
was John M. Gries, from Reading, chosen as 



major. During 1862, the regiment participated in 
the siege of Yorktown, and in the battles of Sav- 
age Station and Faiir Oaks, in the Peninsular cam- 
paign. In the beginning of 1863, it was ordered 
to South Carolina, and there took part in the siege 
of Charleston and the capture of Fort Wagner. 
During August, 1864, it was stationed in Florida, 
guarding a line of railroad from Jacksonville to 
Baldwin. Thence it proceeded north to Alexan- 
dria, where it performed duty in the fortifications 
on the southern side of the Potomac river, till its 
term of service expired. It was mustered out 
of service at Philadelphia on Sept. 30, 1864. Some 
of the men from Berks county re-enlisted in this 
regiment. There were veterans and recruits suf- 
ficient to form a battalion of five companies. Its 
" principal service afterward was in the siege of 
Petersburg, participating in the assault on the city, 
April 3 and 4, 1865. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice at Portsmouth on Aug. 25, 1865. 

Durell's. Battery. — This was the famous In- 
dependent Battery D, commonly known as "Dur- 
ell's." It was organized at Doylestown on Sept. 
24, 1861, and proceeded to Washington on Nov. 
6th, where it was equipped as a six-gun battery. 
Afterward two additional pieces were provided. 
It had a very active career, and participated in 
the following battles: Kelly's Ford, Bristoe Sta- 
tion, Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain, Antie- 
tam, Sharpsburg, Sulphur Springs, Fredericks- 
burg, Vicksburg, Wilderness, and the siege of Pet- 
ersburg. It was mustered out of service on June 
13, 1865. 

152d Regiment. — Company K, of this regiment, 
known as the 3d Artillery, included twenty-five 
men from Berks county. The regiment was ori- 
ginally organized for special duty at Fortress Mon- 
roe, but it performed a large share of field ser- 
vice. It had the reputation of being remarkably 
well drilled in every "branch of artillery service, 
as well as in infantry and naval service. All the 
field and nearly all of the Hne officers of the 188th 
Regiment were promoted from its ranks, and the 
excellent discipline and soldierly bearing of the 
command were frequent subjects of remark and 
commendation by its superior officers. The reg- 
iment was mustered in at Philadelphia; and nearly 
all the companies (including Company K) were 
mustered out at Fortress Monroe on Nov. 9, 1865. 

181sT Regiment. — Sixteen veterans from Berks 
county were enlisted in Company H of this reg- 
iment upon its re-prganization in February, 1864, 
having previously been in the six months' service. 
It was in the Shenandoah Valley campaign under 
Generals Sigel, Hunter, and Sheridan, and parti- 
cipated in numerous battles, including New Mar- 
ket, Piedmont, Quaker's Church, Liberty, Salem, 
Snicker's Gap and Gordonville; also in various 
battles during the concluding campaign before Pet- 
ersburg, the regiment occupying the extreme left. 
It was mustered out of service July 13, 1865, at 
Cloud's Mills, Virginia. 

182d Regiment. — In January, 1864, authority 
was given to re-organize this regiment for three 
years (as the 21st Cavalry) and over half of Com- 
pany H were enlisted at Reading. About the mid- 
dle of May, the regimeiit was ordered to Washing- 
ton (from camp near Chambersburg) and thence 
sent to join the Army of the" Potomac. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Cold Harbor, Petersburg, 
Weldon Railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Boyd- 
ton Road, and Bellefield. It was mustered out of 
service at Lynchburg, Va., on July 8, 1865. 


128th Regiment. — ^This regiment was recruited 
in response to the proclamation of the Governor, 
calling for troops to serve for nine months, issued 
July 21, 1862. Companies A, B, E, H, I and K ^ 
were recruited in Berks county. The regiment 
rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, and was mustered 
into the service from the 13th to the 15th of Aug- 
ust. The majority of the regimental officers were 
selected from the companies named. On the 16th 
of August, it was ordered to Washington, moving 
under the command of Capt. William H. Andrews, 
of Company E, because no officers had been as yet 
commissioned. Soon after its arrival at the capital, 
it crossed the Potomac, and was encamped on 
Arlington Heights for a week. On the 21st, it 
moved to Fairfax Seminary; and on the 29th, to 
Fort Woodbury, where for a week (during the 
fierce fighting at Bull Run and Chantilly) it was 
incessantly engaged in felling -timber and erect- 
ing fortifications. On Sept. 6th, the regiment, in 
light marching orders, recrossed the Potomac and 
entered upon the Maryland campaign. At Fred- 
erick City, on the 14th, it was assigned to Craw- 
ford's brigade, of Williams' division, Mansfield's 

It was engaged in active service and participated 
in the battles of Antietam and the Wilderness. In 
the latter battle, the regiment was surrounded by 
the enemy and the greater part of the officers 
and men were taken prisoners to Richmond. After 
the battle, the remainder of the regiment (reduced 
to 172) marched to Stafford Court-House, where 
its terni of service expired. It was ordered to Har- 
risburg', and there mustered out on May 19, 1863. 

Captain Smith, of Company A, was promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel on Feb. 1, 1863, Joel B. 
Wanner was major; James H. Gentzler, adjutant, 
and Dr. J. B. Potteiger, assistant surgeon of the 

15 1st Regiment. — Companies E, G, H, K, and 
part of I, were recruited in Berks county, the re- 
maining part of Company I in Schuylkill county. 
They rendezvoused at Camp Curtin during Sep- 
tember, 1862, where a regimental organization was 
efifected. On Nov. 26th, the regiment moved for 
Washington, and, upon its arrival, proceeded to 
Arlington Heights. On Dec. 3d, it marched to 
Alexandria, and thence proceeded by rail to Un- 
ion Mills. 



About the middle of February, the regiment was 
transferred to Belle Plain, where the men sufifered 
much from sickness and exposure. Just previous 
to the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign, 
the regiment, with the 3d Division, was sent to 
Port Conway, on the Lower Rappahannock. 

Before marching to the battle-field at Chancel- 
lorsville, it was twice subjected to a vigorous shell- 
ing from the enemy posted on the opposite shore. 
During Sunday (the 3d) and Monday (the 4th) 
the regiment occupied a position on the picket line, 
between the Ely and Germania Ford roads, where 
it confronted the enemy. Considerable sickness 
prevailed here, the morning report at one time 
showing 160 on the sick list. 

The march to Gettysburg commenced on the 
12th of June. The right wing of the army (com- 
posed of the 1st and 11th Corps under General 
Reynolds) made a forced march of 105 miles in 
three days, throwing itself suddenly between Lee's 
army (which was moving down the Shenandoah 
Valley) and Washington. At Broad Run, they 
halted for the enemy to develop his plans. As the 
enemy pushed on into Pennsylvania, Reynolds fol- 
lowed, and on the 1st of July his cavalry, under Bu- 
ford, met the head of the enemy's columns, and 
immediately commenced the battle. The 1st Bri- 
gade (commanded by Col. Chapman Biddle) arrived 
upon the field at half-past 10 a. m., and took a po- 
sition on 'the extreme left flank of the corps, the 
151st Regiment under command of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel McFarland, in the absence of Colonel Allen, 
holding the left of the brigade line. As it moved 
into position, it was saluted by the booming of can- 
non and the rattle of musketry. 

The heroism displayed by the regiment in this 
battle was highly praiseworthy. It went into the 
fight with twenty-one officers and 466 men ; of 
these two officers and 187 men were wounded, and 
100 were missing, an aggregate loss of 367. Lieuts. 
Aaron S. Seaman and George A. Trexler were of 
the killed; Lieutenant-Colonel McFarland, Adjt. 
Samuel T. Allen, Capts. George L. Stone and 
James W. VVeida, and Lieuts. Benjamin F. Oliver, 
Thomas L. j\'Ioyer, Henry H. Merkle, Willam O. 
Blodget and Albert Yost were wounded ; and Capts. 
William K. Boltz and William L. Gray, and Lieuts. 
James L. Reber and Charles P. Potts were taken 
prisoners. At 6 o'clock on the morning of the 6th, 
the regiment moved with the army, in pursuit of 
Lee, coming up with his rear-guard at Funkstown 
on the 12th, and his main body near Williamsport 
on the 14th. That night the enemy escaped. The 
regiment's term of service had now nearly expired. 
It was accordingly relieved from duty on the 10th, 
and returned to Harrisburg, where it was mustered 
out on the 27th. 

Francis Parvin, of Berks county, was quarter- 
master of the regiment. 


When the Rebel army achieved its triumphs in 
the second battle of Bull Run^ it hastened northward 
and commenced crossing the Potomac. The result 
of the struggle on the plains of JNIanassas was no 
sooner known than the helpless condition of Penn- 
sylvania, which had been apparent from the first, 
became a subject of alarm. On Sept. 4th, Governor 
Curtin issued a proclamation, calling on the people 
to arm and prepare for defense. He recommended 
the immediate formation of companies and regi- 
ments throughout the commonwealth. On the 10th, 
the danger having become imminent, and the en- 
emy being already in Maryland, he issued a general 
order, calling on all able-bodied men to enroll im- 
mediately for the defense of the State, and hold 
themselves in readiness to march upon an hour's 
notice : the following day he called for fifty thou- 
sand men. The people everywhere flew to arms, 
and moved promptly to the State capital. 

On the 14th, the head of the Army of the Poto- 
mac met the enemy at South Mountain, and hurled 
him back through its passes ; and on the evening 
of the 16th and on the 17th a fierce battle was fought 
at Antietam. In the meantime, the militia had rapidly 
concentrated at Hagerstown and Chambersburg. 
The enemy was defeated at Antietam, and re- 
treated in confusion across the Potomac. The 
emergency having passed, the militia regiments 
were ordered to return to Harrisburg, and in ac- 
cordance with the conditions on which they had 
been called into service, they were mustered out 
and disbanded on the 24th. The train on which the 
20th Regiment was returning over the Cumberland 
Valley railroad collided, upon nearing Harrisburg, 
with a train passing in an opposite direction, by 
which four men were killed and thirty injured. 

The following seven companies from Berks 
county were enlisted in this special service : 

Company G, in 2d Regiment, organized Sept. 6- 
13, 1862. and discharged Sept. 23-2.3. 

Companies E and I, in 11th Regiment, organized 
Sept. 12, 1862, and discharged Sept. 24-25. Charles 
A. Knoderer, of Reading, was the colonel of this 

Companies G, H and I, in 20th Regiment, organ- 
ized, Sept. 18, 1862, and discharged 'Sept. Se-S'o. 

An Independent Cavalry Companv was organ- 
ized Sept. 17, 1862, and discharged Sept. 27. 

During the year 1862, the military operations 
were conducted with such energy,, and'so many men 
were required, that volunteer' companies were not 
sufficiently numerous to supply the increasing de- 
mands for troops. The government was therefore 
driven to the extreme measure of impressing men 
into service by drafting them for that purpose'.^ Ten 
companies which constituted the 167th Regiment, 
and two companies, I and K, of the 179th Regi- 
ment, were composed of drafted men from Berks 



county. They were mustered into service for nine 

167th Regiment. — This regiment was exclu- 
sively from Berks county, and was organized in 
November, 1862, with the following field officers: 
Charles A. Knoderer, colonel; DePuy Davis, lieu- 
tenant-colonel: Gustavus A. Worth, major. Soon 
after its organization, the regiment was ordered to 
Suffolk, Va. It was actively engaged in fatigue 
duty upon fortifications (in the planning of which 
Colonel Knoderer was an adept) and in reconnoit- 
ring and outpost duty. Late on the evening of Jan. 
29, 1863, General Corcoran (who commanded a di- 
vision under General Peck) moved with his column 
toward the Blackwater, and at Deserted Farm, 
seven miles out, encountered a strong force of the 
enemy, under Gen. Roger A. Pryor. Corcoran im- 
mediately made an attack, and a fierce night en- 
gagement ensued. The fighting was principally 
with artillery and the 167th Regiment was fearfully 
exposed to the enemy's fire. At the opening of the 
battle, Colonel Knoderer ordered his men to lie 
down, and fortunately few were injured; but the 
horses of the officers, with the exception of that of 
the adjutant, were all killed, and the Colonel him- 
self received a mortal wound. The enemy was 
finally driven back and the command returned again 
to camp. Lieutenant-Colonel Davis succeeded to 
the command of the regiment, and was subsequently 
commissioned colonel. It participated in the des- 
ultory operations which were kept up tmtil the be- 
ginning of April, when the right wing of the Rebel 
army under General Longstreet, numbering some 
forty thousand men, advanced upon the place and 
attacked it, but failed to carry it. He then laid siege 
to it, and constructed elaborate works for its re- 
duction. For nearly a month, these operations were 
vigorously pushed; and for many days the bom- 
bardment of the fortifications was almost inces- 
sant; but so skillfully had they been planned, and 
so well constructed, that General Peck, with a force 
of only about a third of the number of the invading 
army, successfully repelled every attack, and finally 
compelled Longstreet to raise the siege. The 167th 
Regiment was actively employed in the defense 
throughout the siege, and rendered efficient service. 
Toward the close of June, and during the time of 
Lee's invasion of. Pennsylvania, the regiment 
formed part of the command which was sent to 
demonstrate in the direction of Richmond, and up- 
on its return was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, then in pursuit of Lee's army in Mary- 
land. It formed a junction on the 15th of July, the 
day after the escape of the enemy across the Po- 
tomac, and was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 1st 
Division of the Ist Corps. With that corps, it par- 
ticipated in the pursuit of Lee beyond the Rappa- 
hannock, when, its term of service being about to 
expire, it was relieved at the front, and ordered to 
Heading, where, on Aug. 13, 1863, it was mustered 

179th Regiment. — This regiment included two 
companies, I and K, from the county of Berks. 
It was organized in companies at periods ranging 
from the 23d of October to the 6th of December, 
1863, at Philadelphia and Plarrisburg; and on the 
8th of December a regimental organization was ef- 
fected. Soon after its organization, it proceeded to 
Fortress Monroe and thence to Yorktown, where 
it formed part of the garrison at the fort, and was 
encamped within its walls. It did little else than 
garrison duty • until the last of July, when it was 
called out to join in the movement made by General 
Dix up the Peninsula. During the march to White 
House and thence to Baltimore Cross Roads, the 
regiment was prompt and ready, and always well 
in hand. In the return march the 179th Regiment 
crowned its reputation as a first-class organization 
by being always promptly in its place, whilst other 
regiments were scattered for miles along the road. 

Upon its return to camp, it was ascertained that 
Lee had invaded Pennsylvania, and though its 
term of service was about to expire, by the unan- 
imous vote of the men by companies, their further 
services were "tendered to Governor Curtin as long 
as he should need them for the defense of the State. 
This offer was accepted; but by the time the regi- 
ment had reached Washington, en route to the front, 
the Rebel army had retreated to Virginia. It was 
accordingly ordered to Harrisburg, where it was 
mustered out of service on July 37th. 

The triumph of the Rebel army at Fredericks- 
burg in December, 1863, and its success at Chan- 
cellorsville in May, 1863, emboldened its leader to 
again plan an invasion of the North. It becoming 
daily more evident that the enemy intended to cross 
the Potomac in force, the President on June 15th 
called for one hundred thousand men from Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Maryland and West Virgiiiia, to 
serve for a period of six months, unless sooner dis- 
charged; and of this number Pennsylvania was to 
furnish fifty thousand. Governor Curtin then is- 
sued a proclamation, calling upon all men capable 
of bearing arms to enroll themselves in military 
organizations and encourage all others to afford as- 
sistance toward protecting the State. In pursuance 
of this call, many troops were raised throughout 
the State. The citizens of Berks county responded 
promptly and raised sixteen companies of men; ten 
of which were formed into one regiment called the 
4§d ; two of the 48th ; three o.f the 53d ; and one of 
the 31st. They were mustered into service in July 
and moved to the front, but so rapid were the move- 
ments of the armies, and the decisive battle of 
Gettysburg was fought so soon after the call for 
the militia, that the men had scarcely arrived in 
camp before the danger was over. The Rebel army 
made its escape on the 13th and 14th of July, and 
then the campaign was at end. But the militia was, 
however, held for some time after this, having 
been employed on various duty. 



With the close of this raid, the Rebel invasion of 
1863 ended. Further service was no longer re- 
quired of the militia, and during the months of 
August and September the majority of the men 
were mustered out. With few exceptions, they were 
not brought into mortal conflict, but they, never- 
theless, rendered most important service. They 
came forward at a moment when there was press- 
ing need, and their presence gave great moral sup- 
port to the Union army. 

The 31st Regiment was organized at Harrisburg 
on June 30, 1863, with Capt. David A. Griffith, of 
Reading, as lieutenant-colonel, and mustered out 
on August 8th. 

The 42d Regiment was organized at Reading on 
July 6th, with Dr. Charles H. Hunter, of Reading, 
as colonel ; John E. Arthur, of Reading, as lieuten- 
ant-colonel; Bentley H. Smith, of Joanna, as major; 
and Frank R. Schmucker, Esq., of Reading, as ad- 
jutant; and mustered out on Aug. ll-12th, at 

In the 48th, Frederick R. Fritz, of Reading, was 
lieutenant-colonel, and William W. Diehl, of Read- 
ing, major. It was organized at Reading on July 
6th, and mustered out on Aug. 26th. 

In the 53d, Israel C. Becker was adjutant, and 
Jeremiah D. Bitting, quartermaster, both of Read- 
ing. It was organized at Reading on July 13th, 
and mustered out on Aug. 20th. 

Enlisted in this service was the Independent Bat- 
tery commanded by Capt. William C. Ermentrout. 
It was organized at Reading on July 3d, and mus- 
tered out Aug. 26th. 


Four companies from Berks county were in the 
one hundred days' service, having been enlisted in 
July, 1864: 

194th Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
in ten counties of the State, Company I having been 
from Berks county. It was organized at Camp Cur- 
tin on July 22, 1864, with Richards McMichael, of 
Reading, as lieutenant-colonel. On the day of its 
organization, it moved to Baltimore. About the 1st 
of September, it moved to Camp Carroll, a mile 
southwest of the city, on the line of the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad. Company I and five other com- 
panies of the regiment were stationed at various 
points in the city for provost duty. At the expira- 
tion of its term, it proceeded to Flarrisburg, where, 
on the 6th of November, it was mustered out. 

195th Regiment. — This regiment was principally 
recruited in Lancaster county in July, 1864, to serve 
for a period of one hundred days. It included two 
companies, A and B, from Berks county. It was 
organized at Camp Curtin on the 24th of July. 
Oliver C. James, of Reading, of Company B, was 
elected major, and Dr. Harrison T. Witman, of 
Reading, as assistant surgeon. On the day of its 
organization it proceeded to Baltimore, thence to 
^lonocacy Junction, where for a period of two 
months, it was engaged in guarding the bridge 

which spanned the creek, and the lines of railway. 
On the 1st of October it proceeded to Berkeley 
county, W. Va., and was posted along the line of 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, with headquarters 
at North Mountain station, where it remained till 
the expiration of its term of service. Three hun- 
dred of the men re-enlisted to serve for one year 
and they were consolidated in three companies. 
They remained on duty under the command of 
Capt. Henry D. Markley, of Company A. Subse- 
quently seven other companies were recruited, and 
they together were reorganized as the 195th Reg- 
iment with Captain Markley as major. It per- 
formed guard duty at Kabletown, Berryville, and 
Staunton. At the latter place, the three veteran 
companies were mustered out in the middle of 
June, 1865. 

196th Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
under the auspices of the Union League at Phil- 
adelphia, to serve for one hundred days, and it 
was known as the 5th Union League Regiment. 
It included Company I, of Berks county. It was 
organized at Camp Cadwalader, Philadelphia, on 
July 20, 1864, and a week later proceeded to Camp 
Bradford, near Baltimore. About the middle of 
August, it was ordered to Chicago, 111., where it 
performed guard duty at Camp Douglas, a large 
number of prisoners of war having been confined 
there. Early in November, it returned to Phil- 
adelphia, and was thence ordered to duty at Fort 
Delaware. It was mustered out at Philadelphia 
on Nov. 17, 1864. 

Six volunteer companies from Berks county 
were in the service for one year from September, 
1864, to August, 1865. 

83d Regiment. — After the battle of Hatcher's 
Run on Feb. 6, 1865, this regiment went into camp 
at Hampton station, and while there four full com- 
panies were assigned to it, including Company I, 
recruited at Harrisburg for a service of one year. 
There were a number of men from Reading in 
this company. The concluding efforts of the great 
strife were started on March 29th, and in quick suc- 
cession this regiment was engaged in the battles of 
Jones' Farm, White Oak Road, Gravelly Run, Five 
Forks, Sutherland Station, JefTersonville, and Ap- 
pomattox Court-House. It was mustered out of 
service on June 28th at Washington and thence it 
proceeded to Harrisburg, where'it was finally dis- 
banded on July 4th. 

192d Regiment.— In July, 1864, a regiment was 
recruited in Philadelphia, for a service of one hun- 
dred days, and mustered in as the 192d. It was 
mustered out of service in November following. 
One of the companies re-enlisted for one year, and 
in February, 1865, nine new companies united with 
it, which were mustered in as a second regiment of 
the same number. One of the nine companies was 
Company F, recruited at Reading. The regiment 
was organized at Harper's Ferry, and when the 



spring campaign opened, it moved up the valley to 
Staunton and Lexington. It was retained in the 
department and engaged in various duties till Aug. 
24th, when it was mustered out of service at Har- 
per's Ferry. 

195th Regiment. — Three companies of the 
195th Regiment in the one hundred days' service 
were re-enlisted in the one year's service, which in- 
cluded Company A, commanded 'by Capt. Henry 
D. Markley. It was classified with other companies 
which became the 195th Regiment. Captain Mark- 
ley became the major; and Dr. H. T. Witman, the 
assistant surgeon. It was organized on the field in 
February, 1865, at Martinsburg, Va., and Com- 
pany A was mustered out at Summit Point, Va., 
on June 21, 1865. 

On April 1, 1865, the regiment was sent to guard 
the fords of the Shenandoah river; and on the 22d 
it was ordered to Berryville. 

198th Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
at Philadelphia during the summer of 1864, under 
the auspices of the Union League, to enter service 
for one year, and included Companies D and G 
from Berks county. It was organized Sept. 9th, 
and September 19th following it proceeded to join 
the Army of the Potomac in front of Petersburg. 
Upon its arrival it was assigned to the 1st Brigade, 
1st Division of the 5th Corps. It participated in 
the battles of Peeble's Farm, Hatcher's Run, and 
White Oak Swamp. At the last named Capt. 
Isaac Schroeder was mortally wounded. It was 
mustered out at Arlington Heights June 3, 1865. 

205th Regiment. — Companies B, E and H of 
this regiment were recruited in Berks county. They 
rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, where, on Sept. 2, 
1864, field officers were selected, including William 
F. Walter, captain of Company E, as lieutenant- 
colonel, who had served in the 104th Regiment. On 
the 5th, the regiment left Harrisburg, proceeded 
to Washington, crossed the Potomac, and went in- 
to camp at Fort Corcoran. Afterward it was en- 
gaged in picketing from the left of the army line 
to the James, and in building forts and earthworks 
for the defense of City Point. On Oct. 9th, it was 
ordered to the Army of the James. With the ex- 
ception of occasional marches in support of aggres- 
sive movements, the regiment remained in camp, 
near Fort Prescott on the Army Line railroad dur- 
ing the winter, where it was engaged in drill and 
fatigue duty. On March 25,. 1865, it participated in 
the retaking of Fort Steadman, and afterward in 
the siege of Petersburg. It was mustered out of 
service at Seminary Hill on June 2, 1865. 

213th Regiment. — This regiment was recruited 
at Philadelphia, and in Berks, Chestef and Juniata 
counties, with the assistance of the Union League. 
It was organized on March 2, 1865, and two days 
afterward transferred to AnnapoHs, Md., to guard 
Camp Parole. Part of the regiment was sent to 
Frederick, Md., for duty on the line of the B. 
& O. railroad. In April, it was concentrated at 
Washington, and -posted along the northern de- 

fenses, where it continued until Nov. 18th, when it 
was mustered out of service. Company D was re- 
cruited in Berks county. 

About 225 men from the county were enlisted in 

other companies but not enough of them in any 

company to be classified in the foregoing hst. 
5th U. S. Artillery. — Battery H included 

seven men from Marion township, Berks county. 
19th U. S. Infantry. — Company G, commanded 

by Capt. Edmund L. Smith, of Reading, included 

seven men from Berks county. 


A number of associations have been organized 
since the close of the Civil war by the survivors 
or their sons : 

Grand Army Posts. — McLean Post, No. i6, G. 
A. R., was organized at Reading and chartered Dec. 
12, 1866, having been named after Lieut. -Col. Jo- 
seph A. McLean, of the 88th Regiment. It has 
maintained a successful organization since then. 
It has collected an extensive library of military lit- 

Keim Post, No. 76, G\ A. R., was chartered Feb. 
22, 1878, also at Reading. It has also maintained 
its organization since, with separate quarters. It 
was named after Gen. William H. Keim. 

Meade Camp, No. 16, Sons of Veterans, was 
instituted Oct. 30, 1881, being a branch of the Sons 
of Veterans at Philadelphia, and designed to keep 
active the memory of the sacrifice of their fathers 
in the Civil war. 

Loyal Ladies' League, No. 6, was instituted April 
17, 1884, at Reading. Only mothers, wives, daugh- 
ters and. sisters of honorably discharged soldiers 
and sailors of the Civil war are admitted to mem- 
bership. It is an auxiliary to the Grand Army of 
the Republic. 

McLean Womans Relief Corps, No. 10, was 
instituted Oct. 1, 1884, as an auxiliary to Post No. 
16, G. A. R. It has held a number of fairs and 
camp-fires for the benefit of the Post and thereby 
contributed much pecuniary aid. 

Ex-Prisoners of War. — Certain enlisted men in 
the Civil war fromi Berks county, who were pris- 
oners of war, also formed an association for mu- 
tual aid and social intercourse on July 10, 1884, 
and they too have maintained an active organization 
since then. 

. SPANISH WAR— 1898 
The war of the United States with Spain grew 
ouf of the oppression of the people of Cuba by the 
Spanish government, which extended through a 
long period of time, and the repeated efforts of the 
people toward establishing a republican form of 
government elicited the earnest sympathy of our 
republic. The conduct of our own government was 
always reserved and guarded, but when our battle- 
ship "Maine" was blown up in the harbor of Havana 



■on Feb. 15, 1898, causing the loss of 266 sailors, 
the feeling- of our people, incited by the metropoli- 
tan newspapers, became so intense agaiflst Spain 
.that it culminated in a proposed declaration of war 
in Congress on March 29th, and in the recognition 
of the independence of Cuba on April 19th. Two 
days after this recognition, our IMinister to Spain 
was unceremoniously dismissed from Madrid ; four 
days afterward President JNIcKinley called for 12-5,- 
000 volunteers ; and six days afterward, a formal 
declaration of war was passed by Congress. When 
this signal was given, the military operations be- 

■ came immediately very active and determined, and 
-within a week more the great naval battle in Manila 

harbor had taken place, with unprecedented success 
to the American fleet of battleships under the com- 
mand of Admiral Dewey, and the total destruction 

• of the Spanish fleet. 

While these events were transpiring, the patriotic 

■ spirit at Reading was aroused, and the "Reading 
Artillerists," under the command of Capt. Samuel 
Willits, responded to the President's call, and pro- 
ceeded to Mt. Gretna, where it was mustered into 

, service on May 9th, with the 4th Regiment of Penn- 

■ sylvania Volunteers. The regiment was transferred 
to Chickamauga Park, in Georgia, arriving there 
on May IGth ; and after having been quartered at 
several other places, it finally reached Guanica, in 
Porto Rico, on Aug. 2d, and thence it proceeded 
to Arroyo, the hills near by 'being shelled by the 
American troops while the disembarkment, of the 
men took place. The regiment participated in the 
movements which led up to the battle and the 
capture of Guayama without becoming actuall)^ 

• engaged ; and shortly afterward it constituted 
part of the 1st Battalion ' and wagon-train 
which marched toward Guayama to support 
the advancing army. The enemy was endeavoring 
to execute a flank movement when the regi- 

- ment was ordered to occupy a commanding position 
and while engaged in this important work the news 
of the ''Peace Protocol'' was circulated, which 
caused further operations to cease. Then the regi- 
ment was directed to withdraw to a point on the 
Ponce Road, near the town, and there it remained 
on outpost duty until August 28th, when it marched 
about fifty miles to the city of Ponce, and thence 
to the Port de Playa. It then took passage on the 
transport "City of Chester" for New York City, 
where it arrived on Sept. Gth, and was then fur- 
loughed for sixty days. It was mustered o'lt of 
service on Nov. Ifith. The company reached Read- 
ing on Sept. 7'th, at 4 a. m., and many persons were 
at the railroad station to extend a cordial welcome 
to the men. A public reception was tendered to 
the company in the form of a large parade in four 
divisions, with one thousand men in line, and a 
banquet in Rajah Temple, on \\'ednesday evening, 
Sept. IGth. Penn street was crowded with manV 
thousand enthusiastic people who witnessed the 

John C. Hintz, the First Lieutenant of Company 
A, died June 26th, in Leiter Hospital, in Chicka- 
mauga Park, while the company was lying there 
awaiting orders to march and his remains were 
forwarded to Reading and buried with an impos- 
ing ceremony. 

Company G, of the 9th Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry, recruited at Reading, was also 
enlisted in the service. This regiment was mustered 
in at Mt. Gretna on May 11, 1898, and encamped 
at Chickamauga Park, on May 20th. On May 25th, 
the President issued a second call for seventy-five 
thousand men, and four additional companies were 
added to the regiment, one of these being Company 
G, commanded by Capt. Henry D. Green, of Read- 

On August 20th, the regiment as a part of the 3d 
Division, 1st Army Corps, was ordered to Lexing- 
ton, Ky., and on the 2oth it was encamped at Camp 
Hamilton, about five miles from Lexington. It re- 
mained at that place until Sept. 18th, when it was 
ordered to Wilkes-Barre, Pa. There it was given an 
enthusiastic reception and then furloughed for 
thirty days. It arrived at Reading on Sept. 20th, 
and on the evening of the 22d, a public reception 
was extended to it similar to that extended to Com- 
pany A, but the parade could not be made on ac- 
count of a severe rain. 

Both companies participated in the "Peace Jub- 
ilee" at Philadelphia on Oct. 27, 1898. 

Company E of Hamburg, of the same regiment, 
was mustered in on May 10, 1898, at Mt. Gretna, 
and participated in the same services as Company 
A; and it was mustered out of service on Nov. 
10, 1898. It was also in the Peace Jubilee at Phil- 
adelphia. It was commanded by Capt. William 

MILITIA SYSTEM— 1776-1909 
The Convention of 1776, in framing the first Con- 
stitution of Pennsylvania, made provision for the 
establishment of a military system^ and in pursu- 
ance of this provision, the General Assembly es- 
tablished the necessary regulations. The county of 
Berks, under the direction of the designated officer 
(called a "lieutenant," with the assistance of "sub- 
lieutenants"), was enabled to supply promptly and 
successfully all the orders made by the government 
for troops during the progress of the Revolution. 

Previous to this system, the military affairs were 
governed by "Articles of Association." The men 
who associated together for purposes of defense 
were commonly known as "Associators," and those 
who acted in opposition either openlv, or secretly, 
were called "Non-Associators." 

Returns for 1775.— The following officers had 
been chosen for the several battalions of the Asso- 
ciators of Berks county for the year 1775-76, the 
company rosters having been publ'ished in that con- 
nection : 



ist Battalion — Central Section 

Lieut-Col., Henry Haller. Major, Gabriel Hiester. 

2d Battalion — Southern Section 

Lieut.-Col., -Mark Bird. Major, John Jones. 

3d Battalion — Central Section 

Lieut-Col., Nicholas Lotz. Major, John Old. 

4th Battalion — Northern Section 

Lieut.-CoL, Balser Geehr. Major, Michael Lindemuth. 

5th Battalion — Western Section 

Lieut.-Col., John Patton. Major, John Thornburgh. 

6th Battalion — Eastern Section 
Lieut.-Col., Daniel Hunter. Major, Conrad Leffler. 

7th Battalion — Northeastern Section 
Lieut.-Col., Sebastian Levan. Major, Samuel Ely. 

Returns for 1776. — Seven battalions were 
organized in the county, as appeared by the 
delegates sent to the election at Lancaster on July 
4, 1776, for two brigadier-generals. The meeting 
comprised the officers and privates of fifty-three 
battalions of Associators. A full ratio of men was 
sent by the militia of Berks county. The following 
delegates represented the county at that meeting : 

1st Battalion: Officers — Major, Gabriel Hiester; Lieu- 
tenant, Philip Cremer; privates, John Hartman, Peter 

2d Battalion: Officers — Colonel, Mark Bird; Major, 
John Jones; privates, David Morgan, Benjamin Tolbert. 

Sd Battalion: Officers — Lieutenant-Colonel, Nicholas 
Lotz; Captain, George Riehm; privates, Henry Spohn, 
Matthias Wenrich. 

4th Battalion: Officers — Major, Michael Lindemut; 
Captain, George May; private, Michael Moser. 

5th Battalion: Officers — Colonel, John Patton ; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, John Rice; privates, Jacob Seltzer, Chris- 
tian Winter. 

6th Battalion: Officers — Major, Conrad Leffler; Lieu- 
tenant, John Miller; privates, John Hill, Henry Lark. 

/th Battalion: Officers — Colonel, Sebastian Levan ; Ad- 
jutant, Samuel Ely; privates, Pbilip Wisters, Casper 

Returns for 1777. — Col. Jacob Morgan and 
his sub-lieutenants met at Reading, on April 25, 
1777, for the purpose of receiving returns of the 
inhabitants of Berks county between the ages of 
eighteen and fifty-three years. The number then 
returned was about four thousand. These were 
arranged in six districts, and meetings were or- 
dered to 'be held on the 5th and 6th of May follow- 
ing, for the purpose of electing officers and form- 
ing companies. Morgan reported that he had for- 
warded to the Executive Council an exact list of 
the field officers, captains, subalterns and court-mar- 
tial men, comprising the six battalions of the Berks 
county militia, or one battalion for each district. 
This list appears in the Pennsylvania Associators, 
Vol. 2, pp. 257 to 276. The several battalions were 
returned on May 16, 1777. 

Battalion Section of County Colonel 

1st Eastern Daniel Hunter 

2d Northeastern Daniel Udree 

3d Northern Michael Lindenmuth 

4th Central Nicholas Lotz 

.5th Southern Jacob Weaver 

6th Western Henry Spyker 

New System. — After the foregoing returns had 
been made, the Assembly deemed it necessary to 
provide a new militia system, because the Associa- 
tors had lost their effectiveness. Shortly after the 

battle of Princeton, whole companies deserted. Ina 
this behalf, a law was passed on June 13, 1777. 

Oath of Allegiance. — One of the first reqiiire-- 
ments was the taking of an oath of allegiance,.. 
which had to be done before July 1, 1777. This 
was allowing only seventeen days; but in this time- 
■ its provisions had become thoroughly known in. 
Berks county for the time for deliberation or hes-- 
itation had passed, and prompt action was neces- 

Persons who neglected or refused to take this- 
oath were declared to be incapable of holding any 
office; serving as jurors; suing for debts; electing" 
or being elected; buying, selling, or transferring: 
real estate; and they were liable to be disarmed by 
the county lieutenants and deputies. If they were 
not provided with passes, they were liable to be 
arrested as spies, upon being found out of the. 
city or county away from their immediate residence ;. 
and forgery of a certificate was punishable with a 
flogging and a fine of i50. 

In pursuance of the Act, over forty-nine hundred 
men took the oath of allegiance in Berks county 
during the years 1777 and 1778, before the justices, 
of the peace in the several sections of the county. 
The greater number was taken from June to Oc- 
tober in 1777. 

County Districts Established. — This law directed 
the counties to be divided into districts, and each 
district was to contain not less than 440 men, nor 
more than 680, fit for duty, to be arranged in eight 
companies. The officer in charge of a county was 
called a "lieutenant"; and of each district, a "sub- 
lieutenant." It was the duty of the "lieutenant" 
to enlist the people, collect the fines, and execute the 
details of the law. 

Battalions, Companies and Classes. — Each dis- 
trict was subdivided into eight parts, with due re- 
gard to the convenience of the inhabitants, and 
elected its officers from lieutenant-colonel down to* 
subalterns. The term of service was thre6 years. 
A company was set apart for each subdivision, 
and this was also divided by lot into eight parts, 
called classes, as nearly equal as possible, and the 
several classes were numbered from one to eight in 
numerical order. Berks county was divided into- 
six districts. Accordingly, the county had six 'bat- 
talions, or forty-eight companies. 

The rank of the battalions and their officers, 
also of the captains and subalterns was determined 
by lot. The precedence of the officers of the sev- 
eral counties, as to rank, was arranged according to 
the seniority of the counties, Philadelphia being 

In case of invasion, or assistance were asked by 
Congress, the militia was called out by classes. The 
first draft consisted of class one of each company, 
and if insufficient, then class two, and so on, as oc- 
casion required. Each class was liable to serve two 
months, and it was relieved by the next class in 
numerical order. 



Pay and Rations. — The pay and rations were the 
same as Continental troops. They were to com- 
mence two days before marching, and to be allowed 
at the rate of twenty miles a day till the men re- 
turned home. 

Days of Drill — Days of drill were set apart in the 
spring and fall for military exercises ; in companies, 
on the last Monday of April, and first three Mon- 
days of May ; also, on the last two Mondays of 
August, the last two Mondays of September, and 
the third Monday of October ; and in battalions, on 
the fourth Mondays of May and October. 

Fines. — Enrolled men who refused to parade 
were fined 7s. 6d. per diem ; absent officers, 10s. ; 
non-commissioned officers and privates, 5s. On 
field days, the fine for non-attendance was £5, and 
for non-commissioned officers and privates, 1.5s. 

Pensions. — Pensions were allowed for incapaci- 
tating injuries not exceeding one-half the pay re- 
ceived ; and for persons who died from wounds, 
or were killed in service, the Orphans' Court was 
authorized to allow support to the families in 
amounts not to exceed one-half the pay of such 

Persons Exempted from- Service. — The excepted 
persons from bearing arms were delegates in Con- 
gress, members of the Executive Council, judges of 
the Supreme court, masters and faculty of colleges, 
ministers, and servants purchased bona fide. 

Subsequent Returns. — Militia returns were made 
and reported for the succeeding years of the Rev- 
olution until 1783, and those for the years 1778, 
1780,. and 1783 have been published in the Penn- 
sylvania Archives. 

Since Revolution. — The military spirit of the 
people continued to prevail after the Revolution, 
and the State encouraged it for the purpose of 
maintaining familiarity with its affairs. Compan- 
ies, regiments and brigades were organized and 
drilled at certain fixed times and places within the 
county. The meeting was commonly called "Bat- 
talion Day." It preserved a strong general interest 
in public affairs, especially in public defense. This 
interest enabled the several organizations to re- 
spond promptly to calls for their services, and their 
promptness was a distinguishing characteristic. 
Fortunately for them and especially for the coun- 
try, their services were not needed frequently. Not 
to mention the "Whiskey Insurrection" and "North- 
ampton Affair" as of any military consequence, 
there were 'but two occasions for a period covering 
over sixty years in which their services were re- 
quired, one having been the English war of 1812-15, 
and the other the Mexican war of 1846-48, each, 
by a strange coincidence, occurring after a period 
of about thirty years. These military exercises were 
continued until the beginning of the Rebellion ; but 
this outbreak of the Southern States against the 
Northern was of such a serious, long-continued and 
costly nature that the spirit for a return to military 
exercise had come to be entirely exhausted. 

Proffer Services to President. — In 1798, a mis- 
understanding arose between our National govern- 
ment and the French on account of their seizing and 
detaining many of our vessels for examination, to 
ascertain whether or not we, as a neutral govern- 
ment, were carrying English commodities. Some 
conflicts arose on the sea, but Napoleon, upon tak- 
ing control of the French government, soon estab- 
lished a cordial understanding between the two 
countries and American .vessels were no longer mo- 
lested; and two years afterward Louisiana was 
purchased by the United States. 

During this excitment, the officers of the Berks 
County Brigade met at the Court-House in Read- 
ing on June 30, 1798, and addressed a patriotic 
letter to, President Adams, offering their services 
to assist in resenting the insult of the French to 
our government ; to which the President gave them 
a very appreciative acknowledgment. 

Military Division. — In 1807 Berks and Dauphin 
counties comprised the Sixth Division. In 1814 two 
new counties, Schuylkill and Lebanon, were added 
to this division, Dauphin and Lebanon forming the 
1st Brigade and Berks and Schuylkill the 2d; and 
in 1849, Dauphin, Lebanon and Berks comprised 
the 5th Division. The last Act before the Rebellion 
was passed in 1858, by which Berks was still a part 
of the same division. 

Encampment at Reading. — A large and success- 
ful encampment of militia was held at Reading in 
1842. It was arranged along the base of Penn's 
Mount and continued from May 18th for one 

The following troops attended : 

Company Men 

Reading Troop 30 

Reading Artillerists 52 

Washington Grays (Reading) 40 

National Graj's (Reading) 35 

National Troop (Ole}') 43 

Hamburg Troop 30 

Hamburg Artillerists 52 

Womelsdorf Legion 46 

Bernville Rifle Grays 65 

Berks Rifle Rangers 54 

Pottsville Cavalry 28 

Pottsville Infantry 44 

Orwigsburg Grays 40 

Allentown Guards 34 


Attendance from Reading, 157 ; from country districts, 

292. Brig.-Gen. William High was in command of the 

Berks County Brigade. The commander-in-chief of the 

State was also present. 

The daily duty at the encampment was similar 
to army regulation during actual war. It was as 
follows : 

Morning gun at daybreak Grand parade, 10 a.m. 

Reveille Dinner, 12 M. 

Roll-call Regular parade, 4 p.m. 

Morning parade Evening gun, 6 p.m. 

Breakfast Tattoo and countersign, 10 

Detail of guards p.m. 

Inspection Lights extinguished, 11 p. m. 

And from 11 p.m. to daylight "the sentry walked his 
lonely roimd." 



A review of the trcxyps was held on Saturday, 
May 21st. The day was fine, and thousands of 
persons were in attendance. 

Gen. Winfield Scott, accompanied by his aids, 
arrived at Reading on the day of the review. He 
was met at the "depot" (Seventh and Chestnut 
streets) by a detachment of mihtary and escorted 
to "Herr's Hotel" (United States, north side of 
Penn Square, between Fourth and Fifth streets), 
followed by many citizens. He spent Sunday at 
Reading. On Monday, 33d, he reviewed the troops 
at the encampment and during this day medals were 
shot for. General Scott expressed himself as highly 
pleased with the discipline and appearance of the 
encampment and he paid a special compliment to 
the "Reading Artillerists." Whilst here he presented 
each of the Revolutionary survivors with a $20 gold- 

Battalions in i8§6. — In 1856 there were in the 
county twenty-four companies of militia, arranged 
in six battalions, which comprised the 1st Brigade, 
of the Sth Division of Pennsylvania Volunteers : 

Battalion Section Officer Company Men 

1st Reading Major W. H. Keim 6 539 

2d Hamburg , Major J. A. Beitenman 4 206 

3d Maiden-creek Major D. B. Kaufman 3 133 

, 4th Oley Major Isaac Schroeder 5 311 

5th Union Major W. J. Schoener 3 135 

6th Marion Major John Bechtold 3 139 

Total men, 1,463 ; total force of troops in the county, 


These battalions were in active existence when 
the Civil war broke out in 1861. 

State National Guard. — In 1864, a new sys- 
tem was provided which still prevails. The assess- 
ors of the county are required to enroll "every able- 
bodied male citizen resident within the State, of the 
age of twenty-one years and under the age of forty- 
five years," excepting certain persons specified ; and 
this roll of persons is placed on record in the office 
of the county commissioners ; and the whole num- 
ber of persons liable to mihtary duty is reported by 
the commissioners to the adjutant-general of the 
State. The enrolled militia shall be subject to 
no active duty except in case of war, invasion, riot, 
etc. The commander-in-chief may order the militia 
to be drafted from the persons liable to duty or ac- 
cept as many volunteers as may be required. The 
organization is similar to the previous systems, 
but the State is divided into twenty divisions, each 
county to form a separate brigade. Berks, Leb- 
anon and Dauphin counties comprise the 5th Di- 
vision. Subsequent modifications have been made. 

The active militia is styled the "National Guard 
of Pennsylvania." In time of peace it shall com- 
prise an aggregate not to exceed ten thousand of- 
ficers and men and "consist of two hundred com- 
panies, fully armed, uniformed and equipped, to 
be distributed among the several military divisions 
of the State according to the number of its taxable 
population." And provision is made for drilling, 
inspections and encampments. This system is car- 

ried on successfully, but without causing any public 
excitement, excepting during the time and in the 
vicinity of any encampment. 

Reading Artillerists. — The Reading Artillerists 
is one of the most prominent military organi- 
zations in Pennsylvania. It was organized at 
Reading, March 23, 1794, and has continued in ac- 
tive existence until the present time, excepting from 
the close of the Civil war in 1865 until 1881, when 
it was re-organized. At first it was known as the 
Reading Union Volunteers, and in the English war 
of 1812-15 as the Reading Washington Guards, 
and about 1820 it took the name of Reading Artil- 
lerists which it has retained until now. The first 
captain was Daniel de B. Keim and he served as such 
from 1794 to 1830. It was engaged in the Whiskey 
Insurrection of 1794; in the Northampton riot of 
1799; in the English war of 1812-15; in the Phil- 
adelphia religious riots of 1844; in the Mexican 
war of 1846-48; in the Civil war of 1861-65; in the 
Homestead riots of July, 1892; in the Hazleton 
riots of September, 1897 ; in the Spanish war of 
1898; in the Schuylkill riots of 1900; and in the 
Northumberland and Luzerne riots from Septem- 
ber, 1902, to April, 1903. 

The captain of the company since Feb. 6, 1905, 
has been Dr. H. Melvin Allen, and he has devel- 
oped the company to a high grade of efficiency ; 
for, in the first year the company ranked fourth in 
the regiment, the second year' it ranked second, and 
the third year it ranked first, having in 1907 reached 
the average of .99 55-100. In the fourth year, how- 
ever it dropped to second place, the company which 
it had si.irpassed in 1907 having reached first place 
in 1908 by the remarkable average of .99 65-100 
(the Artillerists being .99 60-100). 

The following is a list of the captains of the 
company : 

Daniel de B. Keim, 1794-1830. 
George May Keim. 1830-34. 
William H. Miller, 1834-39. 
William Strong, 1839-44. 
Thomas S. Leoser, 1844-49. 
Marks John Biddle, 1849-50; 1852-5.5. 
Daniel R. Clymer, 1850-52. 
William I. Clous, 1855-57. 
George W. Alexander, 1857-61. 
William H. Andrews, 1862. 
Thomas M. Richard, 1862-63. 
Robert H. Savage, 1881-82. 
William H. Souders, 1882-83. 
Samuel H. Stahr, 1883-85. 
Henry J. Christoph, 1885-95. ' 
Samuel Willits, 1895-99. 
Edward E. Machamer, 1899-1902. 
Reuben C. Potteiger, 1902-05. 
H. Melvin Allen, since 1905. 

A military company was organized at Hamburg, 
April 13, 1875, and became attached to the N. G. P. 
as Company E, 4th Regiment, having been a con- 
tinuation of the "Blue Mountain Legion." It was 
called into active service to assist in quelling the 
riots at Reading in July, 1877, at Homestead in July, 
1892, in Schuylkill county, in 1900, and in North- 
umberland and Luzerne counties from September, 



1902, to April, 1903. It was also eng-aged in the 
Spanish war with the 4th Regiment of Pennsylvania 
A'ohmteer Infantry, having been mustered into the 
National service May 10, 1898, and mustered out 
Nov. 16, 1898. It participated in the movements of 
the army in Porto Rico, and was then commanded 
by Capt. William Kummerer. [See reference to 
Company and Armory in description of Hamburg, 
Chapter XL] It was commanded by the following 
captains : 

Edward F. Smith, 1875-83. 
Charles F. Seaman.* 1883-93. 
John F. Ancona, 1893-97. 
Benjamin F. Gehris, 1897-98. 
Dr. John R. Wagner, 1898. 
William Kummerer, 1898-1902. 
Monroe M. Dreibelbis, 1903-07. 
Wilson S. Lewis, since 1907. 

Company G, of the 9th Pennsylvania Volunteer 
Infantr}', was organized at Reading by Henry D. 
Green (a prominent attorney) in response to a sec- 
ond call of President McKinley for 75,000 addi- 
tional troops, and mustered into the National service 
July 37, 1898. It was encamped in Kentucky dur- 
ing August and part of September, and was mus- 
tered out of service Oct. 29, 1908. 

These three companies (Company A, Company E, 
and Company G) from Berks county participated in 
the great Peace Jubilee at Philadelphia on Oct. 27, 
1898, after the successful termination of the Spanish 

Company I, of the 4th Regiment, N. G. P., was 
organized in 1898 as a provisional company in order 
to maintain a military organization of the National 
Guard at Reading during the absence of Company 
A, and mustered in June 9th, with a full cjuota. It 
became attached to the National Guard of the State 
in 1900. Harry M. Phillippi was the captain until 
he resigned in 1901 ; Jerome Seider from 1901 to 

1903, and Ralph R. Koser from 1903 to i906. 

The company was re-organized by Capt. Charles 
G. Miller in October, 1906, after it had been allowed 
lo retrograde for five years to the point of disband- 
ing, with only thirty-five enlisted men. In two years 
he brought it to the standard of sixty men and three 
officers, and secured for the company an average 
of 97, and a rating as the fifth company in the reg- 
iment ; which evidences in a high degree his superior 
character and ability as its commanding officer. 

The company was called out to assist in quelling 
the labor troubles in Schuylkill county in 1900, and 
in Northumberland and Luzerne counties in 1902-03. 

This company is a re-organization of the historical 
company known for many vears as the "Reading 

The 4th Regiment, N. G. P., comprises the com- 
panies from Berks, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh and 
Schuylkill counties. 

Enrollment for Milit.vry Service. — In Au- 
gust, 1908, the county had 29,10,5 men en- 
rolled for military service as reported to the Com- 
missioners by the assessors of the several districts ; 

* Elected major of regiment in IflO.S. 

an increase of 2,198 over the. number for 1905. 
Reading contained over half, 16,383. The number 
for the several districts was as follows : 

District Enrolled 

Albany 156 Ontelaunee 157 

Alsace, Lower 139 pjke 83 

Alsace 118 Penn 164 

Amity 187 Perry 2.50 

Bern 197 Richmond 262 

Bern, Upper 106 Robeson 369 

Bethel 227 Rockland 141 

Brecknock 126 Ru.scombmanor 177 

Boyertown 317 Spring 585 

Bechtelsville 57 Xilden 163 



Topton 116 

Birdsboro, E W . . 304 Xulpehocken 22S 

Birdsboro, W. W.... 157 Tulpehocken, U 353 

Centreport 20 Union 200 

Centre 209 Washington 225 

Caernarvon 8/ ^est Leesport 76 

Cumr»i ,•••; ®i!° West Reading 308 

Colebrookdale 237 Windsor 78 

Dpug.'ass lo2 Womelsdorf 214 

5'^'"^' ^^ WvQmissing 135 

E^--' l~l Reading- 

Fl^^t^°°d 217 5^^^,^^ ^^^j „^ 

(jreenwich 189 tu- i i ooi 

Hamburg, W.W 203 l^''t , lit 

Fourth ward 346 

Fifth ward 


Hamburg, E. W 314 

Heidelberg, N 101 

Heidelberg 236 Sixth ward 1,722 

Heidelberg, L 583 Seventh ward 815 

Hereford 131 Eighth Avard 866 

Jefferson 123 Ninth ward 1,060 

Kutztown 375 Tenth ward 910 

Lenhartsville 20 Eleventh ward 875 

Longswamp 300 Twelfth ward 1,349 

Maiden-creek 253 Thirteenth ward . . . 1,919 

Marion 135 Fourteenth ward . . 1,063 

Maxatawny 443 Fifteenth ward .... 1,791 

Mohnton 295 Sixteenth ward . . . 1,038 

Muhlenberg 4.55 

]\It. Penn 131 Total for citv and 

Oley 311 county ' 29,105 


The inefficiency of the local police authorities 
throughout Pennsylvania, more especiallv in the 
coal regions where many foreigners from different 
nations had come to be residents, was a subject of 
serious discussion for manv years without any re- 
lief or satisfactory protection, notwithstanding the 
gradual increase of lawlessness and crime. Finally, 
the Legislature, under the recommendation of Gov- 
ernor Pennypacker, passed an Act for the estab- 
lishment and regulation of a new department of gov- 
ernment called the State Police, which he approved 
on May 3, 1905. In pursuance of this Act, a super- 
intendent was appointed by the Governor and four 
troops were carefully qualified, the svstem going 
into operation throughout the State on the same 
day, Dec. 15, 1905. 

The superintendent, Capt. John C. Groome, se- 
lected Reading as one of the four .stations in the 
State for the location of Troop C from which to 
carrv on the patrol of the surrounding country 
within a radius of thirty miles, in the performance 



of their. duty; and he established a "Barracks" on 
the Seitzinger homestead, situated, along the Wy- 
omissing road, a short distance west of the Schuyl- 
kill river (having leased the premises for two years, 
and afterward extended the term for two years, 
more). Ten sub-stations have been established in 
the district, with two in Berks county, one at Ham- 
burg and the other at Manatawny, along the Cole- 
brookdale railroad. 

William P. Taylor, of Reading, was appointed 
Nov. 11, 1905, as the captain of Troop C, and he 
filled the position until June 15, 1906, when he 
resigned. The Troop comprised a captain, a lieu- 
tenant, four sergeants and thirty privates, which 
were subsequently increased to fifty-seven. Anoth- 
er trooper was selected from Reading, C. M. Wil- 
helm, first sergeant. 

Upon the resignation of Captain Taylor, the lieu- 
tenant was promoted, and he discharged his duties 
as the captain of the Troop in a superior manner 
until Aug. 16, 1908. He was succeeded by Capt. 
Lynn G. Adams, who was- transferred from Troop 
B at Wyoming; and at the same time Lieut. Wil- 
liam Marsh was transferred from Troop D, at 
Punxsutawney, to Troop C, to fill the same posi- 
tion ; and they have discharged their trying duties 
in their respective positions in an admirable man- 
ner until now. 

Immediately after establishing its quarters at 
Reading, Troop C began to patrol the district and 
though for a time the moving troopers along the 
highway in different directions from Reading were 
more or less objectionable, and excited adverse 
criticism, their dignified, straightforward, cour- 
teous behavior soon won the respect of the people, 
and their utility came to be appreciated for the pro- 
tection to life and property which they cheerfully 
and promptly gave whenever required, and the ap- 
preciation of the taxpayers has been so universal 
in this district that they have come to regard the 
troopers as a necessary part of the government. 

In March, 1906, a strike occurred amongst the 
laborers at a stone-quarry between Lebanon and 


Cornwall, and serious trouble with them having 
been anticipated, the "State Police" at Reading was 
notified. A detachment of thirty-five troopers under 
the command of Lieutenant Smith was sent there 
and they soon controlled the situation, which evi- 
denced their influence and power in such an emer- 
gency and justified the establishment of this im- 
portant branch of the government. 

A month afterward, a more serious incident oc- 
curred at Mt. Carmel, in Northumberland county, 
and again Lieutenant Smith, with forty-three troop- 
ers, was dispatched to that place, and the troopers 
again caused the threatening excitement to subside ; 
however, not without the unavoidable shooting of 
twenty-two rioters and the injury of five of the 
troopers. And in April, 1908, a detachment was 
ordered to Chester on account of the strike of the 
trolley-car operators, and the troopers remained 
there two weeks, until their assistance and presence 
were no longer required. 

On the night of Sept. 15, 1907, Timothy Kelle- 
her, one of Troop C, while on his way from Read- 
ing to the "Barracks" by the short cut over the 
Pennsylvania railroad bridge, was stabbed and 
killed by two Italians, who were apparently assault- 
ing a woman along the railroad. Kelleher, hearing 
the disturbance, went boldly to the woman's assist- 
ance, and the Italians, thinking that he was interfer- 
ing with them, assaulted him with fatal result. They 
were caught several days afterward, while trying 
to escape, tried and convicted ; one of them of mur- 
der, he being hanged,, and the other of man- 
slaughter, he being sentenced to the Eastern pen- 
itentiary for twelve years. 

The State Police, in four ]'ears, came to be highly 
regarded in the vicinity of Reading, and the county 
officials treated the troopers with the utmost con- 

On May 31, 1909, Company C was removed to 
Pottsville, Schuylkill county, because its presence 
in that community was found to be more necessary. 


No regular enumeration of the inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania was made previous to 1790. The 
first provision for enumeration was made by the 
Constitution of the United States, adopted Sept. 
17, 1787. Therein provision was made for the 
apportionment of representatives from the several 
States to Congress, and of direct taxes ; and to 
effect a just apportionment the actual enumeration 
was required to be made within three years after 
the first meeting of Congress, and within every 
subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as 
they shall by law direct. 

It has been ascertained that in 1741, the follow- 
ing taxables were situated in the eastern division 
of the county, then part of Philadelphia county: 

Amity 70 

AllamiTigle* 37 

Colebrookdale 85 

Douglass 58 

Exeter 76 

Maiden-creek 75 

Manatawnyt Ill 

Total 512 

Estimated Population 2,500 

The number of taxables in the various counties 
of Pennsylvania in 1760 and 1770 are shown as 
follows : X 

1760 1770 

Philadelphia 8,321 10.445 

Bucks- 3,148 3,177 

Chester 4,761 5,483 

Lancaster 5,631 6,608 

York 3,302 4,436 

Cumberland 1,501 3,521 

Berks 3,016 3,303 

Northampton 1,987 3,793 

31,667 39,665 

The first census of Pennsylvania was taken on 
Sept. 7, 1791 ; and within every ten years there- 
after, the census has been regularly taken to the 
present time. The result of each enumeration 
is set forth in the following table. The figures 
were taken from the Census Reports of the Unit- 
ed States, published by order of Congress. The 
blank spaces in the table opposite certain districts 
indicate non-existence of those districts at the time 
of enumeration. 

Where large decrease of population in certain 
districts for a succeeding census is observable, it 
indicates reduction of the districts by the erection 

* .Albany. 

t Doubtless intended for Oley, 

{14 Col. Rec, 336. 

of others. For instance, Alsace in 1850 had a pop- 
ulation of 2,697; but in 1860 it had only 1,299. 
The township of Muhlenberg was cut off in 1850 
and erected into a separate district. Also, Windsor 
in 1870 had 1,311, but in 1880 only 830. The 
township was reduced in area by the extension of 
the limits of the borough of Hamburg. This ex- 
tension was made in 1871. 

For convenience in making comparisons, the fol- 
lowing statement is presented in order to show 
when the districts with the blank spaces were 
erected, and from which districts they were taken: 

Alsace, Lower, taken from Alsace 1888 

Bechtelsville, " " Washington 1890 

Bern, Upper, taken from Bern 1789 

Bernville, taken from Penn 1851 

Birdsboro, " " Union and Robeson 1872 

Boyertown, " " Colebrookdale 1866 

Centre, " " Bern and Bern, Upper 1842 

CentrepoTt, " " Centre 1881 

Fleetwood, " " Richmond 1873 

Hamburg, " " Windsor 1830 

Heidelberg, Lower, taken from Heidelberg 1842 

Heidelberg, North, " " " 1844 

J'efferson, taken from Tulpehocken and Tulpehocken, 

Upper 1851 

Kutztown, " " Maxatawny 1815 

Lenh'rtsv'Ie, " " Greenwich 1887 

Marion, " " Tulpehocken 1843 

Mobnton, " " Cumru 1907 

Muhlenberg, taken from Alsace 1850 

Ontelaunee, " " Maiden-creek 1850 

Penn, " " Bern and Bern, Upper .' 1840 

Perry, " " Windsor 1849 

Pike, " " District 1813 

Shillington, " " Cumru 1908 

Spring, " " Cumru 1850 

Tilden " " Bern, Upper 1887 

Topton, " " Longswamp 1877 

Tulpehocken, Upper, taken from Tulpehocken 1820 

Washington, taken from' Colebrookdiale and Here- 
ford 1839 

West Reading, taken from Spring 1907 

Womelsdorf , " " Heidelberg 1833 

Wyomissing, " " Spring 1906 

In 1800, Berks county included three organized 
townships which lay north of the Blue Mountain, 
whose enumeration was as follows: 

Brunswick 1,214 

Manheim 1,072 

Pinegrove 959 

Unorganized 993 

Total Population 4,238 

The population of the county is given in the table 
at 32,407, but the number of inhabitants then in 
that part which lay south of the mountain was 

In 1810, the county included seven townships 
north of the mountain, whose enumeration was as 
follows : 


Brunswick . i,7T0 The population of the county for 1810 is given at 

Mahantango, Lower 637 , „ ^ , „ , , , , . , , , ° r ^, 

Mahantango, Upper 489 *3,146, but the number then in that part ot the 

Manheim .'. 1,354 county south of the mountain was 36,838. The 

Norwegian 415 ■'. . , ^ ^ „ . ,, ... . . 

Pine-Grove 1,290 townships named were cut to Schuylkill county in 

Schuylkill ■ '353 its erection in 1811. 

Total Population 6,308 


Reading 2,386 

Albany 858 

Alsace 890 

Alsace, Lower 

Amity 817 


Bern 2,049 

Bern, Upper 


Bettel 817 



Brecknock 338 

Caernarvon 541 



Colebrookdale 671 

Cumru 1,413 

District 753 

Douglass 450 

Earl 489 

Exeter 802 


Greenwich 1,004 

Hamburg 329 

Heidelberg 1,569 

Heidelberg, Ix)wer 

Heidelberg, North 

Hereford 923 


Kutztown 203 


Longswamp 863 

Maiden-creek 770 


Maxatawny 929 


Oley 968 





Richmond 731 

Robeson 1,232 

Rockland 848 

Ruscombmanor 375 




Tulpehocken 2,119 

Tulpehocken, Upper 

Union 669 


Windsor 993 

Womelsdorf 370 

Census of County, 1800 to 1900 















































































. 2,329 























































































? 469 


















































































































































































































































28,169 37,864 46,275 53,152 64,569 77,129 93,818 106.701 122,597 137,327 159.615 
Tn 1790, Reading had a population of 2,235; and the whole county of Berks had 30,179. 







Alsace, , Lower 



Bern, Upper 













Heidelberg, Lower 

Heidelberg, North 












Pike '. . . 








Tulpehocken, Upper 
















Mt. Penn 



West Leesport 

West Reading 




City of Reading 

Total of Berks County 34,158 



























































































































Townships 1885 1908 

Albany $ 734,446 $ 588,785 

Alsaca 505,199 355,106 

Alsace, Lower 390,803 

Amity 966,646 800,859 

Bern 1,264,862 1,069,740 

Bern, Upper 1,338,166 428,530 

Bethel 1,303,383 850,969 

Brecknock 421,363 377,478 

Caernarvon 522,558 420,756' 

Centre 875,349 712,020 

Colebrookdale 709,090 605,959^ 

Cumru 1,415,878 2,050,003 

District 383,442 201,697 

Douglass 453,411 393,941 

Earl 293,252 231,983 

Exeter 1,432,830 1,476,449 

Greenwich 954,967 662,910 

Heidelberg 1,181,743 1,162,487 

Heidelberg, Lower ...■ 1,484,363 1,943,379- 

Heidelberg, North 564,021 456,831 

Hereford 749,171 547,265 

Jefferson 592,774 480,354 

Longswamp 1,111,986 905,015 

Maiden-creek 1,057,563 982,615 

Marion 1,134,984 878,772 

Maxatawny 1,776,988 1,703,407 

Muhlenberg 1,237,837 1,430,410 

Oley 1,676,734 1,376,377 

Ontelaunee 866,987 669,473 

Penn 844,340 613,804 

Perry 901,359 801,358 

Pike 339,935 221,527 

Richmond 1,233,167 1,051,788 

Robeson 951,427 916,109 

Rockland 518,315 395,92i 

Ruscombmanor 419,727 354,455 

Spring ., 1,698,004 1,646,661 

Tilden '.' 488,083 

Tulpehocken 1,104,424 922,470 

Tulpehocken, Upper 603,707 453,370 

Union 607,398 461,695 

Washington 941,451 607,060 

Windsor 473,828 401,944 

Total $ 37,304,974 $ 33,378,205 

Boroughs 1885 1908 

Bechtelsville $ $ 137,485 

Bernville 146,380 135,310 

Birdsboro 764,033 1,246,304 

Boyertown 648,780 1,188,444 

Centreport 45,600 48,910 

Fleetwood 295,233 609,514 

Hamburg 628,848 951,950 

Kutztown 430,833 793,175 

Lenhartsville 65,410 

Mohnton 3381910 

Mt. Penn 426,705 

Shillington « 

Topton 139,357 347,250 

West Leesport 154,275 

West Reading 658',725 

Womelsdorf 402,532 552,439 

Wyomissing 774,809 

Total $ 3,501,596 $ 8,429,515 

City of Reading $ 33,780,222 $ 50,488,000 

Total of County $64,586,792 $92,295,720 

Exempted property for churches, etc., in 1908: City, 
$7,845,650; Boroughs, $652,036; Townships, $2,183,810; 
Total, $10,681,496. 

•Included in Cumru. 




Townships 1885 1908 

Albany $ 195,126 $ 153,493 

Alsace 135,954 63,532 

Alsace, Lower 255,436 

Amity 215,582 152,697 

Bern 208,261 101,844 

Bern, Upper 166,722 135,395 

Bethel 249,926 127,446 

Brecknock 68,011 60,060 

■Caernarvon 60,842 33,023 

Centre 104,682 66,876 

Colebrookdale 109,821 95,171 

Cumru 334,944 269,164 

District 41,323 16,170 

Douglass 31,012 34,480 

Earl 65,920 80,203 

Exeter 189,329 275,325 

■Greenwich 132,729 119,358 

Heidelberg 123,774 164,258 

Heidelberg, Lower 289,014 395,834 

Heidelberg, North 52,521 30,665 

Hereford 189,923 125,284 

Jefferson 76,572 57,401 

Longswamp 239,340 89,462 

Maiden-creek 159,683 112,420 

Marion 241,445 128,505 

Maxatawny 502,410 532,012 

Muhlenberg 216,996 295,385 

-Oley 657,240 642,818 

Ontelaunee 140,139 143,544 

Penn 159,666 132,092 

Perry 111,039 166,011 

Pike 54,243 60,691 

Richmond 175,014 177,200 

Robeson 117,688 141,432 

Rockland 80,062 79,763 

Ruscombmanor 111,257 48,900 

Spring 274,738 320,317 

Tilden 59,400 

Tulpehocken 190,019 114,077 

Tulpehocken, Upper 123,508 48,950 

TJnion 136,493 105,121 

Washington 255,949 151,128 

"Windsor 76,003 41,650 

Total : $ 7,064,930 $ 6,404,993 


Bechtelsville $ $ 17,576 

Bernville 116,127 62,227 

Birdsboro 403,874 278,154 

Boyertown 242,678 398,048 

■Centreport 21,610 47,326 

Fleetwood 203,492 254,440 

Hamburg 188,917 314,486 

Kutztown 240,775 464,073 

Xenhartsville 1,520 

Mohnton 124,490 

Mt. Penn 62,937 


Topton ■ 77,008 86,001 

West Leesport 102,127 

West Reading 45,725 

Womelsdorf 182,420 358,990 

"Wyomissing 55,841 

Total $ 1,676,891 $ 2,573,861 

City of Reading 5,049,482 13,434,847 

Total of Berks County $ 13,791,303 $ 23,412,701 


The registered voters of the county in September, 

1908, numbered 23,012. The number in the sev- 
•eral districts was reported as follows: 

District Number 

Albany, 1st Precinct 168 

Albany, 3d Precinct 149—317 

Alsace 207 

Alsace, Lower 201 

Amity 384 

Bern, 1st Precinct 173 

Bern, 3d Precinct " 115 

Bern, 3d Precinct 125—413 

Bern, Upper 199 

Bethel, 1st Precinct 263 

Bethel, 2d Precinct ' 67 

Bethel, 3d Precinct 93 

Bethel, 4th Precinct 85—508 

Bechtelsville 119 

Bernville HI 

Birdsboro, East Ward 464 

Birdsboro, West Ward 267 

Boyertown 592 

Brecknock, 1st Precinct Ill 

Brecknock, 2d Precinct 136—237 

Caernarvon 229 

Centre 340 

Centreport 33 

Colebrookdale 394 

Cumru, 1st Precinct 389 

Cumru, 3d Precinct 195 

Cumru, 3d Precinct 166 

Cumru, 4th Precinct 118 

Cumru, 5th Precinct 304-1,072 

District 156 

Douglass, 1st Precinct 165 

Douglass, 2d Precinct 121—286 

Earl, 1st Precinct 92 

Earl, 2d Precinct 169—261 

Exeter, 1st Precinct 498 

Exeter, 2d Precinct 196 — 694 

Fleetwood 364 

Greenwich, 1st Precinct 137 

Greenwich, 2d Precinct 219—356 

Hamburg, North Ward 337 

Hamburg, South Ward 338 

Heidelberg 447 

Heidelberg, North 174 

Heidelberg, Lower, 1st Precinct 600 

Heidelberg, 2d Precinct 220 

Heidelberg, 3d Precinct 113—932 

Hereford 395 

Jefferson 317 

Kutztown 486 

Lenhartsville 46 

Longswamp, 1st Precinct 242 

Longswamp, 2d Precinct 256 

Longswamp, 3d Precinct 135—633 

Maiden-creek 482 

Marion 304 

Maxatawny, 1st Precinct 184 

Maxatawny, 2d Precinct 216 

Maxatawny, 3d Precinct 332 — 722 

Mohnton ■ 405 

Mount Penn 200 

Muhlenberg, 1st Precinct 445 

Muhlenberg. 2d Precinct 395 — 840 

Oley, 1st Precinct 305 

Oley, 2d Precinct 234—539 

Ontelaunee 295 

Penn, 1st Precinct 150 

Penn, 2d Precinct 156—306 

Perry 437 

Pike 191 

Richmond 433 

Robeson, 1st Precinct 189 

Robeson, 2d Precinct 338 

Robeson, 3d Precinct 137 — 664 

Rockland 304 

Ruscombmanor 322 

Shillington 367 



Districts Number 

Spring, 1st Precinct 56 

Spring, 2d Precinct 452 

Spring, 3d Precinct 257—765 

Tilden, 1st Precinct 124 

Tilden, 2d Precinct 157—281 

Topton 219 

Tulpehocken, 1st Precinct 216 

Ttflpehocken, 2d Precinct 180—395 

Tulpehocken, Upper 287 

Union, 1st Precinct 304 

Union, 2d Precinct 79 — 383 

Windsor 157 

Washington, 1st Precinct 215 

Washington, 2d Precinct 211 — 426 

West Leesport 136 

West Reading 483 

Womelsdorf 375 

Wyomissing 205 

Total number registered 23,012 

Total registered February 22,542 

Increase 469 



Districts Rep. 

Albany, 1st Precinct 27 

Albany, 2d Precinct 20 

Alsace 31 

Alsace, Lower 57 

Amity 144 

Bern, 1st Precinct 18 

Bern, 2d Precinct 19 

Bern, 3d Precinct 30 

Bern, Upper 56 

Bethel, 1st Precinct 44 

Bethel, 2d Precinct 13 

Bethel, 3d Precinct 19 

Bethel, 4th Precinct 13 

Brecknock, 1st Precinct 8 

Brecknock, 2d Precinct 15 

Boyertown 149 

Bechtelsville . . : 38 

Bernville 47 

Birdsboro, West Ward 158 

Birdsboro, East' Ward 312 

Caernarvon 133 

Centreport 7 

Centre 51 

Colebrookdale 65 

Cumru, 1st Precinct 116 

Cumru, 2d Precinct 47 

Cumru, 3d Precinct 26 

Cumru, 4th Precinct 52 

Cumru, 5th Precinct 69 

District 24 

Douglass, 1st Precinct 53 

Douglass, 3d Precinct 10 

Earl, 1st Precinct 9 

Earl, 3d Precinct 17 

Exeter, 1st Precinct 110 

Exeter, 3d Precinct 59 

Fleetwood 108 

Greenwich, 1st Precinct 13 

Greenwich, 3d Precinct 15 

Hamburg, North Ward 115 

Hamburg, South Ward 107 

Heidelberg 134 

Heidelberg, L., 1st Precinct 130 

Heidelberg, L., 3d Precinct 31 

Heidelberg, L.. 3d Precinct 42 

Heidelberg, North 22 

Hereford 52 


















































Taft Byran 

Districts Ren. Dem. 

Jefferson ; 23 142 

Kutztown 132 245 

Lenhartsville 9 31 

Longswamp, 1st Precinct 60 97 

Longswamp, 2d Precinct 98 92 

Longswamp, 3d Precinct 30 69 

Maiden-creek 107 225 

Marion 50 162 

Maxatawny, 1st Precinct 30 100 

Maxatawny, 2d Precinct 40 133 

Maxatawny, 3d Precinct 89 145 

Mohnton 168 87 

Muhlenberg, 1st Precinct 78 184 

Muhlenberg, 2d Precinct 57 175 

Mt. Penn 56 82 

Oley. 1st Precinct 86 145 

Oley, 2d Precinct 40 153 

Ontelaunee 96 110 

Pike 14 112 

Penn, 1st Precinct 14 92 

Penn, 2d Precinct 11 102 

Perry 65 233 

Richmond 39 227 

Robeson, 1st Precinct 85 39 

Robeson, 3d Precinct 106 140 

Robeson, 3d Precinct 24 72 

Rockland 28 173 

Ruscombmanor 58 119 

Spring, 1st Precinct 3 24 

Spring, 2d Precinct 117 216 

Spring, 3d Precinct 34 104 

Shillington 162 113 

Tilden, 1st Precinct 79 130 

Tilden, 2d Precinct 39 77 

Topton 79 107 

Tulpehocken, 1st Precinct 35 171 

Tulpehocken, 3d Precinct 17 130 

Tulpehocken, Upper 30 177 

Union, 1st Precinct 159 94 

Union, 3d Precinct 40 35 

Washington, 1st Precinct 34 99 

Washington, 3d Precinct 50 90 

West Leesport 39 73 

West Reading 128 191 

Windsor 12 116 

Womelsdorf 142 154 

Wyomissing 72 66 

Total county 5,651 10,123 

Total city 7,825 6,959 

13,476 17,082 

Bryan's plurality in Berks 3,606 

Parker's plurality over Roosevelt in the 

whole county in 1904 was 786 

The plurality of Roosevelt then in Read- 
ing, however, was 3 369 

Received by County from State 

■D ^°^ ID . 180* 1908 

Personal Property $ 51,893.72 $ 67,243.84 

Salaries— Judges 12,072.50 17,639.79 

Chanties — Hospitals and Asylums 

for Insane 34,835.97 154,989.33 

—Hospitals 68,916.48 25,000.00 

c u 1 — Womes 5,037.44 3,000.00 

bchools — Common 152,996.20 204,143 08 

—Normal 10,023.82 27,74'2.14 

—Superintendent's Salary .. 2,000.00 2,350.00 

$337,776.13 $502,008.18 



Received by State from County 

From 1904 1908 

Personal Property Tax $ 69,191.62 $ 89,658.45 

Loans, Municipal 3,307.76 3,448.66 

Writs, Walls, etc 4,370.16 4,499.49 

Loans, County 441.94 

Collateral Inheritance 8,396.08 30,927.73 

Miscellaneous 175.00 175.00 


Retail Mercantile 15,500.84 17,835.90 

Wholesale Mercantile 3,771.35 3,097.58 

Retail Liquor 15,397.37 15,720.75 

Wholesale Liquor 10,397.50 11,838.00 

From 1904 

Brewers' $ 8,407 

Distillers' 2,984 



Brokers' '433 



Theatre, etc 

Eating House 







40 167.41 

$144,461.61 $181,854.20 


Banks and Trust Companies .-.i, Resources 


Farmers National Bank $ 3,229,115.40 

National Union Bank 3,498,800.55 

First National Bank 1,491,663.67 

Second National Bank 1,898,653.05 

Penn National Bank 1,800,880.90 

Keystone National Bank 975,472.37 

Reading National Bank 1,580,840.45 

Schuylkill Valley Bank 684,536,53 

Neversink Bank ■. 210,378.07 

Pennsylvania Trust Co 4,011,463.81 

Reading Trust Co 1,873,748.59 

Colonial Trust Co 1,144,979.01 

Berks County Trust Co 1,380,930.55 

Commercial Trust Co 346,281.63 

Total, City $23,126,743.58 


Hamburg Savings Bank 642,710.49 

National Bank of Boyertown 1,118,378.03 

Farmers Nat. Bank, Boyertown 267,005.91 

First Nat. Bank of Birdsboro 358,896.33 

Kutztown National Bank 448,262.2V 

Womelsdorf Union Bank 405,984.70 

Wernersville National Bank 373,578.68 

National Bank of Topton 137,484.46 

First Nat. Bank of Oley 141,277.43 

First Nat. Bank of Bernville 122,462.31 

First Nat. Bank of Fleetwood 143,675.47 

Mohnton National Bank 137,701.78 

First Nat. Bank of Hamburg 129,817.78 

Total, County $ 4,327,235.53 

Total, City and County $27,453,979.11 

Surplus and Profits 
$ 856,275.02 




$ 4,484,118.21 














$ 521,286.26 

$ 5,005,404.47 

$ 1,528,337.78 



















$ 3,788,635.59 


Loans, Discounts 
and Investments 

$ 2,382,319.44 




















$ 3,330,760.32 





Albany 14,267 

Alsace, Lower 1,110 

Alsace 4,745 

Amity 11,143 

Bern 12,459 

Bern, Upper 7,183 

Bethel 16,419 

Brecknock 8,831 




Birdsboro, East Ward 

Birdsboro, West Ward 336 


Centre 12,427 

Caernarvon 6,689 

Cumru 12,838 

Colebrookdale 5,063 

Douglass 6,794 

District 5,838 

Earl : 4,599 

Exeter 15,139 


Greenwich 15,636 

Hamburg, North Ward 

Hamburg, South Ward 112 

Heidelberg, North 8,658 

Heidelberg 7,394 

Heidelberg, Lower 16,925 

Hereford 8,552 

Jefferson 10,009 


Lenhartsville 95 

Lonigswamp 10,226 

Maiden-creek 8,274 

Marion 9,153 

Maxatawny 18,856 

Mohnton 118 

Muhlenberg 5,548 

Mt. Penn 48 

Oley 15,233 

Ontelaunee 5,372 

Pike 4,576 

Penn 11,228 

Perry 11,239 

Richmond ' 13,029 

Robeson 13,002 

Rockland 7,621 

Ruscombmanor 5,587 

Spring 11,947 

Tilden 8,005 


Tulpehocken 14,288 

Tulpehocken, Upper 9,166 

Union ■. 7,234 

Washington 7,455 

West Leesport 116 

West Reading 

Windsor 8,017 

Womelsdorf 255 


Total 418,753 

Total for City 

Total for County 

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$ 12,440 
















. 143 








































































































































































































































































































TOWN, 1748 TO 1783 

Grant to Penn. — The English came to own the 
territory comprising Pennsylvania by conquest from 
the Dutch in 1664; and King Charles II. in 1681 
granted the province to William Penn in satisfac- 
tion of a debt due to his deceased father, Admiral 
Penn, for meritorious services. Notwithstanding 
this grant, William Penn recognized the claim of 
the Indians to the land, and therefore obtained their 
release. He died in 1718, possessed of this section, 
and devised it to his children. 

'First Patents.— In the general desire to dispose 
of lands in this section, the Penns directed surveys 
to be made and patents issued, which will appear by 
the following statement: 

w » 

N 70 



























■^ " 



b» g 



7 " 

N 70 E 






k ^ 







1. Richard Hockley, tract for 1,150 acres ; survey, Feb. 
19, 1733. 

2. Thomas Lawrence, tract for 300 acres ; survey, March 
19, 1733; patent, Oct. 37, 1733. 

3. Thomas Lawrence, tract for 137 J acres; survey, April 
22, 1738; patent, Feb. 16, 1739. 

4. Samuel Finney, tract for 150 acres; survey, Feb. 19, 

5. Proprietary land, tract for 126 acres; survey, July 3, 

6. Part of tract 1 ; on which lots were laid out, afterward 
called "Hockley Out-lots." 

The tract for 1,150 acres adjoined the river and 
extended from a line now occupied by Hockley and 
Woodward streets to a line beyond the Charles 
Evans cemetery, known for many years as Hiester's 

Some years after these patents had been issued, 
about 1740, while efforts were being made to erect 
a county (Berks), the Penns conceived the idea of 
laying out a town at this point, but finding that the 

land had been, sold, they endeavored to re-purchase 
it. Lawrence, however, declined to re-sell his two 
tracts. Their agent then investigated the matter, 
and on Sept. 38, 1743, addressed a letter to them 
in reference to the proposed "Town of Reading." 
This is the first mention of a town at this place. In 
1745, lots were laid out on part 6, and this ac- 
tion induced Lawrence to re-convey his tracts. 

Town Laid Out. — During the fall of 1748, 
Penn's two sons, Thomas and Richard, caused a 
town to be laid out by Nicholas Scull, their sur- 
veyor-general, on the land adjoining the Schuylkill 
(Lawrence tract), at the "Ford," in the road that 
extended from the Tulpehocken settlements to Phil- 
adelphia. It was named Reading, after the county- 
town in Berkshire, England. The town-plan com- 
prised 520 lots, and 204 out-lots, numbered con- 

The lots between the river and King (Third) 
street were laid out in 1776. The double line 
through these lots, on the accompanying plan, indi- 
cates the canal which extended through that part 
of the town from 1822 to 1834. At that time there 
was not a town, not even a village, in all the sur- 
rounding territory for many miles. The nearest 
town was Lebanon, twenty-eight miles to the west, 
which had been laid out in 1740 ; and the next was 
Lancaster, thirty-three miles to the southwest, which 
had been laid out in 1728. 

Lots Sold. — Penn's sons then appointed Conrad 
Weiser, Francis Parvin and WiUiam Hartley as 
commissioners, to sell the lots; and on June 15, 
1749, they sold a large number of them. In 1751, 
1752, 1753 and 1754, patents were issued for 241 
lots, and if the conditions of sale were complied 
with, there were in the town, by the year 1755, at 
least two hundred dwellings and one thousand in- 

First Patentees. — The following statement 
shows the years in which the builchngs were prob- 
ably erected, and to whom and for which lots pat- 
ents were issued. It is possible that buildings were 
erected in, and even before, 1751, and the patents 
taken up afterward. 

For the year 17 51 



Conrad Weiser (justice) 
Daniel Steinmetz (mer- 
chant of Philadelphia) 
Isaac Levan (Exeter, yeo- 

For the 
Conrad Weiser 
Conrad Bower (shop and 

Martin Gring 
Michael Reis (Tulpehocken, 

Moses Starr (Maiden-creek, 

Lot Patentee 

34. Conrad Weiser 
106. Adam Witman (shop and 

inn -keeper) 
114. Isaac Levan 
120, Conrad Weiser 
year 1752 

8. John Epler (Bern, yeo- 

y^ J Daniel Steinmetz 

■ 1 Jacob Morgan (inn-keep- 

13. Jacob Morgan 




























Peter Haws (inn-keeper) 

Daniel Hiester (Montgom- 
ery Co., tanner) 

Francis Parvin (Maiden- 
cr., tanner) 

Conrad Weiser 

John Lepoe (Tulp., yeo- 

Peter Weidner (Cumru, 

David Evans (Cumru, yeo- 

MiS' Schmell (Heidel- 

bere, yeoman) . 
Benjamin Parvin (Ma.den- 


William Parsons (Easto" 
Tobias Waggoner (clerk) 
George Albert (yeoman) 
Georle Yoh (yeoman) 
Isaac Weidner (Alsace, yeo- 

Pete"^"vVeidner (Alsace, 

PetJr^°Euth (Cumru, yeo- 
Simon Scherker 
Conrad Kissmger (yeo- 

ChrStoVer Gottschalk 
Jacob Kissinger (yeoman) 
Jacob Kern (Cumru, gent.) 
Henry Wolf (Cumru, cord- 

wainer) , 

George Daum (cordwain- 

John" Schneider (yeoman) 

Peter Schneider (Exeter, 

Conrad Bower 

Reinhard Waldtz 

Philip Weiser 

William Erman (yeoman) 

Benjamin Lightfoot (shop- 

William Parsons 

William Parsons 

Conrad Weiser 

Abraham Brosius (tailor) 

Jacob Bollinger 

Michael Graul (Alsace, yeo- 

"'='") . / *• ^ 

Wm. Hottenstem (potter) 

John Weber. 

Philip J. Moyer (baker) 

Andrew Wolf (Cumru, yeo- 

Nich. Kennell (beer-brew- 

George Sheirer 

Christopher Witman (cord- 

Christopher Witman 

Michael Zuster (saddler) 

(ieorge Douglass (saddler) 

Fred'k Marsteller 

Lot Patentee 

96. Henry Melchior Muhlen- 

berg (minister) 

97. Henry Souter 

98. Samuel Brackman 

99. Peter Knorr 

100. Benjamin Pearson (jomer) 
105. Adam S. Kuhn (Lancaster, 

107. Eleanor Waggoner 

108. George Hitner (Philadel- 

phia, merchant) 
111. Adam Gerhart (Alsace, yeo- 
113. Henry Reuthmyer (wheel- 

115. Ernest Kurtz (Phila., to- 


116. Peter Bingaman (Alsace, 


117. Mary Bishop 

118. Henry Boyle 

119. Kraft Hiiner (baker) 
122. Peter Trumbour (yeoman) 
124. Jacob Bucher 

130. Charles Fricker 

131. Paul Derst (Exeter, inn- 


132. Andreas Shack 

133. Peter Feder (inn-keeper) 

135. John Early (Lane, joiner) 

136. Henry Boyle 

137. Baltzer Schwank (Alsace, 


139. John Wilson (Lane, mil- 


146. Peter Muma 

147. Hsnry Hahn (blacksmith) 

148. Henry Lick 

140. Evan Popkins (cooper) 

151. George Mich. Kreter 


152. Ulrich Richard (Heidel- 

berg, yeoman) 

153. Paul Parlet (carpenter) 

154. William Miller (carpenter) 

155. Sebastian Grauser (carpen- 


159. Henry Graul (Green tavn) 

160. Philip Ziegler (Tulpehoc- 

ken, yeoman) 

161. Henry Goodhart 

163. John Kissinger 

164. Peter Rapp (butcher) 

165. George (^rumlauf 

166. Jacob _ Conrad (Virg., 


167. Peter Baum (turner) 

168. Fred'k Goodhart (Alsace, 


175. Peter Baum 

180. John Kissinger 

190. Henry Gerritt (Alsace, 

196. John Nicholas Yost (Cum- 
ru, inn-keeper) 

199. George Chris. Spengler 

2S.^, Franris Fipher 

266. Abraham Brosius 

268. Simon Scherker 

271. Henry Graul 

275. Joseph Wilkinson 

278. Isaac Levan 





281. Philip Jacob Moyer 

282. Henry Feedei 
288. Conrad Bowei 

296. Christian Bentzer (Latic, 

298. Fred'k Weiser (Heidelberg, 


299. Philip Jacob Moyer 
328. Jacob Morgan 

339. Jacob Leibrock (baker) 
355. Michael Ludwig (Amity) 
379. Conrad Bower 
382. Conrad Bower 

383. Nicholas Retschew 
386. George Yoh (potter) 

389. Abraham Smith 

390. Conrad Bower 

391. Philip Erpf (Lancaster 


400. Adam Reifell (Alsace, cor- 


401. Geo. Francis Winter 

404. Francis Morgan (yeoman) 

405. Jacob Erpf 
443. Philip Reaser 

For the year 1^53 










George Douglass 
Christopher Witman 
Isaac Weidner (yeoman, 

Jonas Seely (justice) 
Jonas Seely 
William Thomas (Chester 

Nicholas Werner 
Christopher Camerer 
Philip Erpf 
Mark Starr 
James Starr (brewer) 
John Smith (shopkeeper) 
George Douglass 
Peter Weiser (Heidelberg) 
Peter Weiser 
Henry Sheirer 
Frederick Weiser 
Jost H. Sassamanhousen 
James Biddle (lawyer) 
James Biddle 
Henry Sheirer 
Simon Sherker 
Isaac Levan 
Abraham Levan 
John Steel 
Peter Weiser 
Wendell Hains 
George Saurbrey 
Adam Schlegell (tailor) 
Hans Martin Garich 
George Hiitner 
Michael Rosch 
Lawrence Spats 
Michael Fichthorn 
William Cluse 
Paul Durst 
John Philip Klinger 
Alexander Klinger 
Martin Moll 
Andrew Engel 


217. Hans Geo. Back (baker) 

221. Paul Durst 

231. Andrew Steger 

234. Everhard Martin (soap- 


235. Martin Moll 

260. Geo. Mich'l Kreter 
267. Christopher Witman 

272. Casper Zin 

273. Jacob Zin 

274. Fredericka Waggoner 

280. Philip Jacob Erpf (mason) 

284. Andrew Fuchs 

291. Francis Morgan 

294,295. Conrad Bower 

297. William Marck 

300. William Bird 

310. Geo. Mich'l Kreter 

312. Jacob Morgan 

314. Michael Schrack 

318. Conrad Stichter (weaver) 

319. Valentine Stichter 
329. Isaac Weidner 
331. William Marck 
333. Jacob Hetler 

341. Joseph Brendlinger 

349. Peter Klinger 

350. Jacob Morgan 

356, 357. Frederick Volant 

381. Martin E. Kraft 

384. Adam Reifell 

387. Nicholas Sauter 

392, 397. Adam Reifell 

402. Court-house and Prison 

409. Christopher Spengler 

413. Henry Schneider 

433. George Kappus (Mason) 

438. George Kappus 

490, 491. Francis Creek 

493. Francis Wenrich 

498. Elizabeth Godschalk 

For the year 1754 





88. Christian Bussy 

123. Philip Breitenbach 

173. Nicholas Keim 

265. Christopher Godschalk 

270. Frederick Fernsler 

285. Maria Barbara BishofE 

290. John Hartman (tailor) 

293. Jacob Rappolt (tiler) 

305. Jacob Morgan 

308. Francis Morgan 

388. Nicholas Seitzinger (inn- 

406, 407. Lutheran Church 

421,424. Calvinist Church (Re- 

509, 512. Peter Haws 

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Ground-Rent.— When the lots were laid out leases of ground-rent were executed by the attor- 

provision was made that each lot should be subject ney, and these were placed on record. In 1833, he 

to a ground-rent of seven shillings, payable an- notified the public that he would not settle any 

nually on the first day of May ; but notwithstanding further claims for ground-rent, and his agency hav- 

this provision 
the charge. 

numerous lots were sold withoui j^g been discontinued, the matter was dropped. 

County-Seat. — By a petition presented to the 
Assembly at Philadelphia on Feb. 4, 1753, in behalf 
of the erection of a new county (Berks), it ap- 
pears that Reading then contained 130 dwelling- 
houses, besides 41 stables and other out-houses; 
and 160 families, which consisted of 378 persons. 
It is believed that there were three small churches 
in the town at that time, Lutheran, Reformed, and 
Friends ; all erected in 1751. 

Town District Established. — In 1760, the 
town and part of the township adjoining (Alsace) 
were erected into a district, called the "Township 
and District of Reading." The boundary Hnes were 
fixed by the court in 1761. They inclosed about 
950 acres. 

First Store. — The first business place was the 

store of Conrad Weiser on Penn Square above Fifth 

street. He purchased the lot (No. 3) in 1749, and 

obtained a patent in 1751. Under the conditions 

of sale, he doubtless erected a two-story stone 

building on it in 1750 and started a general store. 

He carried on business intercourse there with the 

CONRAD WEISER STORE ^ Indians, and on this account the stand was given 

By an Act of Assembly, passed Nov. 37, 1779, particular prominence. In 1769, Nicholas Keim 

the estates of the Proprietaries in Pennsylvania ^^^^^^ ^-^^ owner. The Keims occupied it as a 

became vested in the State and were placed at the ^gj^g^al hardware store for seventy vears. Then 

disposal of the Legislature the qmt-rents were ^^^ Stichters began, and they have been there 

abolished, and a donation of £130,000 was made ^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Public Buildings. — A Court-House was erected 

and a donation of £130,000 was made 
to their devisees and legatees. 

in 1763 ; a market-house in 1766 ; and a county jail 
in 1770 ; and in 1773, a fire company was organized, 
called the "Rainbow," which has maintained a suc- 
cessful existence until now. 

Oldest Buildings. — Three old buildings, which 
were erected in this period of Reading, are still 
standing: two stories of the large hotel on the 
northwest corner of Fifth and Washington streets, 
erected by Michael Bright for a tavern in 1760; 
two-story stone building on the northwest corner 
i of Penn Square, below Fifth street,' erected in 1763 
by Adam Witman for a tavern ("Federal Inn") 
and occupied by the Farmers' Bank since 1814; 
and two-story stone building on the northeast cor- 
ner of Fifth and Washington streets, erected by 
county commissioners in 1770, occupied as a county 
jail until 1848, and since then for store purposes. 
Educational Affairs. — Three churches were 
estabUshed during this period: Friends, Lutheran 
itTecamraTuVecrSragitlted'Ae lot-holders and Reformed. The Protestant Episcopal and 
for a number of years. In that year, and again in Roman Catholic denominations had no churches, 
1818 the local attorney of the Penns required the but held religious services in the homes of certain 
delinnuents to pay the rents due, otherwise he would members. .Secular education was carried on in 
cause their lots to be sold. In 1830, numerous re- schools which were connected with the churches. 


After the Revolution, this ground-rent on the lots 
in Reading was disregarded until about 1815, when 



and also in several private schools. The pupils 
paid their teachers several cents a day. The 
Friends' school at Washing-ton and Wood (Madi- 
son) streets was conducted for English education, 
the other schools were mostly for German education. 
There were no newspapers published at Reading 

rthen. The Pennsylvania Gazette and Sauer's Jour- 

.nal had a limited circulation. 

Nationality of Inhabitants. — The first inhab- 
itants of Reading were mostly Germa.ns. There 
were some English, and men of this nationality 

■served in county offices through the influence and 

■direction of the Penns until the Revolution; then 
men of the German nationality came to fill them 
and they have almost entirely continued to do so 
until now. This change was brought about by the 
determined action of the Germans in behalf of inde- 
pendence and representative government, the. Eng- 
lish having favored the British government, and 
discouraged the Revolution, on which account they 
were called "Tories." 

French and Indian War. — The French and 
Indian war affected Reading more or less from 1755 
to 1760. The inhabitants were excited and fre- 
quently alarmed for their safety during 1755, 1756 

.and 1757. But the Indians in their incursions never 

■reached Reading. They confined their stealthy, at- 
tacks and barbarous cruelties to the settlements 

■ along the Blue mountains. 

The prominent men from Reading who were ac- 
tively engaged in defensive operations were Conrad 
Weiser, Edward Biddle and George Nagel. In 
1756, a company of grenadiers was stationed here 
for a time ; also a company commanded by Conrad 
Weiser, consisting of two sergeants and twenty- 
eight privates. A number of interesting letters 
were sent from Reading during these years, de- 
scribing thq, dangerous situation of affairs. No 

-person from Reading was killed. 

Revolution.— The first public action at Read- 
ing in behalf of the Revolution was taken with 
m-uch spirit on July 2, 1774, and from that time 
until the declaration of peace, in 1783, the resi- 

- dents displayed remarkable zeal for political inde- 
pendence and representative government. On the 
day named, a public meeting was held in the Court- 
House and appropriate resolutions were adopted, 

-expressing sympathy with Boston and urging such 
measures as would settle with precision the rights 
and liberties of America. Delegates were appointed 
to attend the different conferences and earnest co- 
operation was manifested at all times for carrying 

■on the war successfully. 

In April, 1775, the people of the town raised two 
companies of infantry, and one of them, com- 
manded by Cap. George Nagel, several months 
afterward marched to Cambridge and participated 

'in the campaign at that place. Numerous other 

companies were raised in response to repeated calls 
for troops. And great quantities of supplies were 
forwarded to the government, amounting to sev- 
eral hundred thousand dollars. 

Reading was a prominent inland place for storing 
supplies of all kinds during that period, having been 
selected by the Board of War for its admirable sit- 
uation; and prisoners of war were sent here in 
large numbers. The locality where they were quar- 
tered was called "Hessian Camp," after the Hes- 
sians taken at Trenton in December, 1776. It was 
situated to the east of the town, along the Hill road. 
In 1777, when the British entered Philadelphia, 
many residents of that city fled to Reading for 

Reading furnished many men who became very 
active in the service. Edward Biddle was one of 
the representatives from Pennsylvania in the First 
Continental Congress ; Bodo Otto and Jonathan 
Potts were prominent surgeons ; Mark Bird, Henry 
Haller, Nicholas Lotz, Joseph Hiester and Daniel 
Brodhead were colonels; and George Nagel, John 
Spohn, Peter Decker, Henry Christ, John Diehl, 
John Rightmyer and Peter Scull were captains. 
Edward Scull was secretary of the Board of War; 
James Read was an Executive Councillor, and reg- 
ister of the court of Admiralty; and Edward Burd 
was prothonotary of the Supreme court. 

BOROUGH, 1783 to 1847 

Borough Erected. — The town of Reading was 
incorporated into a borough on Sept. 12, 1783. It 
contained over four hundred taxables, and about 
twenty-one hundred inhabitants; and it was gen- 
erally recognized then as the largest and most pro- 
gressive inland town in the United States. Nine- 
tenths of the inhabitants were German. The 
principal officers were the chief burgess and asso- 
ciate, four assistant burgesses, two justices of the 
peace, high constable, treasurer, clerk, two super- 
visors and two assessors. 

Surrounding Towns. — The county of Berks 
contained about twenty-five thousand population, 
and the surrounding towns in the county were 
Womelsdorf, fourteen miles west; Hamburg, sev- 
enteen miles north; Kutztown, seventeen miles 
northeast; Birdsboro, nine miles southeast; and 
Morgantown, fifteen miles south. 

Post-Office.— A post-office was established in 
1793. A daily mail by stage was started in 1793, 
which continued until 1838, when the railroad was 
introduced, and increased faciUties for transporta- 
tion were afforded. 

Stage-Coach. — The stage-coach was introduced 
at Reading in 1789, and ran from Reading to Phila- 
delphia. Afterward, lines were extended in differ- 
ent directions, and they were carried on until the 
railroads were constructed. The business was very 
brisk from 1826 to 1838. 



Bridges. — A ferry was carried on at the "Ford" 
from 1783 to 1815, when a covered wooden bridge 
was constructed by the county commissioners. An- 
other covered wooden bridge was constructed by 
the commissioners at Levan's Ferry, at the foot of 
Bingaman street, in 1831. The first bridge across 
the river near Reading was on the road to Sunbury 
through Bern township, erected in 1810. 

Turnpikes. — While the subject of bridges was 
discussed by the people, another received their at- 
tention. It was that of turnpikes. These were ex- 
tended over prominent highways, one to the north 
in 1805 called the "Centre," the second to the south- 
east in 1810 called the "Perkiomen," and the third 
to the west in 1817, called the "Berks and Dauphin." 

Public Buildings. — The Court-House continued 
in Penn Square until 1840 ; and the prison at Fifth 
and Washington streets until 1848. The "State 
House" for the county officers was erected on the 
northeast corner of Fifth street and Penn Square 
in 1791 and was used for this public purpose until 
1840. A second market-house was erected in West 
Penn Square in 1799. Both market-houses were 
rebuilt in 1846. They had seventy stalls and 116 

Canals. — Two canals, leading from Reading, 
were constructed: The Schuylkill, extending along 
the river north to Pottsville and southeast to Phila- 
delphia, in 1823; and the Union, extending west 
to Lebanon and Middletown, in 1828. Large quan- 
tities of goods, especially coal and lumber, were 
shipped over these canals. The enterprise was suc- 
cessful through this period, and contributed much 
toward the development of the borough. 

Railroad. — The Philadelphia & Reading railroad 
was projected a.long the Schuylkill through Reading 
from Philadelphia to Pottsville in 1833. It was 
completed to Reading in 1838, and to Pottsville 
in 1842; and then it became an additional factor 
with the turnpikes and canals for great local pro- 

Banks. — ^A "Branch" of the Bank of Pennsyl- 
vania was established at Reading in 1808 (in the 
building occupied by the Union Bank) , and carried 
on successfully until its suspension in 1857. The 
Farmers Bank was organized in 1814, and it has 
been maintained successfully ever since, now over 
ninety years, and in the same building. The Eck- 
erts were prominently identified with it from 1838 
to 1908. A third bank was organized in 1836, but 
it continued only eight years. It was called the 
"Berks County Bank." 

Panic of 1837. — A money panic arose in the 
borough in 1837, owing to a suspension of prom- 
inent banks in the large cities, but the local busi- 
ness men published a notice in which they expressed 
entire confidence in the Reading banks and a will- 
ingness to accept their notes in payment of debts 
and merchandise. But the scarcity of money com- 
pelled certain merchants to resort to an expedient 
for a circulating medium by issuing notes for small 

sums, which were called by the people "Shinplas- 
ters," "Rag Barons" and "Hickory Leaves." And 
the borough council, to relieve the community in. 
this behalf, issued loan certificates in denomina- 
tions of five, ten, twenty-five and fifty cents, and 
one, two and three dollars, redeemable Aug. 1,. 
1838. The whole issue amounted to $25,000. They 
were loaned to business men on approved security 
and subsequently redeemed. 

Newspapers. — A number of newspapers were: 
started in this period. The first was in 1789. In 
1796, there were three others, the Reading Herald 
(English) ; the Reading Adler (German), pubHshed. 
until now; and the Weekly Advertiser (English),, 
published until 1816, when the Berks and Schuylkill 
Journal (English) took its place, which is still is- 
sued. The Reading Courier (German) was issued, 
from 1816 to 1826 ; the Chronicle of the Times- 
(English), from 1826 to 1835; Berks County Press 
(EngHsh), from 1835 to 1865; Liberal Observer 
(German), from 1839 to 1864; Reading Gazette 
and Democrat (English), from 1840 to 1878, when 
the Reading Weekly Eagle was substituted in its 
place, and this has been pubHshed until now; Old 
Berks (German), from 1840 to 1848, when it was 
transferred to Pottsville and the name changed to 
Pottsville Adler. Several others were started but 
they had a short existence. The spirit for writing 
and publishing during this period was very strong. 
The editors exhibited much courage in ventilating 
their opinions on jKilitical and social topics. 

Churches and Schools. — Besides the three de- 
nominations mentioned in the first period, the 
Roman Catholics and Protestant Episcopalians 
came to erect churches in the second period, and 
also the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Uni- 
versalists and English Lutherans. Schools were 
carried on successfully, as before until W.835, when 
the public system was introduced ; and in 1838 'the 
first public school buildings were erected. 

Industrial Affairs. — During this period, indus- 
trial affairs became the prominent feature of Read- 
ing. The small shops were developed into large 
factories and mills, and the capital invested in such 
establishments increased from several hundred dol- 
lars to many thousands. The energy of certain in- 
fluential men was directed chiefly toward the manu- 
facture of iron, and this stimulated various other 
enterprises, particularly in the line of building oper- 
ations. The discovery of coal and the application 
of steam to motive power for operating machinery 
were the direct causes of this marked improvement, 
and the canal and railroad were natural results 
from their introduction and increasing use. The 
large increase in population must be attributed to 
them, the growth from 1830 to 1840 having been 
over 43 per cent, and from 18